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Matter

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Presentation for 7th grade science on Matter and Phases of matter.

Presentation for 7th grade science on Matter and Phases of matter.

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Transcript

  • 1.  
  • 2. MATTER
      • Matter is anything that takes up space and has mass
      • Four states of matter
        • Solid
        • Liquid
        • Gas
        • Plasma
  • 3. Atoms and Molecules
      • An atom is the smallest particle that makes up matter.
      • When two or more atoms combine they form a molecule.
  • 4. Kinetic Theory of Matter ( Write on the back of your notes )
      • Particles of matter are in constant, random motion.
      • Kinetic means “heat”
      • The higher the temperature, the faster the particles are moving.
      • Molecules in a solid move slower than molecules in a liquid, which move slower than gas molecules.
  • 5.  
  • 6. solids
      • A solid is an arrangement of shaking molecules that are close together and attracted to each other.
      • The shaking varies depending on the temperature of the particles.
  • 7. Solids- Crystalline
      • Solids whose atoms are arranged in repeating patterns create crystals.
      • Table salt and diamonds are crystalline solids
  • 8. solids - Noncrystalline
      • Noncrystalline solids are made of large molecules that don’t arrange into repeating patterns.
      • Random arrangements
      • Glass and plastic are examples
  • 9. Absolute Zero
      • The temperature at which particles of a solid would cease to move is called absolute zero. -273.15 0 C
  • 10. Liquid
      • As a solid is heated, the molecules begin to shake faster, but still attract to the molecules around it.
      • When the molecules shake so much, they begin to break free, collapsing the crystal structure.
      • The solid becomes free flowing molecules—a liquid.
  • 11. Phases of Matter
  • 12. Melting point
      • The temperature at which a substance changes from a solid to a liquid is called the melting point or HEAT OF FUSION .
      • The temperature doesn’t change during the melting stage.
      • Noncrystalline solids don’t turn to a liquid, they melt by softening. Example: GLASS
  • 13. Freezing Point
      • As a liquid cools, its molecules slow down and come closer together where attractive forces begin to form.
      • When crystals begin to form, this is called the freezing point .
      • It is the same temperature as the melting point.
      • This temperature stays the same until the liquid has become a solid, then the temperature begins to fall.
  • 14. Viscosity
      • Viscosity is a material’s resistance to flow.
      • As the temperature decreases (gets colder), the viscosity increases – the material gets thicker.
      • Some materials, such as glass will become so thick they will harden and become brittle.
      • Noncrystalline substances don’t have a definite melting or freezing point.
  • 15. Plasma
      • The fourth State of Matter
      • Plasma is created when the electrons are pulled off an atom.
      • Happens in a nuclear reaction like the sun, or high powered electrical discharges like lightening, neon light.