• Save

Loading…

Flash Player 9 (or above) is needed to view presentations.
We have detected that you do not have it on your computer. To install it, go here.

Like this presentation? Why not share!

Writing an argument

on

  • 4,362 views

 

Statistics

Views

Total Views
4,362
Views on SlideShare
4,346
Embed Views
16

Actions

Likes
5
Downloads
0
Comments
2

6 Embeds 16

http://eng-comp-col-rd-03-l.south.usd259.org 5
http://eng-comp-col-rd-04-f.south.usd259.org 4
http://eng-comp-col-rd-05-h.south.usd259.org 4
http://eng-comp-col-rd-02-b.south.usd259.org 1
https://blackboard2.dcccd.edu 1
http://crowder.blackboard.com 1

Accessibility

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Microsoft PowerPoint

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
  • Very helpful :-)
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
  • verry good ppt
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

Writing an argument Writing an argument Presentation Transcript

  • Writing an Argument English Composition
  • Arguments
    • You don’t have to be hostile, arrogant or an expert to be an effective writer of an argument.
    • You are expected to be logical, fair-minded and reasonable.
    • The goal is to make your case convincing enough to have an impact on your audience.
    • You will win support for your argument if you are fair, thorough and clear.
    • The challenge of writing an argument is placing your ideas in a public forum, to see if they stand up under close scrutiny.
  • Emotional Appeal
    • Good examples of emotional appeal can be found in advertisements in magazines and on television.
    • They succeed because their creators know that they will be viewed casually and not thoroughly analyzed and debated.
    • Many ads emphasize the emotional appeal of product while providing little if any information about the ingredients, specifications or the hazards.
  • Logical Argument
    • In contrast to emotional appeal, argument relies on factual data and logic.
    • To say that an argument is based on logical reasoning is not to say that the argument is right. Two opponents can argue opposite sides of a complex issue, each using logical reasoning in support of his/her position.
    • A reader would have to weigh the arguments of both sides in deciding which has made the more persuasive case.
  • Balanced Credible Argument
    • Most serious argumentative writing uses some of both: appeal to emotion and reasoned argument.
    • It relies on sound reasoning (sometimes called logos), but it also recognizes that our minds are more than calculators, they respond to emotional appeals (pathos) as well.
    • Effective arguments rely on appeals of both kinds.
    • There is a third element of argumentation—ethos or persona.
  • Persona or Ethos
    • Writers use ethical appeals to persuade the reader by projecting an image of credibility and trustworthiness. This credibility must be earned.
    • It is very difficult to convince someone whom you have alienated through shoddy research, arrogance and bad writing.
    • As Aristotle pointed out long ago, the persona or personality that the writer projects matters at least as much as the substance and validity of the argument.
    • You can inspire trust only by being a careful thinker and writer.
  • The Reality?
    • But even if you are reasonable and well prepared, your arguments still may not change the minds of those who have strong psychological, social, political or religious reasons for believing the way they do.
    • There is little hope of changing the minds of those with an emotional commitment to a different outlook. (smoking, religion, politics)
    • But among open-minded, reasonable people searching for the truth, there are innumerable ideas open to debate.
  • Writing Balanced Arguments
    • In your writing you are required to support your ideas by assembling evidence based on your own logic and experience and on that of others.
    • In doing so, you will need to deal with those who disagree with you by noting the strengths and weaknesses of their positions.
    • And throughout, you will want to sound like a person whom readers can believe and trust.
  • Informal Analysis of Argument
    • Intelligent readers try to be on the lookout for false promises and logical fallacies in advertisements.
    • But it is not always easy to see through questionable arguments that appear to be logical.
    • Unless you want to be the victim of half-baked ideas and sloppy thinking, you must develop your skills as a reader of arguments.
    • Most arguments can be considered in terms of five elements: Purpose, Thesis, Evidence, Refutation, Persona.
    • By asking questions about these, you can get to the heart of an argument.
  • Purpose
    • What audience does the writer have in mind: that is, whom is the writer trying to persuade?
    • What is the author’s reason for wanting to persuade those people?
    • What might their position be on this issue?
  • Thesis
    • The thesis is sometimes called assertion or proposition.
    • What is the main idea that the writer is trying to persuade the reader to accept and act on?
    • Is the writer’s position direct and clear?
    • Is the thesis presented as the only reasonable position?
  • Evidence
    • What kinds of information does the writer cite to support the thesis?
    • What specific arguments does the author present?
    • Is the evidence sound: that is, it is authoritative, believable and sufficient?
    • Does it rely on logic or emotion?
    • How is the evidence arranged?
    • Does it convince you?
  • Refutation
    • Are the positions of opposing sides presented fairly?
    • Would the opposing sides agree with the writer’s understanding of their position?
    • Does the writer show the opposing arguments to be invalid?
    • Are there opposing arguments that the writer has overlooked?
  • Persona
    • What is the writer’s attitude?
    • Is it hostile, cheerful, irate, reasonable, sarcastic?
    • Does the writer sound believable?
    • Is the writer obviously biased or arguing from a narrow perspective?
    • Does the language used add to the credibility of the author, or is too offensive or aggressive?
    • Do you trust this person to be fair and open minded?
  • Writing an Argument
    • Arguments take many forms; writers can find so many different ways to persuade their readers that it would be impossible to give you an easy formula for argumentative writing.
    • You need to pay attention to the principal elements that make up an argument.
    • The following are important ideas that should be considered whenever you write an argument: Purpose, Thesis, Audience, Persona, Evidence, Opposition, and Organization.
  • Purpose
    • The best advice of all is to have a real reason to want to persuade others and to keep that goal in mind as you write.
    • Argue about a topic you care about and believe in.
    • Argue because you feel it is important for others to learn the truth.
    • Without the commitment, argument becomes an empty exercise, offering little prospect for success or satisfaction from it.
    • Although commitment is important, it is also important to retain an open mind and to be willing to be persuaded yourself when better ideas and new information are presented to you. In other words, don’t be stubborn!!!
  • Thesis
    • As a writer, you should make your thesis clear to your readers. State your point in a sentence or two, early in your paper.
    • It should be controversial.
    • It should be arguable.
    • It should be clearly defined.
  • Audience
    • Write your research paper with your audience in mind.
    • The tone of your writing, the language you use, and the sophistication of your evidence must be adjusted to the interests, values, and education of your readers.
    • If you are writing to readers who disagree with you, try to understand their point of view, to view reality from their perspective.
    • Not only will this allow you to examine the issue more fully and clearly, but it will help you present your argument in a way that will be most effective with this audience.
  • Persona
    • As a writer of arguments, you must be acutely aware of how you sound to your audience.
    • When you write, you want to project a certain image, one that is appropriate to the situation at hand.
    • Being your true self means being flexible and honest.
    • In order to establish a believable persona, it is important to maintain a reasonable tone.
    • You should resist the temptation to belittle the opposition or engage in name calling.
  • Evidence
    • It is important to win your readers’ trust through the AUTHORITY of your evidence.
    • Researching for reliable, credible resources is critical!
    • Not only can sources supply you with support for your thesis, but they can lend their expert authority to your writing and convince your readers that you have studied the subject carefully enough to be trusted.
  • Opposition
    • Remember that any point worth arguing about will have an opposing point of view.
    • You must admit that in your research paper.
    • It increases your credibility when you admit that there are reasonable people who differ with your opinion.
    • You should realize that your readers will think of the counterarguments to your position and it is a good strategy to anticipate their objections and refute them.
  • Organization
    • Introduction: provide background information so that your readers are informed about the controversy; then state your thesis.
    • Evidence: Offer support for your thesis.
    • Opposition: Acknowledge and refute opposing points of view.
    • Conclusion: Draw conclusions from the evidence as to restate the point of your thesis.
  • Your Task
    • Write an argument in the classical argument format that involves a minimum of 3 researched sources based on one of the topics at the following website: http://www.gc.maricopa.edu/English/topicarg.html
    • This website gives you resources and thesis statements.
  • Points
    • Double Entry Journal with 3 sources – 150 points (50 X 3)
    • Works Cited & Parenthetical Documentation within the text – 100 points
    • Self Editing check sheet – 100 points
    • Outline – 100 points
    • Final Copy - 300 points