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Thermo#2
 

Thermo#2

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    Thermo#2 Thermo#2 Presentation Transcript

    • SYSTEM
      OPEN
      ISOLATED
      CLOSED
      Systems & Surroundings
      In thermodynamics, the world is divided into a system and its surroundings
      A system is the part of the world we want to study (e.g. a reaction mixture in a flask)
      The surroundings consist of everything else outside the system
    • OPEN SYSTEM: can exchange both matter and energy with the surroundings (e.g. open reaction flask, rocket engine)
      CLOSED SYSTEM: can exchange only energy with the surroundings (matter remains fixed) e.g. a sealed reaction flask
      ISOLATED SYSTEM: can exchange neither energy nor matter with its surroundings (e.g. a thermos flask)
    • Exothermic
      A chemical reaction or a physical change that releases heat
      -energy flows out as a result of a temperature difference between the system and the surroundings
      Exothermic processes have negative q
      reaction
    • Endothermic
      A chemical reaction or a physical change in which heat is absorbed - energy flows into a system from the surroundings.
      Endothermic processes have positive q
      reaction
    • Exothermic and Endothermic Processes
    • Vaporisation
      Energy has to be supplied to a liquid to enable it to overcome forces that hold molecules together
      • endothermic process (q is positive)
      Melting
      Energy is supplied to a solid to enable it to vibrate more vigorously until molecules can move past each other and flow as a liquid
      • endothermic process (q is positive)
      Freezing
      Liquid releases energy and allows molecules to settle into a lower energy state and form a solid
      • exothermic process (q is negative)
      (we remove heat from water when making ice in freezer)