Mendeleev Dmitri Mendeleev, 1836-1907 Arranged elements by chemical properties Left space for elements unknown at the time Predicted detailed properties for elements as yet unknown Sc, Ga, Ge By 1886, all these elements had been discovered, and with properties similar to those he predicted
Properties of Metals Metals are good conductors of heat and electricity. Metals are shiny. Metals are ductile (can be stretched into thin wires). Metals are malleable (can be pounded into thin sheets). A chemical property of metal is its reaction with water which results in corrosion.
Properties of Non-Metals Non-metals are poor conductors of heat and electricity. Non-metals are not ductile or malleable. Solid non-metals are brittle and break easily. They are dull. Many non-metals are gases. Sulfur
Properties of Metalloids Metalloids (metal-like) have properties of both metals and non-metals. They are solids that can be shiny or dull. They conduct heat and electricity better than non-metals but not as well as metals. They are ductile and malleable. Silicon
Periods and Groups Horizontal rows are periods First period is H and He Second period is Li-Ne Third Period is Na-Ar Vertical columns are groups IUPAC convention: use numbers 1-18
Alkali Metals The alkali family is found in the first column of the periodic table. Atoms of the alkali metals have a single electron in their outermost level, in other words, 1 valence electron. They are shiny, have the consistency of clay, and are easily cut with a knife.
Alkaline Earth Metals They are never found uncombined in nature. They have two valence electrons. Alkaline earth metals include magnesium and calcium, among others.
Transition Metals Transition Elements include those elements in the B families. These are the metals you are probably most familiar: copper, tin, zinc, iron, nickel, gold, and silver. They are good conductors of heat and electricity.
Halogen Family The elements in this family are fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine, and astatine. Halogens have 7 valence electrons, which explains why they are the most active non-metals. They are never found free in nature. Halogen atoms only need to gain 1 electron to fill their outermost energy level. They react with alkali metals to form salts.
Noble Gases Noble Gasesare colorless gases that are extremely un-reactive. One important property of the noble gases is their inactivity. They are inactive because their outermost energy level is full. Because they do not readily combine with other elements to form compounds, the noble gases are called inert. The family of noble gases includes helium, neon, argon, krypton, xenon, and radon. All the noble gases are found in small amounts in the earth's atmosphere.
Rare Earth Elements The thirty rare earth elements are composed of the lanthanide and actinide series. One element of the lanthanide series and most of the elements in the actinide series are called trans-uranium, which means synthetic or man-made.