Balancing Equations

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Balancing Equations

  1. 1. Balancing Equations<br />Remember the Law of Conservation of Mass<br />What you start with you have to end up with<br />You can add more of an atom by changing the coefficients<br />1 is understood<br />DO NOT CHANGE THE SUBSCRIPTS<br />Start with atoms that only appear once in the formula<br />Metals or other rare elements<br />Balance hydrogen and oxygen last<br />
  2. 2. Synthesis Reactions<br /><ul><li>Synthesis reactions occur when two substances (generallyelements) combine and form a compound. (Sometimes these are called combination or addition reactions.)</li></ul> reactant + reactant  1 product<br /><ul><li>Basically: A + B  AB
  3. 3. Example: 2H2 + O2  2H2O
  4. 4. Example: C+ O2  CO2</li></li></ul><li>Decomposition Reactions<br /><ul><li>Decomposition reactions occur when a compound breaks up into the elements or in a few to simpler compounds
  5. 5. 1 Reactant  Product + Product
  6. 6. In general: AB  A + B
  7. 7. Example: 2 H2O  2H2 + O2
  8. 8. Example: 2 HgO  2Hg + O2</li></li></ul><li>Single Replacement Reactions<br /><ul><li>Single Replacement Reactions occur when one element replaces another in a compound.
  9. 9. A metal can replace a metal (+) OR a nonmetal can replace a nonmetal (-).
  10. 10. element + compound product + product</li></ul>A + BC  AC + B (if A is a metal) OR<br />A + BC  BA + C (if A is a nonmetal)<br /> (remember the cation always goes first!)<br />
  11. 11. Single Replacement Reactions<br /><ul><li>Sodium chloride solid reacts with fluorine gas </li></ul>NaCl(s) + F2(g)  NaF(s) + Cl2(g)<br />Note that fluorine replaces chlorine in the compound<br /><ul><li>Aluminum metal reacts with aqueous copper (II) nitrate </li></ul> Al(s)+ Cu(NO3)2(aq)<br />
  12. 12. Double Replacement Reactions<br /><ul><li>Double Replacement Reactions occur when a metal replaces a metal in a compound and a nonmetal replaces a nonmetal in a compound
  13. 13. Compound + compound  product + product
  14. 14. AB + CD  AD + CB</li></li></ul><li>Double Replacement Reactions<br /><ul><li>Think about it like “foil”ing in algebra, first and last ions go together + inside ions go together
  15. 15. Example:</li></ul> AgNO3(aq) + NaCl(s)  AgCl(s) + NaNO3(aq)<br /><ul><li>Another example:</li></ul> K2SO4(aq) + Ba(NO3)2(aq)  KNO3(aq) + BaSO4(s) <br />
  16. 16. Practice<br /><ul><li>Predict the products. Balance the equation</li></ul>HCl(aq) + AgNO3(aq)  <br />CaCl2(aq) + Na3PO4(aq) <br />Pb(NO3)2(aq) + BaCl2(aq) <br />FeCl3(aq) + NaOH(aq) <br />H2SO4(aq) + NaOH(aq) <br />KOH(aq) + CuSO4(aq) <br />
  17. 17. 5. Combustion Reactions<br /><ul><li>Combustion reactions occur when a hydrocarbon reacts with oxygen gas.
  18. 18. This is also called burning!!! In order to burn something you need the 3 things in the “fire triangle”:1) A Fuel (hydrocarbon)2) Oxygen to burn it with3) Something to ignite the reaction (spark)</li></li></ul><li>Combustion Reactions<br /><ul><li>In general: CxHy + O2  CO2 + H2O
  19. 19. Products in combustion are ALWAYS carbon dioxide and water. (although incomplete burning does cause some by-products like carbon monoxide)
  20. 20. Combustion is used to heat homes and run automobiles (octane, as in gasoline, is C8H18) </li></li></ul><li>Combustion<br /><ul><li>Example
  21. 21. C5H12 + O2 CO2 + H2O
  22. 22. Write the products and balance the following combustion reaction:
  23. 23. C10H22 + O2  </li></li></ul><li>Mixed Practice<br /><ul><li>State the type, predict the products, and balance the following reactions:</li></ul>BaCl2 + H2SO4<br />C6H12 + O2 <br />Zn + CuSO4 <br />Cs + Br2 <br />FeCO3 <br />

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