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  • “Utilities are faced with two dilemmas regarding ampacity of their existing infrastructure.  First is simply to supply the increasing demand which has exceeded the design capabilities of the line.  Second, is the NERC Reliability Standard TPL-002-0, requiring their lines to meet the N-1 contingency requirement.  It is anticipated that this ruling will be increased to N-2! The most economical way to accomplish these requirements is to uprate the existing infrastructure, the two major concerns being sag clearance and connector performance. The most economical means to this end regarding connector performance is ClampStar.”
  • “Utilities are faced with two dilemmas regarding ampacity of their existing infrastructure.  First is simply to supply the increasing demand which has exceeded the design capabilities of the line.  Second, is the NERC Reliability Standard TPL-002-0, requiring their lines to meet the N-1 contingency requirement.  It is anticipated that this ruling will be increased to N-2! The most economical way to accomplish these requirements is to uprate the existing infrastructure, the two major concerns being sag clearance and connector performance. The most economical means to this end regarding connector performance is ClampStar.”
  • You may note the spot temperature on the “thermally failed connector” is only 26.5C (79.7F) with the conductor still operating at 200C (392F).  The ambient in the lab is around 24C (75F)!  Once the electrical energy is shunted around a connector, it will cool almost to ambient, and therefore, additional degradation is arrested.
  • Premature failures occur from 6 months to 20+ years due to improper crimping operations.  As can be seen here, comparing the left side to the right side, the lack of compaction of stranding is evident.  This most likely occurred due to the press operator not allowing the dies to close completely.  This type of condition is difficult to detect in other fashions until the interface begins to heat up, at which point it may be found with infrared – if it is found before a catastrophic failure occurs.  This type of condition is found more prevalent in younger lines, i.e., those built since the 1970’s.  This is believed to be due to the operations directives of the “new breed” of CEO, as they utilize contractors to save money.  Because the contractors bid jobs, there is tremendous pressure on employees to get the job done “fast” – as there are often “performance clauses” which guarantee work will be completed within  a certain time frame, after which stiff penalties are imposed on the contractor.  Because their liability for construction expires after one year, their focus is not always on quality!

Transcript

  • 1. North American Classic Connectors ClampStar Presentation 1
  • 2. North American Classic Connectors Sales Training Program Topics 1. Yes, Problem Splices Exist 2. Why Problem Splices Exist 3. What is ANSI C119.4 Class A 4. ClampStar as a PERMANENT Solution 5. ClampStar Technical Attributes 6. Installation Photos 7. Labor Savings 8. Typical ClampStar Uses 9. Success Stories 2
  • 3. 33
  • 4. YES, Problem Splices Do Exist EVERYWHERE!∙ 10 Million overhead splices on average sold in the U.S. each year∙ 300 Million splices presently installed (conservative estimate) ∙80% of them were installed over 40 years ago.∙60% + are approaching the end of their life∙300,000 splices are repaired or replaced annually in the U.S. ∙This number has increased by a factor of 10 over the last decadeNOTE: The above figures only pertain to splices. Dead-ends, suspension clamps and up-rate projects are additional. 4
  • 5. Progression of Splice Failures15,000,00012,000,0009,000,0006,000,0003,000,000 300,000 1940 1980 2000 2011 2030 2040 5
  • 6. Why Do Splices Fail?1. Improper installation a) Incorrect or insufficient amount of inhibitor b) Conductor not properly brushed/prepared c) Conductor not inserted all the way d) Improper tooling2. Mis-application (using wrong connector for the job)3. Old age – Originally designed for 30 years (Average useful life: automatics 20-40 years. Compression splices 40-70)4. Highly corrosive environment5. Excessive thermal excursions resulting from frequently operating the line above ampacity design limits of 70-75°C conductor temperatures. 6
  • 7. American National Standard For Electric Connectors ANSI C119.4 7
  • 8. American National Standard ANSI C119.4-2010 For Electric Connectors— Connectors for Use Between Aluminum-to-Aluminum and Aluminum-to-Copper Conductors Designed for Normal Operation at or Below 93°C and Copper-to-Copper Conductors Designed for Normal Operation At or Below 100°C1 Scope and Purpose1.1 ScopeThis standard covers connectors used for making electrical connections betweenaluminum-to-aluminum or aluminum-to-copper or copper-to-copperconductors used on distribution and transmission lines for electric utilities.This standard establishes the electrical and mechanical test requirements forelectrical connectors. This standard is not intended to recommend operatingconditions or temperatures.1.2 PurposeThe purpose of this standard is to give reasonable assurance to the user thatconnectors meeting the requirements of this standard will perform in asatisfactory manner, provided they have been properly selected for the intendedapplication and are installed in accordance with the manufacturersrecommendations. The service operating conditions and the selection of theconnector class is the responsibility of the user. 8
  • 9. What Some Manufacturer‘s Say 9
  • 10. Continuous Maximum for ACSR is 75 C ―ACSR is not a high-temperature conductor: it is rated for 75°C continuous operation and 100°Cemergency operation for a total of 1,500 hours over the conductor life.‖ Mark Lancaster 10
  • 11. How Some Mfgs. Misconstrue DataDevelopment of ANSI C119.4 Class A includes an acceleratedaging temperature for the purpose of assessing long termperformance at “Operating Temperature” which is 75 C, in ashort term period of only 500 cycles.The “accelerated aging” temperature is “100 C over ambient.”Typical ambient it 25 C (77 F)Aging temperature was determined by adding acceptableoperating rise of 50 C (25 C ambient + 50 C rise = 75 C“Continuous Maximum Conductor Operating Temperature”)twice, i.e., 100 C Rise.Testing connectors to this temperature, per this standard DOESNOT qualify a connector for use at 120 C.Any manufacturer stating their connector, tested to thisstandard, is suitable for applications at higher temperatures, isimprudent and irresponsible. 11
  • 12. Class ―A‖ vs. Class ―AA‖ANSI C119.4 Does have a provision for qualification of connectors forapplication on used or weathered conductor operating “at or below 93 C”, and that is Class “AA”ANSI C119.4 Class AA requires heat cycle testing at 175 C rise above ambient– only to qualify for applications on conductors “at or below 93 C” and not forany conductor operating above that temperature!Again, typical ambient being about 25 C, a 175 C rise above ambient thereforeyields a 200 C test temperature, which is 392 F!ClampStar is tested and qualified to ANSI C119.4 Class AA as a minimum, butwe go far beyond that, testing ClampStar at 390 C (734 F ) conductor testtemperature, which is suitable to qualify for application on weatheredconductor at 250 C operations, the maximum continuous rating for anyconductor today! 12
  • 13. Why is ClampStar a Permanent Solution? Similar design to: Side Opening, Inline Deadend Shoe• Long favored design• Well proven to provide ample conductor tensile support• Widely used by nearly every electric utility• Clamped holding strength of 40-95% of conductor RBS 13
  • 14. Why is ClampStar Superior to deadends?• More keepers, typically twice as many• Greater holding strength• In most applications ClampStar sees no tension load• ClampStar restores aged connectors to their original mechanical performance ratings and exceeds the electrical ratings 14
  • 15. ClampStar Technical Attributes• Designed to restore full mechanical integrity to an aged splice.• Restore mechanical integrity to Dead-Ends and Suspension Clamps with use of ClampStar Safety Tether.• No restriction on current, continuous operation up to 250° C 15
  • 16. Mechanical & Electrical Testing EPRI Laboratory, Charlotte, NC2000 Thermal Cycles with conductor at 35.6 kN (8,000 lbs) tension, andconductor temperature of 200° C (No connector in between – ClampStarserving full electrical and mechanical load). Test photos courtesy EPRI Test laboratory, Charlotte, NC. 16
  • 17. ClampStar Used to Restore Test at EPRI Laboratory-Charlotte, NCTesting of Single Die Compression Connectors at 200° C. Upon Thermalfailure of one splice, rather than terminate the test, EPRI techniciansused a ClampStar CSF-1108 to continue testing! Failed Connector 220° C Test photos courtesy EPRI Test laboratory, Charlotte, NC. 17
  • 18. ClampStar Used to Restore Test at EPRI Laboratory-Charlotte, NC Lower Temp. Test photos courtesy EPRI Test laboratory, Charlotte, NC. 18
  • 19. ClampStar Test - IR ImageEPRI Laboratory-Charlotte, NC Test photos courtesy EPRI Test laboratory, Charlotte, NC. 19
  • 20. Broken Strands Shown With X-Ray 20
  • 21. X-Ray of Improperly Crimped SpliceIncomplete compression • Improper crimping causes premature failure • Lack of stranding compaction is evident • Difficult to detect without infrared 21
  • 22. Failed Dead-End Examples 22
  • 23. Failed Connector Examples 23
  • 24. Conductor Fatigue & Corrosion underRods & Helical Type Suspension 24
  • 25. Strand Fatigue in Bolted Dead-End 25
  • 26. Dead-End Repaired With CSF-0883-03626
  • 27. Strand Fatigue in Trunnion SuspensionProblem… CSS-0883-036 Fixing… No Problem 27
  • 28. Trunnion Suspension Repaired with CSS-0883-03628
  • 29. Failed SpliceProblem… CSR-0883-030 Fixing… No Problem 29
  • 30. Splice Corrected with CSR-0883-030 30
  • 31. Gun Shot DamageProblem… CSR-1108-030 Fixing… No Problem 31
  • 32. Gun Shot Damaged ConductorRepaired with a CSR-1108-030 32
  • 33. Labor Savings With ClampStarWhy Do This…..? When You Can Do This 45 minutes Vs. 5 minutes 33
  • 34. Typical ClampStar Uses1. Failing or compromised splices a) Usually found thru IR or visual inspection2. Up-rating Lines For Higher Ampacity a) Connectors are the weak link in the ampacity/thermal ratings of the line b) Reliability Standard TPL-002-0, requirement for (N-1) contingency3. Critical splice/deadend protection a) Major highway, railroad and river crossings b) Heavily populated areas; school yards, shopping centers & sidewalks c) Lines that feed critical customers; hospitals, airports, transportation systems, stadiums and convention centers d) Close proximity to sub stations subject to extreme fault current4. Conductor damage (gun shot, abrasion and arcing from contact with vegetation)5. Damaged conductor and suspension systems due to vibration 34
  • 35. Success StoriesEXAMPLE #1: National Grid was diligently conducting line assessmentswhich identified lots of hot splices. Due to the difficulty of getting a lineoutage (6-8 weeks schedule time) and the public commission waspushing them to make some changes, ClampStar was an instant solutionfor them. They could now do their required work on energized lines inpoor weather conditions.EXAMPLE#2: Soon after a critical line fell, a ClampStar sample andliterature was dropped off at LADWP‘s ‗trouble crew‘ office. They hadrecently received orders to replace every automatic splice on that linewith 2 compression splices. Once they learned about ClampStar, the planwas soon revised to repair the splices with ClampStar instead of cuttingthem out.EXAMPLE #3. While conducting routine IR inspections, linemen forSacramento Municipal Utility District identified some hot splices on atransmission line in a very remote area, not accessible with a buckettruck. Correcting those splices with ClampStar and a helicopter savedSMUD thousands of dollars and many man-hours. 35
  • 36. Thank You For Your Time! Please vistwww.ClassicConnectors.com for more information Email: Info@ClassicConnectors.com Tel: 800-269-1462 36