Engine starting & starters

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Engine starting & starters

  1. 1. INTRODUCTION
  2. 2. I.C. ENGINES <ul><li>AIR-BREATHING ENGINES </li></ul>
  3. 3. RECIPROCATING ENGINES <ul><li>2-Stroke Engine 4-Stroke Engine Radial Engine </li></ul>
  4. 4. ROTARY ENGINES <ul><li>Wankel Engine </li></ul>
  5. 5. ROTARY ENGINES <ul><li>Gnome Engine </li></ul>
  6. 6. GAS TURBINE ENGINES
  7. 7. I.C. ENGINE <ul><li>NON-ASPIRATED </li></ul><ul><li>ROCKET ENGINES </li></ul>
  8. 8. ENGINE STARTERS
  9. 9. N ECESSARY & SUFFICIENT CONDITIONS FOR STARTING ENGINES (RECIPROCATING / ROTARY / GAS TURBINE) <ul><li>COMBUSTIBLE AIR-FUEL MIXTURE </li></ul><ul><li>MEANS OF IGNITION </li></ul><ul><li>SOURCE OF INITIAL TORQUE </li></ul>
  10. 10. METHODS OF CRANKING ENGINES <ul><li>HAND SWINGING (THROUGH PROPELLER) </li></ul><ul><li>HAND CRANKING (i.e. MANUALLY THROUGH A HANDLE) </li></ul><ul><li>USING STARTER (i.e. THROUGH A MECHANISED DEVICE) </li></ul>
  11. 11. IMPULSE STARTER
  12. 12. IMPULSE STARTER <ul><ul><li>AN IMPULSE STARTER IS USED WHILE STARTING LOW / MEDIUM POWERED MAGNETO FITTED MULTI-CYLINDER PISTON ENGINE . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>THERE IS A SPRING-LOADED CLUTCH DEVICE BETWEEN THE ENGINE DRIVE AND THE MAGNETO SPINDLE THAT HELPS IN INCREASING THE RATE OF ROTATION OF THE MAGNET MOMENTARILY AND INCREASES THE VOLTAGE PRODUCED. </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. IMPULSE STARTER <ul><li>                                  </li></ul>
  14. 14. IMPULSE STARTER <ul><ul><li>INITIALLY THE BODY OF THE STARTER IS ROTATED WHILE THE ROTATING MAGNET REMAINS STATIONARY. THIS RESULTS IN WINDING OF THE SPRING IN THE COUPLING. AT THE APPROPRIATE TIME THE FLY WEIGHTS ARE RELEASED AND THE SPRING UNWINDS. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>THE RAPID MOVEMENT OF THE MAGNET RESULTS IN A BETTER SPARK. AS SOON AS THE ENGINE STARTS RUNNING, THE FLY-WEIGHTS ARE HELD IN RELEASE POSITION BY CENTRIFUGAL FORCE AND THE MAGNET FIRES IN THE NORMAL ADVANCE POSITION. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>HOWEVER, DURING ENGINE START UP THE RETARD SPARK IS PRODUCED WHEN THE MAGNETO ROTATION IS HELD BACK BY THE IMPULSE STARTER OF INERTIA COUPLING. </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. INERTIA STARTER
  16. 16. INERTIA STARTER <ul><li>IT CONSISTS OF A LARGE FLY-WHEEL WHICH IS SET IN MOTION BY HAND OR MECHANICAL MEANS. WHEN THE FLY-WHEEL  IS TURNING RAPIDLY IT IS SUDDENLY CONNECTED TO THE ENGINE AND ITS MOMENTUM ROTATES THE CRANKSHAFT. </li></ul>
  17. 17. ELECTRIC STARTER <ul><ul><li>IT CONSISTS OF AN ELECTRIC MOTOR, A REDUCTION- GEAR AND AN AUTOMATIC ENGAGING / DIS-ENGAGING MECHANISM, WHICH OPERATES THROUGH AN OVERLOAD RELEASE. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>THE ENGINE IS CRANKED DIRECTLY BY THE STARTER AND CONTROLLED FROM THE COCKPIT. THE ELECTRIC STARTER PROVIDES INSTANTANEOUS AND CONTINUOUS ‘CRANKING.’ </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. AUXILIARY POWER UNIT (APU)
  19. 19. AUXILIARY POWER UNIT (APU) <ul><li>THE PRIMARY PURPOSE OF AN AIRCRAFT APU IS TO PROVIDE POWER TO START THE MAIN ENGINES.  </li></ul><ul><li>ONCE THE APU IS RUNNING, DEPENDING ON THE DESIGN, IT PROVIDES ELECTRIC, PNEUMATIC OR HYDRAULIC POWER TO START THE AIRCRAFT'S MAIN ENGINES. </li></ul><ul><li>THE FUNCTIONS OF ENGINE STARTING AND PROVIDING ELECTRICAL AND HYDRAULIC POWER ARE DIVIDED UP AMONG TWO UNITS, THE  JET FUEL STARTER  AND THE  EMERGENCY POWER UNIT . </li></ul><ul><li>APU s ARE ALSO USED TO RUN ACCESSORIES WHILE THE ENGINES ARE SHUT DOWN. </li></ul>
  20. 20. TURBO-STARTER <ul><li>A TURBO-STARTER IS A SELF-CONTAINED UNIT WITH SHORT STARTING CYCLE, DEVISED TO PROVIDE INSTANTANEOUS AND RELIABLE STARTING WITHOUT GROUND SUPPORT. </li></ul><ul><li>A HIGH-PRESSURE STREAM OF AIR/GASES IS FORCED THROUGH A HIGH-SPEED TURBINE, THE DRIVE FROM TURBINE IS TRANSMITTED TO THE ENGINE THROUGH A REDUCTION-GEAR MECHANISM AND AN OVER-RUN CLUTCH ASSEMBLY. </li></ul>
  21. 21. TURBO-AIR STARTER
  22. 22. CARTRIDGE TURBO-STARTER
  23. 23. CARTRIDGE TURBO-STARTER <ul><li>THIS IS AN IMPULSE TURBINE IMPACTED BY BURNING GASES FROM A CARTRIDGE, USUALLY CREATED BY IGNITING A SOLID PROPELLANT SIMILAR TO GUN POWDER. IT IS GEARED TO ROTATE THE ENGINE AND ALSO CONNECTED TO AN AUTOMATIC DISCONNECT SYSTEM, OR OVERRUNNING CLUTCH. </li></ul><ul><li>THE CARTRIDGE IS SET ALIGHT ELECTRICALLY AND USED TO TURN THE STARTER'S TURBINE. THE CARTRIDGE MAY LOOK LIKE A GUN SHELL/SMALL ROCKET. CARTRIDGE FIRING IS FOLLOWED BY PINCHING SOUND DEEP BLACK SMOKE AND IT GIVES AN ILLUSION OF ENGINE FIRE. </li></ul>
  24. 24. LIQUID FUEL TURBO-STARTER <ul><li>Micro Turbo Noelle 180 </li></ul>
  25. 25. LIQUID FUEL TURBO-STARTER
  26. 26. LIQUID FUEL TURBO-STARTER
  27. 27. FLIGHT / MAINTENANCE SAFETY ASPECT
  28. 28. ANY QUESTION ?
  29. 29. THANK YOU

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