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Aero engine accessories

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first ever, ppt on accessories, aviation, technology, aero-engine, filters, starters,engine, damage, aircraft, fuel system, booster pump, centrifugal breather, de-aerator, valves, oil cooler,

first ever, ppt on accessories, aviation, technology, aero-engine, filters, starters,engine, damage, aircraft, fuel system, booster pump, centrifugal breather, de-aerator, valves, oil cooler,


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  • absalar
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  • Transcript

    • 1. AERO ENGINE ACCESSORIES INTRODUCTION A major power unit or equipment is installed with certain components and accessories for its normal function. These components and accessories cannot be defined very rigidly. There are various components and accessories under airframe, engine and electrical system.
    • 2. AERO ENGINE ACCESSORIES
      • PURPOSE
      • - To make major equipment function
      • -To help in fulfilling its functional requirements
      • Accessories are only supplementary items, without which the equipment can function but it may not full fill all its requirements. e.g.
      • Air Compressor
      • Auxiliary Unit
      • Vacuum Pump
      • Feathering Pump
      • Oil Cooler C.S.U (Constant Speed Unit)
    • 3. Components are complimentary items of major equipment without which the equipment will not function e.g. COMPONENTS - Carburetor - Magneto - E.D.P. - Ignition Harness.
    • 4. AIRCRAFT FUEL SYSTEM FUNCTION: To provide an un-interrupted supply of fuel to the engine driven pump at all operating conditions of the aero-engine.
    • 5. AIRCRAFT FUEL SYSTEM
    • 6. AIRCRAFT FUEL SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS
      • Continuous fuel flow to each engine.
      • Able to establish a pre-determined order for emptying the tanks as per the aircraft design.
      • Ensure positive feed to the EDP.
      • Emergency fuel system to the engine .
      • Able to supply uninterrupted fuel to the engine at boost pressure .
      • Automatic air supply cut-off in case the tank is emptied or dropped.
    • 7. SIMPLE TWIN ENGINE FUEL SYSTEM
    • 8. SIMPLE TWIN-ENGINE FUEL SYSTEM
    • 9.
      • TO RECUPERATOR TO REAR IN FRONT TANK TANK
      • TO DROP TANK
      FLOW PATH OF COMPRESSED AIR PRESSURISED AIRCRAFT FUEL SYSTEM P.R.V. AIR-FILTER
    • 10. FUEL TANK PRESSURISATION SYSTEM
    • 11.
      • To transfer fuel from tank to tank
      • To prevent low temperature effects of the fuel
      • To prevent excessive fuel vapour formation
      • To maintain the shape of fuel tanks.
      • To prevent fire hazards.
      REASONS FOR PRESSURIZATION
    • 12. AIRCRAFT FUEL SYSTEM SAFETY DEVICES AND ACCESSORIES AIR FILTER The air from the engine compressor is filtered before it enters the system; this prevents dirt affecting the operation of the pressure reducing valve or flow control valves.
    • 13. AIRCRAFT FUEL SYSTEM SAFETY DEVICES AND ACCESSORIES PRESSURE REDUCING VALVE To reduce the compressed air pressure, which is used for pressurization of aircraft fuel tanks to a level, where it is not likely to damage the aircraft tanks and also fulfilling the pressurization requirements. Air taken from the compressor of gas turbine engine, is also used for pressurizing of fuel tanks.
    • 14. AIRCRAFT FUEL SYSTEM SAFETY DEVICES AND ACCESSORIES SUCTION AND PRESSURE RELIEF VALVE This type of valve is fitted to both the front and rear tanks to prevent possible damage to the tank by limiting the maximum and the minimum atmospheric pressure within it.
    • 15. AIRCRAFT FUEL SYSTEM SAFETY DEVICES AND ACCESSORIES VAPOUR RELEASE VALVE During inverted flying, air may pass in to the front tank, further, at high altitude fuel may boil. The pocket of air or vapour that results may stop fuel been transferred from other tanks especially when the aircraft is climbing. The vapour vent valve prevents this. As the liquid level in the tank falls, a float opens a vent valve and the gas is allowed to escape .
    • 16. AIRCRAFT FUEL SYSTEM SAFETY DEVICES AND ACCESSORIES PRESSURE SENSOR UNITS Pressure sensor units are used in aircraft fuel system to indicate for empty conditions of tank. Whenever this pressure is dropped less than the pre-set pressure of this sensor, it will send an electrical signal, which will be converted to light to indicate that particular tank is empty.
    • 17. SELECTOR AND CROSS FEED COCKS SELECTOR COCKS Selector cocks are essential to permit tank selection and to allow pipelines and components to be removed without draining the tank. CROSS FEED COCK It makes a cross feed line by allowing either engine to be fed from opposite side tanks during an emergency.
    • 18. INVERTED FLIGHT VALVE
      • Fitted on fighter aircrafts
      • Ensures positive supply of fuel during inverted flight.
      • Its valves are actuated by freely moving weight.
      • During normal flying, this valve will remain in open position.
      • During inverted flying, the valve is mechanically operated by the weights to the close position. But because of the construction of the tank in which inverted flight valve is fitted, the open mouth of the valve casing will still be immersed in fuel..
    • 19. INVERTED FLIGHT RECUPERATOR PURPOSE: It ensures a positive feed under inverted flight conditions. CONSTRUCTION: It consists of fuel tight metal casing that houses a rubber bag. Fuel is fed into one end of the container from the low-pressure delivery pipeline to the engine; the other end of the container is fed with air from the fuel tank pressurization system. The rubber bag forms a flexible seal between fuel and air.
    • 20. INVERTED FLIGHT RECUPERATOR
    • 21. INVERTED FLIGHT RECUPERATOR OPERATION: During normal flight the casing is charged with low-pressure fuel at 15 PSI, which forces the lower pressure air out of the container past an air pressure relief valve set to 11 PSI. When the delivery of low pressure fuel from the tank fails as in inverted flight, the 10 PSI air pressure, acting on the outside of the rubber bag discharges the fuel stored in the recuperator, back into the engine supply line and so prolongs the normal flow. The volume of fuel so stored is usually sufficient to maintain power for at least 20 seconds. When the aircraft returns to a normal attitude the recuperator automatically recharges..
    • 22.
      • FUEL FLOW PROPORTIONER
      • Fuel flow proportioner automatically meters the fuel flow for consumption from the tanks at a ratio proportionate to their sizes so that the center of gravity of an aircraft in flight and the load carried is distributed evenly around its designated point of balance.
      • Fuel balance should be maintained for the following
      • reasons:
        • To prevent excessive lateral unbalance of the aircraft with fuel in the internal and external tanks.
        • To maintain the aircraft center of gravity within longitudinal limits after the wing tanks are empty.
        • To prevent one feed tank from becoming empty before the other.
    • 23. FUEL FLOW TRANSMITTER The fuel flow meter is generally the last item of aircraft fuel system installed in the main fuel pipeline between the tank and the engine and registers the amount of fuel consumed i.e., "litres gone". It consists of a transmitting unit, which measures the actual quantity of fuel passed through the unit and sends electrical impulses to the indicator, which makes a comparative recording.
    • 24.
      • PRESSURE RELIEF VALVE
      • Fitted in the wing tank circuit to serve both the wing and the drop tanks.
      • The valve allows, the tanks to vent to atmosphere when the internal pressure is slightly above that required to transfer the fuel, yet reduces this loading during pressure refueling.
      • This reduced loading lowers the backpressure acting against the refueling pump e.g., While the normal blow-off pressure may be 8 PSI, the valve blows to 2 PSI during refueling.
    • 25. TYPE OF FUEL TANKS (AS PER CONSTRUCTION) There are three types of fuel tanks as per construction: - Flexible fuel tank. - Rigid fuel tank. - Integral fuel tank.  
    • 26. TYPES OF FUEL TANKS
    • 27.
      • ADVANTAGES: FLEXIBLE FUEL TANK OVER RIGID FUEL TANK
      • - More fuel capacity.
        • - Less likely to leak or damage by flexing.
      • - Can withstand distortion, vibration and excess loads, better than rigid type.
      • - When not completely full of fuel, it is almost crash proof.
      • - Lighter
    • 28.
      • PROTECTIVE COVERING OF TANK
      • A protective covering may be fixed to the outside of a rigid/flexible fuel tank.
      • The covering is not special to type and similar covering materials are used to protect different types of tank.
      • The protective covering usually consists of several layers of fabric or fabric and rubber, which are cemented to the material of the tank with adhesives, when a tank is fitted with a protective covering in general.
      • It becomes stiff enough to support its own weight and retain its shape. However, when the various metal fittings are added, the tank will sag and it needs support.
    • 29. SELF-SEALING COVERING - These coverings have been developed to reduce the magnitude of a fuel leak, if for any reason the fuel tank is pierced or ruptured. - The self-sealing cover is of glass fabric or nylon fabric on the outside of the tank with cellular rubber. - This type of rubber is a material that is immediately affected by contact with fuel. - If tank leaks, the cellular rubber swells on contact with fuel and forces its way into the puncture to block the hole and reduces or stops the leak. - Minor leak may remain uncovered for some time until the self-sealing cover begins to swell and bulge on the outside.
    • 30. CRASH-PROOF COVERING - To give some measure of protection against crash impact damage, fuel tanks may be covered by layers of woven glass fabric. - When fuel tanks are covered in this way they are called crash proof tanks.
    • 31. BOOSTER PUMP - An electrically driven centrifugal pump mounted in the bottom of the fuel tanks in large aircraft. - Booster pumps are used to provide a positive flow of fuel under pressure to the engine for starting and to serve as an emergency backup in the event the engine-driven pump should fail. - They are also used to transfer fuel from one tank to another and to pump fuel overboard when it is being dumped. - Booster pumps maintain pressure on the fuel in the line to the engine-driven pump to prevent a vapour lock forming in these lines. - Centrifugal booster pumps have a small agitator propeller on top of the pump impeller. This agitator causes the vapours in the fuel to be released before the fuel leaves the tank.
    • 32. BOOSTER PUMP - To ensure positive feed to the E.D.P. - To avoid air and vapour locks, specially at higher altitude. - To act as reserve pump incase of E.D.P. Failure. - To transfer fuel from tank to tank. - To prime the fuel system when the E.D.P. Is stationary .
    • 33.  
    • 34. FILTERS
    • 35. PURPOSE OF FILTERS
      • A filter is an accessory fitted in a fluid system:
      • - To ensure clean supply of the working fluid through filtration action.
      • To prevent entry/ flow of insoluble substances (e.g. Dirt/ dust/ water/ foreign objects) with the working fluid into/ through the fluid system.
    • 36. EFFECT OF UN-FILTERED SUPPLY OF WORKING FLUID . Wear/ tear of fine-finished internal parts and working surfaces . System starvation (i.e. partial/ complete stoppage of fluid flow) due to restricted/ blocked fluid passages . Initially, adversely affected operation of the system causes a loss of system-performance . . Subsequently, system failure is caused due to fluid-starvation / mechanical failure.
    • 37. FILTER LOCATION
      • - At the outlet of the storage tank
      • - Generally before / after a pump as per the system design
      • - At the entry of fine cored passages
    • 38. PARTS OF A CONVENTIONAL FILTER
      • - Inlet Port
      • - Filter Bowl / Body
      • - Filtering Element
      • . Filtration Medium
      • . Reinforcement Support
      • - O- Ring(s) / Seals
      • - Clogging Indicator Cum Bypass Valve
      • - Outlet Port
      • - Filter Drain Plug / Bleed Valve
    • 39. GENERAL FEATURES FLOW RATE & PRESSURE RATING DEPEND ON SURFACE AREA EXPOSED TO FLOW FILTRATION CAPACITY DEPENDS ON FILTERING MEDIUM & ITS THICKNESS DIRECTION OF FLOW DEPENDS ON DESIGN FILTER
    • 40. TYPES OF FILTERS
      • Filters are classified as per
        • - System in which they are used
        • - Pressure/ flow rating
        • - Filtering capacity
        • - Filtering medium
        • - Direction of flow
        • - Make
      • Note : Filters are identified by part number and / or serial number.
    • 41. COMMON TYPES OF FILTERS
      • - Lockheed Micronic Filters
      • - Voke’s Fuel & Oil Filters
      • - Tecalemit Oil Filters
      • - Purolator Filters
      • - Wire Gauge Filters
    • 42. TYPES OF FILTERS FILTER SYSTEM DIRECTION OF FLOW FILTERING MEDIUM WORKING PRESSURE FLOW RATE LOCKHEED MICRONIC FILTER FUEL OUT TO IN 55-60 PAPER DISCS MOUNTED ON BOLT OR SHAFT - - VOKE’S FILTER OIL IN TO OUT FELT REINFORCED WIRE GAUGE 125 PSI - FUEL OUT TO IN FELT REINFORCED WIRE GAUGE 100 PSI (TYPE-A) 300 GAL/HR 250 PSI (TYPE-B) TECALEMIT FILTERS OIL OUT TO IN FELT REINFORCED WIRE GAUGE - - PUROLATOR FILTERS FUEL/ OTHER FLUIDS OUT TO IN ROLLED WIRE WOUND ON FRAME - - WIRE GAUGE FILTERS FUEL/ OIL/ AIR OUT TO IN/ IN TO OUT WIRE MESH - -
    • 43.  
    • 44.  
    • 45.  
    • 46.
      • REQUIREMENT OF OIL TANK
      • It should be such that the entire content of the tank will be available for use in level flight.
      • The shape of the tank is dependent on the aircraft structure.
      • The total volume of the tank is dependent on the aircraft structure.
      • The total volume of the tank should not be less than that of the net requirement and it should also include an air space (Ulage).
    • 47.
      • The purpose of this air space is :-
      • To accommodate the oil content of the engine sump.
      • To provide space for Gasoline during oil dilution.
      • To give space for oil displaced from propeller
      • For expansion and frothing.
    • 48. NEGATIVE `G' DEVICE In fighter aircrafts and those capable of performing aerobatics, a device known as negative `g' device, is included to ensure that when aircraft, in flight takes sudden change of direction or is flying inverted, the oil continues to be fed into the engine .
    • 49.
      • TYPES OF OIL COOLERS
      • Oil coolers can be divided into two types:-
          • - Fuel-cooled oil cooler.
          • - Air-cooled oil cooler.
      • Air-cooled oil cooler is further divided into two types as per the constructions:-
          • - Primary-surface air-cooled oil cooler.
          • - Secondary-surface air-cooled oil cooler
    • 50.
      • ADVANTAGES OF FUEL COOLED OIL COOLER
        • - The complete absence of components, which produce drag.
        • - Higher engine thermal efficiency. The heat absorbed by the oil is not wasted by dissipation into the atmosphere.
        • - The oil system does not spread into the aircraft structure but is integral with the engine.
        • - With the warming effect on the fuel there is less tendency at altitude for ice crystals to form in altitude
    • 51.  
    • 52. DE-AERATOR PURPOSE De-aerator separates the air from the oil by centrifuging action . OPERATION Oil emulsified with air enters the de-aerator, where the oil emulsion is centrifuged at high rpm to separate the air. The separated air, which still has suspended oil vapour, is directed back to the gear box through a butterfly valve . The oil collected on the periphery of the de-aerator housing is returned to the oil tank. The butterfly valve does not open until the de-aerator rotor speed reaches a pre-determined rpm, thus preventing the flow of oil from the de-aerator to the accessory box at lower rpm, as the centrifugal force below this rpm is not sufficient to centrifuge the oil particles fully to the collecting passage.
    • 53. DE-AERATOR:BLOCK DIAGRAM
      • At lower RPM Butterfly Valve remains closed not to allow oil to enter EAGB
      Engine Accessory Gear Box Oil Tank BUTTERFLY VALVE De-aerator Air With Suspended Oil Vapour
    • 54.  
    • 55. CENTRIFUGAL BREATHER PURPOSE The centrifugal breather separates the oil from air by centrifuging action. DESCRIPTION Mounted on the accessory gearbox, it rotates at 13,000 rpm at 100 % rated speed of the engine and breathes the air with suspended lubricating oil particles contained in the accessory gearbox separating the oil from the air by centrifugal action. The oil thus separated returns to the gearbox, while the air is vented out to the atmosphere through a Barostatic Valve which comes into operation only at altitudes beyond 12 km. Below this altitude, it only provides a direct venting passage.
    • 56. Beyond 12 km altitude, the bellow contracts and closes the direct air venting passage as in this condition. The Spring Loaded Disc Valve comes into operation to vent the air out, when the differential pressure between the centrifugal chamber and the ambient pressure reaches a value of 0.12 bar. Operation of Barostatic Valve prevents excessive oil loss due to evaporation and ensures effective scavenging of oil from EAGB at high altitude. Spring Loaded Disc Valve maintains the pressure inside EAGB. CENTRIFUGAL BREATHER
    • 57. CENTRIFUGAL BREATHER
    • 58. CENTRIFUGAL BREATHER BLOCK DIAGRAM
      • Barostatic Valve
      Engine Accessory Gear Box To atmosphere through Aircraft Vent Centrifugal Breather Air-free Oil
    • 59.
      • PURPOSE AND TYPES OF FUEL PUMPS
      • Pumps supply pressurized working fluids to meet the engine demands under various operating conditions. They also can be employed to transfer fluid from tank to tank or for priming. Pumps thus employed fall under two categories, viz., Engine driven and hand or electrically operated pumps.
      • Engine driven pumps may be: -
        • Gear type
        • Vane type
        • Diaphragm type
        • Plunger / Piston type (Rotory / Axial )
        • Impeller type
    • 60.  
    • 61. GEAR TYPE PUMPS These are similar in operation to engine oil pumps, but are not regarded as being completely satisfactory when handling high octane fuel, particularly at high altitudes required by most modern aircrafts. Positive delivery pumps of this and rotary vane type are usually provided with a diaphragm operated relief valve, which maintains a constant delivery pressure irrespective of pump suction conditions. Fuel serving this pump acts also as a lubricant, because pump run dry.
    • 62. DIAPHRAGM TYPE PUMP The pump is a self contained unit attached to the engines by a spigotted circular flange. The drive is transmitted by a rotary motion. This pump as a unit has two sets of diaphragm pumps each independently operated, having a common fuel inlet, each having separate filter.
    • 63. OIL PUMPS PURPOSE The lubricating oil drawn from oil tank is pressurised by the pressure pump and fed into the lubrication system through a pressure filter and non-return valve. Scavenge pumps scavenge the lubricating oil from the lubricating system and send back to the oil tank through the oil cooler.
      • TYPES There are mainly two types of oil pumps:
          • (a) gear type
          • (b) vane type
    • 64. LET US KNOW ABOUT I.C. ENGINES
      • . AIR-BREATHING I.C. ENGINES
    • 65. RECIPROCATING ENGINES
      • 2-Stroke Engine 4-Stroke Engine Radial Engine
    • 66. ROTARY ENGINES
      • Wankel Engine
    • 67. ROTARY ENGINES
      • Gnome Engine
    • 68. GAS TURBINE ENGINES
    • 69. I.C. ENGINE
      • NON-ASPIRATED
      • ROCKET ENGINES
    • 70. ENGINE STARTERS
    • 71. NECESSARY & SUFFICIENT CONDITIONS FOR STARTING ENGINES (RECIPROCATING / ROTARY / GAS TURBINE)
      • Combustible air-fuel mixture
      • Means of ignition
      • Source of initial torque
    • 72. METHODS OF CRANKING ENGINES
      • HAND SWINGING (THROUGH PROPELLER)
      • HAND CRANKING (i.e. MANUALLY THROUGH A HANDLE)
      • USING STARTER (i.e. THROUGH A MECHANISED DEVICE)
    • 73. IMPULSE STARTER
    • 74. IMPULSE STARTER
        • An impulse starter is used while starting low / medium powered magneto fitted multi-cylinder piston engine .
        • There is a spring-loaded clutch device between the engine drive and the magneto spindle that helps in increasing the rate of rotation of the magnet momentarily and increases the voltage produced.
    • 75. IMPULSE STARTER
      •                                  
    • 76. IMPULSE STARTER
        • Initially the body of the starter is rotated while the rotating magnet remains stationary. This results in winding of the spring in the coupling. At the appropriate time the fly weights are released and the spring unwinds.
        • The rapid movement of the magnet results in a better spark. As soon as the engine starts running, the fly-weights are held in release position by centrifugal force and the magnet fires in the normal advance position.
        • However, during engine start up the retard spark is produced when the magneto rotation is held back by the impulse starter of inertia coupling.
    • 77. INERTIA STARTER
    • 78. INERTIA STARTER
      • It consists of a large fly-wheel which is set in motion by hand or mechanical means. When the fly-wheel  is turning rapidly it is suddenly connected to the engine and its momentum rotates the crankshaft.
    • 79. ELECTRIC STARTER
        • It consists of an electric motor, a reduction- gear and an automatic engaging / dis-engaging mechanism, which operates through an overload release.
        • The engine is cranked directly by the starter and controlled from the cockpit. The electric starter provides instantaneous and continuous ‘cranking.’
    • 80. AUXILIARY POWER UNIT (APU)
    • 81. AUXILIARY POWER UNIT (APU)
      • The primary purpose of an aircraft APU is to provide power to start the main engines. 
      • Once the APU is running, depending on the design, it provides electric, pneumatic or hydraulic power to start the aircraft's main engines.
      • The functions of engine starting and providing electrical and hydraulic power are divided up among two units, the  jet fuel starter  and the  emergency power unit .
      • APU s are also used to run accessories while the engines are shut down.
    • 82. TURBO-STARTER
      • A turbo-starter is a self-contained unit with short starting cycle, devised to provide instantaneous and reliable starting without ground support.
      • A high-pressure stream of air/gases is forced through a high-speed turbine, the drive from turbine is transmitted to the engine through a reduction-gear mechanism and an over-run clutch assembly.
    • 83. TURBO-AIR STARTER
    • 84. CARTRIDGE TURBO-STARTER
    • 85. CARTRIDGE TURBO-STARTER
      • This is an impulse turbine impacted by burning gases from a cartridge, usually created by igniting a solid propellant similar to gun powder. It is geared to rotate the engine and also connected to an automatic disconnect system, or overrunning clutch.
      • The cartridge is set alight electrically and used to turn the starter's turbine. The cartridge may look like a gun shell/small rocket. Cartridge firing is followed by pinching sound deep black smoke and it gives an illusion of engine fire.
    • 86. LIQUID FUEL TURBO-STARTER Micro Turbo Noelle 180
    • 87. LIQUID FUEL TURBO-STARTER
    • 88. LIQUID FUEL TURBO-STARTER
    • 89.
      • The various common causes contributing to aircraft engine fire are
          • Spillage of fuel/oil
          • Electrical spark
          • Human error
          • Accidental fire
      AIRCRAFT FIRE PREVENTION
    • 90. ENGINE DAMAGE
    • 91.
      • An Aviation Professional is involved with various kinds of Aviation equipments, Ground Support Equipments, Tools & Testers, Technical Publications & Documents, FOL Products, Precision Instruments, Spares & Consumables, Chemicals, Operations and Processes.
      • He is supposed to be aware, vigilant and committed to identify factors causing damage to aircraft and aero-engines and rule out all possibilities at the earliest.
      • He should always be ready to play his part in ensuring Aerospace / Maintenance Safety.
      ENGINE DAMAGE
    • 92.
      • PREPARED BY: SGT A ALANKAR
      AIRCRAFT & AERO-ENGINE
    • 93.
      • PREPARED BY: SGT A ALANKAR
      GROUND SUPPORT EQUIPMENTS
    • 94.
      • PREPARED BY: SGT A ALANKAR
      TOOLS & TESTERS
    • 95.
      • PREPARED BY: SGT A ALANKAR
      TECHNICAL PUBLICATIONS & SERVICING DOCUMENTS
    • 96.
      • PREPARED BY: SGT A ALANKAR
      SPARES & CONSUMABLES
    • 97.
      • PREPARED BY: SGT A ALANKAR
      FUELS / OILS /GREASES
    • 98.
      • PREPARED BY: SGT A ALANKAR
      CHEMICALS
    • 99. PRECISION INSTRUMENTS
    • 100. PRECISION INSTRUMENTS
    • 101. EXAMPLES OF AIRCRAFT / ENGINE DAMAGE
    • 102. EXAMPLES OF AIRCRAFT / ENGINE DAMAGE
    • 103. EXAMPLES OF AIRCRAFT / ENGINE DAMAGE
    • 104. EXAMPLES OF AIRCRAFT / ENGINE DAMAGE
    • 105. EXAMPLES OF AIRCRAFT / ENGINE DAMAGE
    • 106. EXAMPLES OF AIRCRAFT / ENGINE DAMAGE
    • 107. EXAMPLES OF AIRCRAFT / ENGINE DAMAGE
    • 108. EXAMPLES OF AIRCRAFT / ENGINE DAMAGE
    • 109. EXAMPLES OF AIRCRAFT / ENGINE DAMAGE
    • 110. WILL YOU TAKE RISK ? ADMINISTRATIVE BURDEN DUE TO INVESTIGATION WHEN ALL THE ABOVE ARE AT STAKE ! COST OF REPAIR OR REPLACEMENT OPERATIONAL CAPACITY & PREPAREDNESS LIFE EQUIPMENT RESOURCES FOR PRODUCTION MORALE OF PERSONNEL & CITIZENS DELAY IN MISSION NATIONAL IMAGE
    • 111.
      • Loss of resource/lives &
      • Operational capacity / readiness.
      • Involves great cost of repair & investigation.
      • Leads to diversion of other resources (e.g. Man power & equipment) from production or other operations.
      EFFECTS OF AIRCRAFT / ENGINE DAMAGE
    • 112.
      • Results in delay/failure of the mission.
      • Affects morale of citizens & personnel.
      • Tarnishes the National image/reputation of IAF world-wide.
      EFFECTS OF AIRCRAFT / ENGINE DAMAGE
    • 113.
      • These above-mentioned factors in themselves are causes
      • of defects, failures, accidents, incidents & damages.
      M AN M ACHINE M ATERIAL M ETHODS M EASUREMENT M ISSION-ORIENTATION IDEA 6 ‘M’s OF PRODUCTION REALITY
    • 114.
      • FAULTY ASSOCIATED FACTORS:
      • Workmanship at
      • - Operating Unit
      • - Repair Agency
      CAUSES OF ENGINE DAMAGE
    • 115.
      • FAULTY ASSOCIATED FACTORS:
      • Servicing Instructions
      CAUSES OF ENGINE DAMAGE
    • 116.
      • FAULTY ASSOCIATED FACTORS:
      • Material
      CAUSES OF ENGINE DAMAGE
    • 117.
      • FAULTY ASSOCIATED FACTORS:
      • Design
      CAUSES OF ENGINE DAMAGE
    • 118.
      • FAULTY ASSOCIATED FACTORS:
      • Storage
      CAUSES OF ENGINE DAMAGE
    • 119.
      • EXTRANEOUS/ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS:
      • Birds
      • Rodents
      • Animals
      CAUSES OF ENGINE DAMAGE
    • 120. SMALL BIRD: GREAT IMPACT
    • 121.
      • EXTRANEOUS/ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS:
      • FOD
      CAUSES OF ENGINE DAMAGE
    • 122.
      • EXTRANEOUS/ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS:
      • Accidents
      • - heavy crash landing,
      • - gale/storm/turbulent
      • weather
      • - transportation/
      • loading/un-loading
      • - fire
      CAUSES OF ENGINE DAMAGE
    • 123.
      • FOR HUMAN ERROR / FAULTY WORKMANSHIP:
      • Work- Plan & Organize
      • Cleanliness & Orderliness- Maintain
      • Tools – Ensure Correct Usage
      • Contamination- Avoid
      • Measurements/Torque- Ensure Accuracy
      • Replacement items & spares– Ensure Proper Use
      • Precautions/Warnings- Observe Meticulously
      • Training (on job & continuity)- Conduct Regularly
      • Dependence on Memory- Avoid
      • Sound Health- Maintain
      • Human Needs- Ensure Satisfaction
      PREVENTIVE MEASURES FOR ENGINE DAMAGE
    • 124.
      • FOR INADEQUATE SERVICING INSTRUCTIONS:
      • Ensure 3 ‘A’s in
      • respect of S.I. / M.P.S.
      • - A vailability
      • - A pplicability
      • - A wareness
      PREVENTIVE MEASURES FOR ENGINE DAMAGE
    • 125.
      • FOR IMPERFECT WORKMANSHIP AT REPAIR AGENCY:
      • Avoidance of
      • - Short cuts in
      • processes
      • - Mishandling of
      • consignment
      PREVENTIVE MEASURES FOR ENGINE DAMAGE
    • 126.
      • FOR WEAKNESS IN DESIGN:
      • Ensuring timely
      • - Testing of design factors
      • - Embodiment of structural
      • modifications
      • - Feed back to the Manufacturers
      PREVENTIVE MEASURES FOR ENGINE DAMAGE
    • 127.
      • FOR FAULTY MATERIAL:
      • Bringing out to the
      • notice of the Manufacturer
      • any material fault noticed
      • during use / servicing.
      • Seeking manufacturers’
      • advice & replacement
      • of item within warranty
      • period.
      PREVENTIVE MEASURES FOR ENGINE DAMAGE
    • 128.
      • FOR FAULTY STORAGE:
      • Ensuring proper
      • - Storage servicing.
      • - Storage life monitoring
      • & follow-up servicing.
      PREVENTIVE MEASURES FOR ENGINE DAMAGE
    • 129.
      • FOR FOD:
      • Ensuring
      • - Use of F.O.D. Bins
      • /Lines
      • - Accounting of Tools
      • /Replacement Items
      • /Spares
      • - Use of Tool-finder.
      PREVENTIVE MEASURES FOR ENGINE DAMAGE OPENED ON: 01 APR11 CLOSED ON: DAILY TOOLS ISSUE REGISTER ENGINE TEST BED 40 WING / AF F.O.D BIN
    • 130.
      • FOR FOD:
      • Cleaning of Servicing / Operating Area
      • Strict Supervision
      PREVENTIVE MEASURES FOR ENGINE DAMAGE
    • 131.
      • FOR BIRD HIT:
      • Airfield Management through
      • - Bird Chasers / Bird Shooters / B.H.C.T.
      • - Gas Cannons
      • - Electronic Bird Repellers
      • - Reflectors / Bird Strobe Lites
      PREVENTIVE MEASURES FOR ENGINE DAMAGE
    • 132.
      • FOR BIRD HIT:
      • Airfield Management in the
      • form of
      • - Inspections &
      • Standby-vehicle with
      • F.L.I.R.
      • (Forward Looking Infra Red)
      • Thermal Radar.
      • - Operational Changes
      • for Air-traffic
      • - Mesh Cover for the
      • Drainage
      • - Grass/Tree Cutting
      PREVENTIVE MEASURES FOR ENGINE DAMAGE
    • 133.
      • FOR ACCIDENTAL DAMAGE:
      • Ensuring proper
      • - Picketing of aircraft
      • - Fencing of operational
      • area
      PREVENTIVE MEASURES FOR ENGINE DAMAGE
    • 134.
      • FOR ACCIDENTAL DAMAGE:
      • Ensuring proper
      • - Loading/un-loading
      • procedure during
      • transportation/shipping
      • - Use of loading
      • /un-loading equipment
      PREVENTIVE MEASURES FOR ENGINE DAMAGE
    • 135. ENGINE DAMAGE
      • Faulty workmanship/human error.
      • Inadequate servicing instruction
      • Foreign object damage.
      • Accidental damage.
      • Imperfect workmanship at repair agency.
      • Damage due to bird hit.
      • Corrosion, Deterioration or excessive wear due to faulty storage.
      • Faulty material.
      • Weakness in Design
    • 136. SAFE TAKE OFFs & LANDINGs ALWAYS