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Nutrition
 

Nutrition

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HPF 160

HPF 160

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  • Assignment 3 option Meaning and Purpose Assessment Quiz 4: Stress Nutrition & Weight Management Study Guide Single Food Elimination Diet Fiber Handout Why Vary the Color of your food

Nutrition Nutrition Presentation Transcript

  • HPF 160: Wellness NUTRITION
  • The Food We Eat
    • In small groups, take a bag of food labels and group the labels according to:
    • Be ready to explain why you have placed items in each group
    GOOD BAD UGLY
  • Challenges in Eating Well
    • Choices
    • Fast track of life
    • Cost of nutritious foods
    • Availability of nutritious foods
    8: 2
  • Why We Eat HUNGER APPETITE physiological psychological
  • Purpose of Food
    • Energy
    Repair Growth Maintenance
  • Benefits of Good Nutrition
    • All new cells in body every 7 years
      • Build healthy structures with good function
    • Nutritious food is essential for
      • Muscles that can develop strength and endurance
      • Sound bones
      • Healthy skin
      • Quality blood
      • Metabolic capabilities
      • Clear thinking
    8: 1
  • Poor Nutrition
    • Under-nutrition
      • Not enough calories for energy
      • Inadequate nutrients
    • Over-nutrition
      • Too many calories – obesity
      • Wrong kinds of food - malnutrition
  • Food Labeling – The Whole Truth?
    • Based on a 2000 cal diet
    • Portion size realistic?
    • Canned Diced Tomatoes –
      • Sodium 500 mg = 21% RDA = 2381 mg
      • RDA is 2000 mg
      • Balch & Balch Nutrition Guide recommend 500 mg daily…
  • Jargon
    • RDA = Recommended Dietary Allowance - generous portion - appropriate for most healthy people
    • AI = Adequate Intake - average amount - not enough evidence for an RDA
    • Tolerable Upper Intake Level - possible toxicity level; - guards against over-consumption
    8: 7
  • Seven Elements of Nutrition Fats Carbo- hydrates Protein Vitamins Minerals Water Fiber
  • Protein
  • Protein Overview
    • Function: Growth, repair and maintenance
    • Components: Amino Acids
    • Foods: Complete: Meat (Chicken, Beef, Pork), Fish
    • Incomplete: Beans, Nuts
    • Calories: 4 cal/g
    • Food Pyramid: Meats & Beans, Milk
    • Should be 15 – 30% of your daily calories
    8: 3 8: 5
  • Protein Food Sources
    • To build protein, the body needs 9 essential amino acids of the 20 AA available.
    • Complete proteins contain all 9 EAA
      • Animal sources : meat, fish, poultry, dairy, eggs
    • Incomplete proteins contain only some of the 9 EAA
      • Vegetable sources : whole grains, legumes, veggies
      • Need to combine foods for whole protein: e.g. beans + rice; peanut butter + whole wheat bread
  • How Much Protein?
    • 12 - 35% of the daily caloric intake
      • About 50 g/day for a woman
    • Too much protein
      • Excreted along with calcium
      • Extra nitrogen is excreted via the kidneys into the urine and can strain the kidneys
  • Carbohydrates
  • Carbohydrate Overview
    • Function: Energy
    • Components: Simple – sugars
    • Complex - starches
    • Foods: Simple: Candy, honey, sugar, fruit, milk
    • Complex: Rice, potatoes, pasta, bread, grains
    • Calories: 4 cal/g
    • Food Pyramid: Grains
    • Complex CH2O should make up the bulk of your daily calories
    8: 3
  • Carbohydrates – Simple & Complex
    • Simple - sugars
      • Related to glucose, the body’s natural fuel and converted to glucose in the body
      • Natural or processed
      • Empty calories
    • Complex – starch and fiber
      • Starch - natural primary energy source
      • Long chains of glucose with other nutrients
      • May contain protein
      • Rich in vitamins and minerals
  • More Bonuses of Complex Carbohydrates Maintain blood sugar at a constant level Reduce risk for heart disease Reduce risk for cancer
  • Food Sources for Complex Carbs
    • Found in
      • Grains: whole wheat, rice, oats, corn, rye, barley, millet
      • Potatoes, sweet potatoes, yams
      • Fruits and vegetables
      • Legumes (peas and beans)
    • Most of your calories should come from complex carbohydrates
  • Sugar Substitutes
    • Sugar alcohols
      • Maltitol, sorbitol, xylitol
      • Have calories; absorbed more slowly
      • Do not cause tooth decay
    • Artificial sweeteners
      • Saccharin, aspartame, nutrasweet
      • Very few or no calories
    • No nutritional value
  • Fats
  • Fats Overview
    • Function: Insulation, Protection, Hormones / regulation
    • Components: Saturated – solid; animal origin and tropical oils
    • Unsaturated - liquids
    • Foods: Saturated: butter, lard, tropical oils
    • Unsaturated: Vegetable oils
    • Calories: 9 cal/g
    • Food Pyramid: Oils
    • Should be < 30% of your daily calories
    8: 3
  • Types of Fats (Components)
    • Saturated
      • Solid at room temperature
      • Animal origin or tropical oils
      • Increase LDL
    • Unsaturated
      • Liquid at room temp
      • Vegetable origin
      • Mono- or poly-
      • unsaturated
  • Hydrogenated fats
    • Addition of hydrogen
            • Make the product harder – shortening and margarine
            • Health risks are similar to saturated fats
    • Trans-fats
      • Alter the shape of the molecule
      • Interfere with the body’s ability to use healthy poly-unsaturated oils
      • Increase LDL and decrease HDL
    Cis - fat
  • How Much Fat?
    • Less than 30% of your daily calories; some recommend fewer
    • Utilize primarily unsaturated fats – oils of vegetable origin
      • Excess fat is associated with high B/P, stroke, heart disease, diabetes and some forms of cancer
  • Calorie values 8: 6
  • Vitamins Minerals
  • Vitamins Overview
    • Function: Metabolism
    • Components: Water soluble (Bs, C)
    • Fat Soluble (K, A, D, E)
    • Foods: Fruits, Vegetables and Whole Grains
    • - the less processing, the better
    • Calories: none
    • Food Pyramid: Fruits, Vegetables, Whole Grains
    8: 3 Retinol (A)
  • Vitamins: fat soluble, water soluble
    • Organic compounds essential in small quantities for growth, repair and maintenance. No calories.
    • Fat soluble :
    • K, A, D, E
    • Excess is stored so potential for toxicity
    • Water soluble :
    • B group, C
    • Dissolve in water; excess is excreted
    Riboflavin (B2)
  • Minerals Overview
    • Function: Metabolism
    • Components: Major (> 5g), Trace (< 5g)
    • Foods: Fruits, Vegetables and Whole Grains
    • - the less processing, the better
    • Calories: none
    • Food Pyramid: Fruits, Vegetables, Milk (calcium), Whole Grains
    8: 3
  • Minerals
    • Inorganic elements;
    • required in small amounts for proper functioning
    • Major minerals ≥5g in body
      • Calcium
      • Magnesium
      • Sodium
      • Potassium
    • Trace minerals
    • < 5 g in body
      • Iron
      • Zinc
      • Manganese
      • Copper
      • Chromium
      • Selenium
  • Foods Rich in Vitamins and Minerals
    • Fruits and Vegetables
      • Eaten raw
      • As unprocessed as possible
      • When cooked, steam lightly
    • Whole Grains
    8: 3
  • Fiber BROWN RICE
  • Fiber Overview
    • Function: Cleanses GI tract; Keeps stools soft and moving; Helps to excrete cholesterol; Protects from carcinogens
    • Components: Soluble and insoluble fiber - cellulose
    • Foods: Fruits, Vegetables and Whole Grains, Beans
    • Calories: N/A Recommend 30g/day
    • Food Pyramid: Fruits, Vegetables, Whole Grains, Beans
    • Note: Cooking destroys fiber, so eat your fruits and vegetables raw or lightly cooked.
    8: 4
  • Fiber
    • Indigestible part of plants: soluble and insoluble
    • Bulk without calories
    • Keeps intestines clean
    • Soft stools
    • Binds carcinogens
    • Soluble fiber helps bind and excrete cholesterol
    • Helps control blood glucose concentration – preventing diabetes
  • Fiber Foods
    • Whole grains
    • Whole fruits and whole vegetables
      • Eat veggies crunchy as cooking destroys fiber
      • Eat the skins!
    • 30 g/day is recommended
  • Water Overview
    • Function: Universal solvent
    • Components: H2O
    • Foods: Water, Fruits, Vegetables
    • Calories: none
    • Food Pyramid: Fruits, Vegetables
    • Drink 6 – 8 glasses of water daily
    • Alcohol and caffeinated drinks cause dehydration
    8: 3
  • Food Pyramid p.195 www.mypyramid.gov
    • Grains – look for ‘whole’ in the name
    • Vegetables – esp. dark green, orange; increase peas and beans
    • Fruit – variety
    • Oils – limit solid fats; found in fish, nuts and vegetable oils
    • Milk – low fat or fat free
    • Meats and beans
    • EXERCISE
    8: 8 Grains Veg Fruits Milk Meat & Beans Oils
  • The PIE Method
    • VARIETY
    • Foods
    • Colors
    • Flavors
    • Textures
    1/3 PROTEIN 8: 9 2/3 COMPLEX CARBOHYDRATES Animal and Vegetable Low fat Whole Grains, Beans, Legumes, Pastas, Rice, Whole Wheat products Whole foods Unprocessed Low fat 1 3 2
  • Food Allergies
    • Body reacts to food substance as a foreign invader and sets up a protective immune response
    • Fixed: for example, peanuts, MSG
      • Immediate reaction, potentially fatal
    • Hidden: wheat, dairy, any food/drink
      • Mild reaction. May occur hours later, so seems not connected to food
      • Indigestion, rashes, migraines, mood swings, lack of concentration, fatigue, etc.
    8: 10 HIVES
  • Food Elimination Diet
    • To identify hidden food allergies:
      • Become aware of your reaction to foods by observing your symptoms
      • Identify suspect foods
      • Eliminate one food from your diet for at least 4 days. Observe your symptoms.
      • After 4 - 7 days, eat the food when you have not had anything to eat for 3-4 hours. Observe your response.
    8: 11
  • Changing Behaviors
    • In small groups, identify:
    NUTRITIONAL BEHAVIORS TO INCREASE NUTRITIONAL BEHAVIORS TO DECREASE
  • To Do
    • QUIZ
    • Assignment 3
    Thought for Today “ If you don’t take care of your body, where are you going to live?”