HPF 160: Wellness NUTRITION
The Food We Eat <ul><li>In small groups, take a bag of food labels and group the labels according to: </li></ul><ul><li>Be...
Challenges in Eating Well <ul><li>Choices </li></ul><ul><li>Fast track of life </li></ul><ul><li>Cost of nutritious foods ...
Why We Eat HUNGER APPETITE physiological psychological
Purpose  of Food <ul><li>Energy </li></ul>Repair Growth Maintenance
Benefits of  Good Nutrition <ul><li>All new cells in body every 7 years </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Build healthy structures wit...
Poor Nutrition <ul><li>Under-nutrition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not enough calories for energy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ina...
Food Labeling –  The Whole Truth? <ul><li>Based on a 2000 cal diet </li></ul><ul><li>Portion size realistic? </li></ul><ul...
Jargon <ul><li>RDA = Recommended Dietary Allowance - generous portion  - appropriate for most healthy people </li></ul><ul...
Seven   Elements of Nutrition Fats Carbo- hydrates Protein Vitamins Minerals Water Fiber
Protein
Protein  Overview <ul><li>Function: Growth, repair and  maintenance </li></ul><ul><li>Components: Amino Acids </li></ul><u...
Protein  Food Sources <ul><li>To build protein, the body needs 9 essential amino acids of the 20 AA available.  </li></ul>...
How Much Protein? <ul><li>12 - 35% of the daily caloric intake </li></ul><ul><ul><li>About 50 g/day for a woman </li></ul>...
Carbohydrates
Carbohydrate Overview <ul><li>Function: Energy </li></ul><ul><li>Components: Simple – sugars </li></ul><ul><li>Complex - s...
Carbohydrates –  Simple & Complex <ul><li>Simple - sugars </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Related to glucose, the body’s natural fue...
More Bonuses of  Complex Carbohydrates Maintain  blood sugar  at a constant  level Reduce  risk for  heart disease Reduce ...
Food Sources for  Complex Carbs <ul><li>Found in </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Grains: whole wheat, rice, oats, corn, rye, barley,...
Sugar Substitutes  <ul><li>Sugar alcohols </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Maltitol, sorbitol, xylitol </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hav...
Fats
Fats  Overview <ul><li>Function: Insulation, Protection,  Hormones / regulation </li></ul><ul><li>Components:  Saturated –...
Types of Fats (Components) <ul><li>Saturated </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Solid at room temperature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>An...
Hydrogenated  fats <ul><li>Addition of hydrogen </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Make the product harder – shortening and...
How Much Fat? <ul><li>Less than 30% of your daily calories;  some recommend fewer </li></ul><ul><li>Utilize primarily unsa...
Calorie values 8: 6
Vitamins Minerals
Vitamins Overview <ul><li>Function: Metabolism </li></ul><ul><li>Components: Water soluble (Bs, C) </li></ul><ul><li>Fat S...
Vitamins:  fat soluble, water soluble <ul><li>Organic compounds essential in small quantities for growth, repair and maint...
Minerals Overview <ul><li>Function: Metabolism </li></ul><ul><li>Components: Major (> 5g), Trace (< 5g) </li></ul><ul><li>...
Minerals <ul><li>Inorganic elements;  </li></ul><ul><li>required in small amounts for proper functioning </li></ul><ul><li...
Foods Rich in  Vitamins and Minerals <ul><li>Fruits and Vegetables </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Eaten raw </li></ul></ul><ul><ul>...
Fiber BROWN RICE
Fiber Overview <ul><li>Function: Cleanses GI tract; Keeps stools soft and moving; Helps to excrete cholesterol; Protects f...
Fiber <ul><li>Indigestible part of plants:  soluble and insoluble </li></ul><ul><li>Bulk without calories </li></ul><ul><l...
Fiber Foods <ul><li>Whole grains </li></ul><ul><li>Whole fruits and whole vegetables  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Eat veggies cr...
Water Overview <ul><li>Function: Universal solvent </li></ul><ul><li>Components: H2O </li></ul><ul><li>Foods: Water, Fruit...
Food Pyramid  p.195  www.mypyramid.gov <ul><li>Grains – look for ‘whole’ in the name </li></ul><ul><li>Vegetables – esp. d...
The PIE Method  <ul><li>VARIETY </li></ul><ul><li>Foods </li></ul><ul><li>Colors </li></ul><ul><li>Flavors </li></ul><ul><...
Food Allergies <ul><li>Body reacts to food substance as a foreign  invader and sets up a protective immune response </li><...
Food Elimination Diet <ul><li>To identify hidden food allergies: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Become aware of your reaction to fo...
Changing Behaviors <ul><li>In small groups, identify:  </li></ul>NUTRITIONAL  BEHAVIORS  TO INCREASE NUTRITIONAL  BEHAVIOR...
To Do <ul><li>QUIZ </li></ul><ul><li>Assignment 3 </li></ul>Thought for Today “ If you don’t take care of your body, where...
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Nutrition

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  • Assignment 3 option Meaning and Purpose Assessment Quiz 4: Stress Nutrition &amp; Weight Management Study Guide Single Food Elimination Diet Fiber Handout Why Vary the Color of your food
  • Nutrition

    1. 1. HPF 160: Wellness NUTRITION
    2. 2. The Food We Eat <ul><li>In small groups, take a bag of food labels and group the labels according to: </li></ul><ul><li>Be ready to explain why you have placed items in each group </li></ul>GOOD BAD UGLY
    3. 3. Challenges in Eating Well <ul><li>Choices </li></ul><ul><li>Fast track of life </li></ul><ul><li>Cost of nutritious foods </li></ul><ul><li>Availability of nutritious foods </li></ul>8: 2
    4. 4. Why We Eat HUNGER APPETITE physiological psychological
    5. 5. Purpose of Food <ul><li>Energy </li></ul>Repair Growth Maintenance
    6. 6. Benefits of Good Nutrition <ul><li>All new cells in body every 7 years </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Build healthy structures with good function </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Nutritious food is essential for </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Muscles that can develop strength and endurance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sound bones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Healthy skin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quality blood </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Metabolic capabilities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clear thinking </li></ul></ul>8: 1
    7. 7. Poor Nutrition <ul><li>Under-nutrition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not enough calories for energy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inadequate nutrients </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Over-nutrition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Too many calories – obesity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wrong kinds of food - malnutrition </li></ul></ul>
    8. 8. Food Labeling – The Whole Truth? <ul><li>Based on a 2000 cal diet </li></ul><ul><li>Portion size realistic? </li></ul><ul><li>Canned Diced Tomatoes – </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sodium 500 mg = 21% RDA = 2381 mg </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>RDA is 2000 mg </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Balch & Balch Nutrition Guide recommend 500 mg daily… </li></ul></ul>
    9. 9. Jargon <ul><li>RDA = Recommended Dietary Allowance - generous portion - appropriate for most healthy people </li></ul><ul><li>AI = Adequate Intake - average amount - not enough evidence for an RDA </li></ul><ul><li>Tolerable Upper Intake Level - possible toxicity level; - guards against over-consumption </li></ul>8: 7
    10. 10. Seven Elements of Nutrition Fats Carbo- hydrates Protein Vitamins Minerals Water Fiber
    11. 11. Protein
    12. 12. Protein Overview <ul><li>Function: Growth, repair and maintenance </li></ul><ul><li>Components: Amino Acids </li></ul><ul><li>Foods: Complete: Meat (Chicken, Beef, Pork), Fish </li></ul><ul><li>Incomplete: Beans, Nuts </li></ul><ul><li>Calories: 4 cal/g </li></ul><ul><li>Food Pyramid: Meats & Beans, Milk </li></ul><ul><li>Should be 15 – 30% of your daily calories </li></ul>8: 3 8: 5
    13. 13. Protein Food Sources <ul><li>To build protein, the body needs 9 essential amino acids of the 20 AA available. </li></ul><ul><li>Complete proteins contain all 9 EAA </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Animal sources : meat, fish, poultry, dairy, eggs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Incomplete proteins contain only some of the 9 EAA </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vegetable sources : whole grains, legumes, veggies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Need to combine foods for whole protein: e.g. beans + rice; peanut butter + whole wheat bread </li></ul></ul>
    14. 14. How Much Protein? <ul><li>12 - 35% of the daily caloric intake </li></ul><ul><ul><li>About 50 g/day for a woman </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Too much protein </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Excreted along with calcium </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extra nitrogen is excreted via the kidneys into the urine and can strain the kidneys </li></ul></ul>
    15. 15. Carbohydrates
    16. 16. Carbohydrate Overview <ul><li>Function: Energy </li></ul><ul><li>Components: Simple – sugars </li></ul><ul><li>Complex - starches </li></ul><ul><li>Foods: Simple: Candy, honey, sugar, fruit, milk </li></ul><ul><li>Complex: Rice, potatoes, pasta, bread, grains </li></ul><ul><li>Calories: 4 cal/g </li></ul><ul><li>Food Pyramid: Grains </li></ul><ul><li>Complex CH2O should make up the bulk of your daily calories </li></ul>8: 3
    17. 17. Carbohydrates – Simple & Complex <ul><li>Simple - sugars </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Related to glucose, the body’s natural fuel and converted to glucose in the body </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Natural or processed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Empty calories </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Complex – starch and fiber </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Starch - natural primary energy source </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Long chains of glucose with other nutrients </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May contain protein </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rich in vitamins and minerals </li></ul></ul>
    18. 18. More Bonuses of Complex Carbohydrates Maintain blood sugar at a constant level Reduce risk for heart disease Reduce risk for cancer
    19. 19. Food Sources for Complex Carbs <ul><li>Found in </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Grains: whole wheat, rice, oats, corn, rye, barley, millet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Potatoes, sweet potatoes, yams </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fruits and vegetables </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Legumes (peas and beans) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Most of your calories should come from complex carbohydrates </li></ul>
    20. 20. Sugar Substitutes <ul><li>Sugar alcohols </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Maltitol, sorbitol, xylitol </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Have calories; absorbed more slowly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do not cause tooth decay </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Artificial sweeteners </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Saccharin, aspartame, nutrasweet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Very few or no calories </li></ul></ul><ul><li>No nutritional value </li></ul>
    21. 21. Fats
    22. 22. Fats Overview <ul><li>Function: Insulation, Protection, Hormones / regulation </li></ul><ul><li>Components: Saturated – solid; animal origin and tropical oils </li></ul><ul><li>Unsaturated - liquids </li></ul><ul><li>Foods: Saturated: butter, lard, tropical oils </li></ul><ul><li>Unsaturated: Vegetable oils </li></ul><ul><li>Calories: 9 cal/g </li></ul><ul><li>Food Pyramid: Oils </li></ul><ul><li>Should be < 30% of your daily calories </li></ul>8: 3
    23. 23. Types of Fats (Components) <ul><li>Saturated </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Solid at room temperature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Animal origin or tropical oils </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase LDL </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Unsaturated </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Liquid at room temp </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vegetable origin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mono- or poly- </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>unsaturated </li></ul></ul>
    24. 24. Hydrogenated fats <ul><li>Addition of hydrogen </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Make the product harder – shortening and margarine </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Health risks are similar to saturated fats </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Trans-fats </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Alter the shape of the molecule </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interfere with the body’s ability to use healthy poly-unsaturated oils </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase LDL and decrease HDL </li></ul></ul>Cis - fat
    25. 25. How Much Fat? <ul><li>Less than 30% of your daily calories; some recommend fewer </li></ul><ul><li>Utilize primarily unsaturated fats – oils of vegetable origin </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Excess fat is associated with high B/P, stroke, heart disease, diabetes and some forms of cancer </li></ul></ul>
    26. 26. Calorie values 8: 6
    27. 27. Vitamins Minerals
    28. 28. Vitamins Overview <ul><li>Function: Metabolism </li></ul><ul><li>Components: Water soluble (Bs, C) </li></ul><ul><li>Fat Soluble (K, A, D, E) </li></ul><ul><li>Foods: Fruits, Vegetables and Whole Grains </li></ul><ul><li>- the less processing, the better </li></ul><ul><li>Calories: none </li></ul><ul><li>Food Pyramid: Fruits, Vegetables, Whole Grains </li></ul>8: 3 Retinol (A)
    29. 29. Vitamins: fat soluble, water soluble <ul><li>Organic compounds essential in small quantities for growth, repair and maintenance. No calories. </li></ul><ul><li>Fat soluble : </li></ul><ul><li>K, A, D, E </li></ul><ul><li>Excess is stored so potential for toxicity </li></ul><ul><li>Water soluble : </li></ul><ul><li>B group, C </li></ul><ul><li>Dissolve in water; excess is excreted </li></ul>Riboflavin (B2)
    30. 30. Minerals Overview <ul><li>Function: Metabolism </li></ul><ul><li>Components: Major (> 5g), Trace (< 5g) </li></ul><ul><li>Foods: Fruits, Vegetables and Whole Grains </li></ul><ul><li>- the less processing, the better </li></ul><ul><li>Calories: none </li></ul><ul><li>Food Pyramid: Fruits, Vegetables, Milk (calcium), Whole Grains </li></ul>8: 3
    31. 31. Minerals <ul><li>Inorganic elements; </li></ul><ul><li>required in small amounts for proper functioning </li></ul><ul><li>Major minerals ≥5g in body </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Calcium </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Magnesium </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sodium </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Potassium </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Trace minerals </li></ul><ul><li>< 5 g in body </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Iron </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Zinc </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Manganese </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Copper </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chromium </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Selenium </li></ul></ul>
    32. 32. Foods Rich in Vitamins and Minerals <ul><li>Fruits and Vegetables </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Eaten raw </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>As unprocessed as possible </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When cooked, steam lightly </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Whole Grains </li></ul>8: 3
    33. 33. Fiber BROWN RICE
    34. 34. Fiber Overview <ul><li>Function: Cleanses GI tract; Keeps stools soft and moving; Helps to excrete cholesterol; Protects from carcinogens </li></ul><ul><li>Components: Soluble and insoluble fiber - cellulose </li></ul><ul><li>Foods: Fruits, Vegetables and Whole Grains, Beans </li></ul><ul><li>Calories: N/A Recommend 30g/day </li></ul><ul><li>Food Pyramid: Fruits, Vegetables, Whole Grains, Beans </li></ul><ul><li>Note: Cooking destroys fiber, so eat your fruits and vegetables raw or lightly cooked. </li></ul>8: 4
    35. 35. Fiber <ul><li>Indigestible part of plants: soluble and insoluble </li></ul><ul><li>Bulk without calories </li></ul><ul><li>Keeps intestines clean </li></ul><ul><li>Soft stools </li></ul><ul><li>Binds carcinogens </li></ul><ul><li>Soluble fiber helps bind and excrete cholesterol </li></ul><ul><li>Helps control blood glucose concentration – preventing diabetes </li></ul>
    36. 36. Fiber Foods <ul><li>Whole grains </li></ul><ul><li>Whole fruits and whole vegetables </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Eat veggies crunchy as cooking destroys fiber </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eat the skins! </li></ul></ul><ul><li>30 g/day is recommended </li></ul>
    37. 37. Water Overview <ul><li>Function: Universal solvent </li></ul><ul><li>Components: H2O </li></ul><ul><li>Foods: Water, Fruits, Vegetables </li></ul><ul><li>Calories: none </li></ul><ul><li>Food Pyramid: Fruits, Vegetables </li></ul><ul><li>Drink 6 – 8 glasses of water daily </li></ul><ul><li>Alcohol and caffeinated drinks cause dehydration </li></ul>8: 3
    38. 38. Food Pyramid p.195 www.mypyramid.gov <ul><li>Grains – look for ‘whole’ in the name </li></ul><ul><li>Vegetables – esp. dark green, orange; increase peas and beans </li></ul><ul><li>Fruit – variety </li></ul><ul><li>Oils – limit solid fats; found in fish, nuts and vegetable oils </li></ul><ul><li>Milk – low fat or fat free </li></ul><ul><li>Meats and beans </li></ul><ul><li>EXERCISE </li></ul>8: 8 Grains Veg Fruits Milk Meat & Beans Oils
    39. 39. The PIE Method <ul><li>VARIETY </li></ul><ul><li>Foods </li></ul><ul><li>Colors </li></ul><ul><li>Flavors </li></ul><ul><li>Textures </li></ul>1/3 PROTEIN 8: 9 2/3 COMPLEX CARBOHYDRATES Animal and Vegetable Low fat Whole Grains, Beans, Legumes, Pastas, Rice, Whole Wheat products Whole foods Unprocessed Low fat 1 3 2
    40. 40. Food Allergies <ul><li>Body reacts to food substance as a foreign invader and sets up a protective immune response </li></ul><ul><li>Fixed: for example, peanuts, MSG </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Immediate reaction, potentially fatal </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hidden: wheat, dairy, any food/drink </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mild reaction. May occur hours later, so seems not connected to food </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Indigestion, rashes, migraines, mood swings, lack of concentration, fatigue, etc. </li></ul></ul>8: 10 HIVES
    41. 41. Food Elimination Diet <ul><li>To identify hidden food allergies: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Become aware of your reaction to foods by observing your symptoms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify suspect foods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eliminate one food from your diet for at least 4 days. Observe your symptoms. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>After 4 - 7 days, eat the food when you have not had anything to eat for 3-4 hours. Observe your response. </li></ul></ul>8: 11
    42. 42. Changing Behaviors <ul><li>In small groups, identify: </li></ul>NUTRITIONAL BEHAVIORS TO INCREASE NUTRITIONAL BEHAVIORS TO DECREASE
    43. 43. To Do <ul><li>QUIZ </li></ul><ul><li>Assignment 3 </li></ul>Thought for Today “ If you don’t take care of your body, where are you going to live?”

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