Chapter 5


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Intellectual Property

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Chapter 5

  1. 1. CHAPTER 5 Intellectual Property
  2. 2. <ul><li>What is intellectual property? </li></ul><ul><li>Why are trademarks and patents protected by the law? </li></ul><ul><li>What laws protects authors’ rights in works they generate? </li></ul><ul><li>What are trade secrets, and what laws offer protection for this form of intellectual property? </li></ul><ul><li>What steps have been taken to protect intellectual property rights in the digital age? </li></ul>Learning Objectives
  3. 3. Introduction <ul><li>Intellectual Property (I.P.) is any property that is the product of an individual’s mind, e.g, books, software, movies, music. </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. Constitution protects I.P. in Article I Section 8. Congress shall: </li></ul><ul><li>“ promote the Progress of Science and useful Arts, by securing for limited times to Authors and Inventors the exclusive right to their respective Writings and Discoveries.” </li></ul><ul><li>Ownership of I.P. is strategically important in the global economy. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Trademarks & Related Property <ul><li>Trademark. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Distinctive motto, mark or emblem. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stamped or affixed to a product. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>So that it can be identified in the market. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Coca-Cola Co. v. Koke Co. of America (1920). </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Statutory Protection for Trademarks. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Federal Lanham Act of 1946. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Federal Trademark Dilution Act of 1995. </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Trademarks & Related Property <ul><li>Trademark Registration. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>U.S. Patent and Trademark Office gives notice to 3 rd parties. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A mark can be registered if already in use or will be used within 6 months. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Trademark Infringement. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unintentional or intentional substantial copying of mark. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strong marks vs. generic terms. </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Service, Certification, and Collective Marks <ul><li>Service Mark. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Similar to trademark but used for services. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Includes characters in TV and radio. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Trade Names. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Applies to a business (not a product). </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Trade Dress. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Image and appearance of a product or shop (Example: Starbucks coffee stores). </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Cyber Marks <ul><li>Trademarks in Cyberspace. </li></ul><ul><li>Domain Names. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Trademarks in Cyberspace (example: ). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conflicts—ICANN. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cybersquatting . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Occurs when 3d party registers a domain name that is the same or similar to another company’s own trade name. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1999 Anticybersquatting Consumer Protection Act. </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Cyber Marks <ul><li>Meta Tags </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Keywords in web pages used by internet search engines. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Playboy Enterprises, Inc. v. Welles (2002). </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Online Trademark Dilution. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Trademarks can be diluted on the web. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hasbro v. IEG (over ). </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Patents <ul><li>Patent. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A Government monopoly that gives inventor the exclusive right to make, use or sell and invention for 20 years. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Patents for: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Invention. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Design. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Process (software patent). </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Patents <ul><li>Infringement. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Manufacture, use or sale of another’s product or design without permission (license). </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Business Process Patents. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1998 State Street Bank v. Signature Financial ruled that a method of doing business could be patented. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>’s “one-click” patent. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eolas Technologies, Inc. v. Microsoft Corp. (2004). </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Copyrights <ul><li>Copyright: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Intangible property right granted by federal statute to the author for life plus 70 years. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Automatic protection. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What is Protected Expression? Work must be original and “fixed in a durable medium.” Ideas are not protected, but the expression of an idea is. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Section 102 Exclusions? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Compilations of Facts? </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Copyrights <ul><li>Infringement. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Form or expression is copied (does not have to be in its entirety). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Penalties, damages and criminal action are possible. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Exception: “Fair Use”. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Certain persons or organization can copy materials without penalty ( e.g., education, news, research). </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Copyright Protections for Software. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1980-Computer Software Copyright Act. </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Copyrights in Digital Information <ul><li>Digital media can easily be copied. </li></ul><ul><li>Copyright Act of 1976: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Copy of a program into RAM is infringement. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Revision or re-sale of freelance authors works can be infringement. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New York Times Co. v. Tasini (2001). </li></ul></ul><ul><li>MP3 and File-Sharing. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Napster case. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>P2P sharing, distributed network. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New sharing: Morpheus, Kazaa. </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Trade Secrets <ul><li>Trade secrets are confidential, not filed with the government. </li></ul><ul><li>Can be customer lists, formulas, pricing, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Theft of trade secrets is now a federal crime under the Economic Espionage Act of 1996. </li></ul><ul><li>Cyberspace: employees can easily email information to competitors. </li></ul>
  15. 15. International Protection <ul><li>Berne Convention (1886). </li></ul><ul><li>TRIPS Agreement (1994). </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Each member must include domestic laws protecting intellectual property of other nation-members. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>World Intellectual Property Organization. (WIPO) (1996). </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides for Dispute resolution. </li></ul></ul>