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Intellectual Property

Intellectual Property

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  • 1. CHAPTER 5 Intellectual Property
  • 2.
    • What is intellectual property?
    • Why are trademarks and patents protected by the law?
    • What laws protects authors’ rights in works they generate?
    • What are trade secrets, and what laws offer protection for this form of intellectual property?
    • What steps have been taken to protect intellectual property rights in the digital age?
    Learning Objectives
  • 3. Introduction
    • Intellectual Property (I.P.) is any property that is the product of an individual’s mind, e.g, books, software, movies, music.
    • U.S. Constitution protects I.P. in Article I Section 8. Congress shall:
    • “ promote the Progress of Science and useful Arts, by securing for limited times to Authors and Inventors the exclusive right to their respective Writings and Discoveries.”
    • Ownership of I.P. is strategically important in the global economy.
  • 4. Trademarks & Related Property
    • Trademark.
      • Distinctive motto, mark or emblem.
      • Stamped or affixed to a product.
      • So that it can be identified in the market.
      • The Coca-Cola Co. v. Koke Co. of America (1920).
    • Statutory Protection for Trademarks.
      • Federal Lanham Act of 1946.
      • Federal Trademark Dilution Act of 1995.
  • 5. Trademarks & Related Property
    • Trademark Registration.
      • U.S. Patent and Trademark Office www.uspto.gov gives notice to 3 rd parties.
      • A mark can be registered if already in use or will be used within 6 months.
    • Trademark Infringement.
      • Unintentional or intentional substantial copying of mark.
      • Strong marks vs. generic terms.
  • 6. Service, Certification, and Collective Marks
    • Service Mark.
      • Similar to trademark but used for services.
      • Includes characters in TV and radio.
    • Trade Names.
      • Applies to a business (not a product).
    • Trade Dress.
      • Image and appearance of a product or shop (Example: Starbucks coffee stores).
  • 7. Cyber Marks
    • Trademarks in Cyberspace.
    • Domain Names.
      • Trademarks in Cyberspace (example: Nike.com ).
      • Conflicts—ICANN.
    • Cybersquatting .
      • Occurs when 3d party registers a domain name that is the same or similar to another company’s own trade name.
      • 1999 Anticybersquatting Consumer Protection Act.
  • 8. Cyber Marks
    • Meta Tags
      • Keywords in web pages used by internet search engines.
      • Playboy Enterprises, Inc. v. Welles (2002).
    • Online Trademark Dilution.
      • Trademarks can be diluted on the web.
      • Hasbro v. IEG (over candyland.com ).
  • 9. Patents
    • Patent.
      • A Government monopoly that gives inventor the exclusive right to make, use or sell and invention for 20 years.
    • Patents for:
      • Invention.
      • Design.
      • Process (software patent).
  • 10. Patents
    • Infringement.
      • Manufacture, use or sale of another’s product or design without permission (license).
    • Business Process Patents.
      • 1998 State Street Bank v. Signature Financial ruled that a method of doing business could be patented.
      • Amazon.com’s “one-click” patent.
      • Eolas Technologies, Inc. v. Microsoft Corp. (2004).
  • 11. Copyrights
    • Copyright:
      • Intangible property right granted by federal statute to the author for life plus 70 years.
      • Automatic protection.
      • What is Protected Expression? Work must be original and “fixed in a durable medium.” Ideas are not protected, but the expression of an idea is.
        • Section 102 Exclusions?
        • Compilations of Facts?
  • 12. Copyrights
    • Infringement.
      • Form or expression is copied (does not have to be in its entirety).
      • Penalties, damages and criminal action are possible.
    • Exception: “Fair Use”.
      • Certain persons or organization can copy materials without penalty ( e.g., education, news, research).
    • Copyright Protections for Software.
      • 1980-Computer Software Copyright Act.
  • 13. Copyrights in Digital Information
    • Digital media can easily be copied.
    • Copyright Act of 1976:
      • Copy of a program into RAM is infringement.
      • Revision or re-sale of freelance authors works can be infringement.
      • New York Times Co. v. Tasini (2001).
    • MP3 and File-Sharing.
      • Napster case.
      • P2P sharing, distributed network.
      • New sharing: Morpheus, Kazaa.
  • 14. Trade Secrets
    • Trade secrets are confidential, not filed with the government.
    • Can be customer lists, formulas, pricing, etc.
    • Theft of trade secrets is now a federal crime under the Economic Espionage Act of 1996.
    • Cyberspace: employees can easily email information to competitors.
  • 15. International Protection
    • Berne Convention (1886).
    • TRIPS Agreement (1994).
      • Each member must include domestic laws protecting intellectual property of other nation-members.
    • World Intellectual Property Organization. (WIPO) (1996).
      • Provides for Dispute resolution.