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International Law in a Global Economy

International Law in a Global Economy

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  • 1. CHAPTER 25 International Law in a Global Economy
  • 2.
    • What is the principle of comity and why do courts deciding disputes involving a foreign law apply this principle?
    • What is the act of state doctrine?
    • Under the Foreign Sovereign Immunities Act of 1976, on what bases might a foreign state be considered subject to the jurisdiction of U.S. Courts?
    • In what circumstances will U.S. antitrust laws be applied extraterritoriality?
    • Do U.S. laws prohibiting employment discrimination apply in U.S. factories abroad?
    Learning Objectives
  • 3. International Principles and Doctrines
    • The most important principles and doctrines applied in the interest of maintaining harmonious relations among nations:
      • The Principle of Comity.
      • The Act of State Doctrine.
      • The Doctrine of Sovereign Immunity.
  • 4. The Principle of Comity
    • One nation will defer and give effect to the laws and judicial decrees of another country, as long as those laws and judicial decrees are consistent with the law and public policy of the accommodating nation.
      • JP Morgan Chase Bank v. Altos Hornos de Mexico, S.A. de C.V. (2004).
  • 5. The Act of State Doctrine
    • Judicial branch of one country will not examine the validity of public acts committed by recognized foreign government within its own territory.
    • This doctrine is often invoked to protect:
      • Expropriation, and
      • Confiscation.
  • 6. The Doctrine of Sovereign Immunity
    • This doctrine exempts foreign nations from jurisdiction in U.S. courts.
    • The Foreign Sovereign Immunities Act expanded the jurisdiction of U.S. courts for creditors of foreign governments.
  • 7.
    • Types of International Business Operations
      • Exporting , through:
        • An Agent.
        • A Foreign Distributor.
      • Manufacturing Abroad , through:
        • Licensing.
        • Franchising.
        • Investing in a subsidiary or joint venture.
    Doing Business Internationally
  • 8. Commercial Contracts in an International Setting
    • Choice of Language Clause.
    • Choice of Forum.
      • Garware Polyester, Ltd. V. Intermax Trading Corp. (2001).
    • Choice of Law .
    • Force Majeure (impossibility or “act of God”).
    • Civil Dispute Resolution.
  • 9. Making Payment on International Transactions
    • Monetary Systems.
      • Foreign Exchange Rates/Markets.
      • Correspondent Banks (affiliated banks in different countries).
      • Letters of Credit.
        • Conditional promise by Issuer (Bank) to pay Beneficiary (Seller) on behalf of Account (Buyer).
  • 10.
    • Nations impose laws and controls to restrict or facilitate international business.
      • Investing.
      • Export and Import Controls: Quotas, Tariffs and Anti-Dumping Rules.
      • International Organizations and Agreements: World Trade Organization, European Union and NAFTA.
    Regulation of Specific Business Activities
  • 11.
    • U.S. antitrust law applies to the activities of U.S. firms even when they are acting abroad.
    • Foreign persons and governments can sue under U.S. antitrust laws in U.S. courts.
    • Generally, U.S. firms must abide by U.S. anti-discrimination law, even in their foreign activities, unless doing so would require them to violate the laws of the foreign country.
    • United States v. Nippon Paper Industries, Co. (1997).
    U.S. Laws in a Global Context