Sect 19.2
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Sect 19.2

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Sect 19.2 Sect 19.2 Presentation Transcript

  • 6 th Grade Science Chapter 19 Sound Notes Section 19.2 Bottle Nose Dolphins
    • What is music and noise?
    • Music is sound that is deliberately produced in regular patterns. Noise is sound without a pattern.
    • What is a natural frequency?
    • Every object will vibrate at certain frequencies called natural frequencies.
    Key Questions 1
  • What is music?
    • The sounds that make up music usually have a regular pattern of pitches, or notes.
    • Noise is usually a group of sounds with no regular pattern.
  • Types of music- Rock, Jazz, country, classical
  • The Tacoma Narrows Bridge collapsed because of the wind creating a self induced natural frequency
    • What is a fundamental frequency?
    • The lowest frequency produced by a vibrating object is its fundamental frequency.
    • What are overtones?
    • The overtones produced by a vibrating object are multiples of the fundamental frequencies.
    Key Questions 2 The Tadpole Galaxy
  • Fundamental Frequency
    • When a tuning fork is struck it vibrates.
    • This vibration is the fundamental frequency of the tuning fork. As the tuning fork changes in size, so does its fundamental frequency.
  • Overtones
    • These higher frequencies are called overtones .
    • Overtones have frequencies that are multiples of the fundamental frequency.
    • The number and intensity of the overtones produced by each instrument are different and give instruments their distinctive sound quality.
    • How are sounds produced in stringed instruments?
    • Stringed instruments produce sounds by vibrating strings that are amplified by a resonator.
    • How are sounds produced in a percussion instrument?
    • Percussion instruments produce sounds by vibrating when they are struck.
    Key Questions 3 The Sombrero Galaxy
  • Resonance
    • Resonance occurs when an object is made to vibrate at its natural frequencies by absorbing energy from a sound wave or another object vibrating at these frequencies.
    • Musical instruments use resonance to amplify their sounds.
  • Amplifying Vibrations
    • The sound produced by a vibrating string usually is soft.
    • To amplify the sound, stringed instruments usually have a hollow chamber, or box, called a resonator, which contains air.
  • The acoustic guitar uses the body of the guitar as a sound resonator. The electric guitar uses a electric amplifier as a sound resonator.
  • Percussion instruments produce sounds by vibrating when they are struck. Phil Collins- Genesis, Ringo Star- Beatles, Neil Peart- Rush, Rick Allen- Def Leppard
  • Percussion
    • Percussion instruments are struck to make a sound.
    • Striking the top surface of the drum causes it to vibrate.
    • The vibrating drumhead is attached to a chamber that resonates and amplifies the sound.
    • How do brass and woodwind instruments produce sound?
    • Brass and woodwind instruments produce sounds by vibrating a column of air.
    • What does the human ear do?
    • The outer ear collects sound, the middle ear amplifies sound, and the inner ear changes the sound to nerve impulses.
    Key Questions 4
  • Musical Scales
    • A musical scale is a sequence of notes with certain frequencies.
    • The frequency produced by the instrument doubles after eight successive notes of the scale are played.
  • Brass and Woodwinds
    • To make music from these instruments, the air in the pipes is made to vibrate at various frequencies.
    • A musician playing a brass instrument,
    such as a trumpet, makes the air column vibrate by vibrating the lips and blowing into the mouthpiece.
  • Beats Help Tune Instruments
    • A piano tuner might hit a tuning fork and then the corresponding key on the piano.
    • Beats are heard when the difference in pitch is small.
    • The piano string is tuned properly when the beats disappear.
  • The Ear
    • Describe how music and noise are different.
    • Two bars on a xylophone are 10 cm long and 14 cm long. Identify which bar produces a lower pitch when struck and explain why.
    • Describe the parts of the human ear and the function of each part in enabling you to hear sound.
    • Predict how the sound produced by a guitar string changes as the length is made shorter.
    • Diagram the fundamental and the first two overtones for a vibrating string.
    Questions Section 19.2