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  • 1. 6 th Grade Science Chapter 14 Interactions of Life Notes Section 14.1 & 14.2 Zambia’s South Luangwa National Park
  • 2.
    • What is a a biosphere?
    • A biosphere is the portion of Earth that supports life.
    • What is an ecosystem?
    • An ecosystem is made up of the living organisms and nonliving parts of an area.
    Key Questions 1 Orangutan rescue- Malaysia
  • 3.
    • The part of Earth that supports life is the biosphere (BI uh sfihr).
    • The biosphere includes the top portion of Earth’s crust, all the waters that cover Earth’s surface, and the atmosphere that surrounds Earth.
    The Biosphere
  • 4.
    • The biosphere is made up of different environments that are home to different kinds of organisms.
    • For example, desert environments receive little rain.
    The Biosphere
    • Cactus plants, coyotes, and lizards are included in the life of the desert.
  • 5.
    • An ecosystem consists of all the organisms living in an area, as well as the nonliving parts of that environment.
    Ecosystems
    • Ecology is the study of interactions that occur among organisms and their environments.
    • Ecologists are scientists who study these interactions.
  • 6.  
  • 7.
    • What is a population?
    • A population is made up of all members of a species that live in the same ecosystem.
    • What is a community and a habitat?
    • A community consists of all the populations in an ecosystem. A habitat is where an organism lives.
    Key Questions 2 Orangutan rescue- Malaysia
  • 8.
    • A population is made up of all organisms of the same species that live in an area at the same time.
    Populations
    • For example, all the bison in a prairie ecosystem are one population.
  • 9.
    • This figure shows how organisms, populations, communities, and ecosystems are related.
    Populations
  • 10.
    • Each organism in an ecosystem needs a place to live.
    • The place in which an organism lives is called its habitat .
    • An organism’s habitat provides the kinds of food and shelter, the temperature, and the amount of moisture the organism needs to survive.
    Habitats
  • 11.
    • The salamander’s habitat is the forest floor, beneath fallen leaves and twigs.
    Habitats
    • Salamanders avoid sunlight and seek damp, dark places.
  • 12.
    • What is competition?
    • Competition is when more than one organism needs the same resource. Competition limits population size.
    • What is population density?
    • Population density is the number of individuals per unit area.
    Key Questions 3 The Sombrero Galaxy Orangutan rescue- Malaysia
  • 13.
    • Woodpeckers must compete with each other for nesting spots.
    • Competition occurs when two or more organisms seek the same resource at the same time.
    Food and Space
  • 14. Human Population Density in the United States
  • 15. Fighting for dominance males face each other, rear up on their hind legs, and hurl themselves at each other in charges of some 20 miles (32 kilometers) an hour. The resounding clash of horns can be heard echoing through the mountains —sometimes for many hours—until one ram submits and walks away. The animal's thick, bony skull usually prevents serious injury.
  • 16.
    • What are limiting factors?
    • Limiting factors are resources that restrict population size.
    • What is an ecosystem’s carrying capacity?
    • An ecosystem’s carrying capacity is the largest population it can support.
    Key Questions 4 Orangutan rescue- Malaysia
  • 17.
    • Competition also takes place among different species.
    Growth Limits
    • For example, after a Gila wood pecker has abandoned its nest, owls, flycatchers, snakes, and lizards might compete for the shelter of the empty hole.
  • 18.
    • This map shows human population density.
    Population Size
  • 19.
    • Ecologists can have problems when measuring wildlife populations.
    Measuring Populations
    • One of the methods they use is called trap-mark-release.
  • 20.
    • Carrying capacity is the largest number of individuals of one species that an ecosystem can support over time.
    Carrying Capacity
    • If a population begins to exceed the environment’s carrying capacity, some individuals will not have enough resources. They could die or be forced to move elsewhere.
  • 21.
    • The highest rate of reproduction under ideal conditions is a population’s biotic potential.
    Biotic Potential
    • The larger the number of offspring that are produced by parent organisms, the higher the biotic potential of the species will be.
  • 22.
    • Describe three ways in which ecologists can estimate the size of a sample.
    • Explain how birthrates and death rates influence the size of a population.
    • Explain how carrying capacity influences the number of organisms in an ecosystem.
    • Why are food and water the limiting factors that usually have the greatest effect on population size?
    Questions Section 14.1 and 14.2 Orangutan rescue- Malaysia
  • 23. Zambia’s South Luangwa National Park