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Sect 13.1

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  • 1. 6 th Grade Science Chapter 13 The Nonliving Environment Notes Section 13.1 Chimney Rock, North Carolina
  • 2.
    • What are abiotic factors?
    • Abiotic means nonliving. Abiotic factors include air, water, soil, sunlight, temperature, elevation, and climate.
    • What is the Earth’s atmosphere?
    • The Earth’s atmosphere is air that is composed of 78% nitrogen, 21% oxygen, 0.94% argon, and 0.03% carbon dioxide .
    Key Questions 1
  • 3. Abiotic factors such as air, water, soil, sunlight, temperature, elevation, and climate help determine what plants and animals living in near Looking Glass Rock, North Carolina
  • 4.
    • The air that surrounds Earth is called the atmosphere .
    Air
    • Air contains 78 percent nitrogen,
    21 percent oxygen, 0.94 percent argon, 0.03 percent carbon dioxide, and trace amounts of other gases.
  • 5.
    • Why is water important to living things?
    • Most living things are 50% - 90% water. Environments with plenty of water can support more plant and animal numbers and variety.
    • Why is soil type important to living things?
    • The type of soil (sand, clay, humus rich) present in a region has an important influence on the type of plants that grow there.
    Key Questions 2 The Tadpole Galaxy
  • 6. East Fork – Pigeon River
  • 7. Soil
    • Soil is a mixture of mineral and rock particles, the remains of dead organisms, water, and air.
    • It is the topmost layer of Earth’s crust, and it supports plant growth.
    • Soil is formed, in part, of rock that has been broken down into tiny particles.
  • 8.
    • Why is sunlight an important environmental factor?
    • Photosynthesis cannot take place without light. Sunlight strikes the areas near the equator directly and areas near the poles at an angle.
    • Why is temperature an important environmental factor?
    • Most organisms can only survive if their body temperatures stay within 0 0 C to 50 0 C.
    Key Questions 3 The Sombrero Galaxy
  • 9. Latitude
    • Polar regions receive less of the Sun’s energy than equatorial regions. Near the equator, sunlight strides Earth directly. Near the poles, sunlight strikes
    Earth at an angle, which spreads the energy over a larger area.
  • 10. North Carolina Average Temperature and Rainfall – U.S. Climate Data
  • 11.
    • Why is elevation an important environmental factor?
    • A region’s altitude or distance above sea level affects its temperature.
    • What factors make up an area’s climate?
    • Climate refers to an area’s average weather conditions over time, including temperature, rain/snow fall, and wind.
    Key Questions 4
  • 12. Elevation
    • Above the timberline—the elevation beyond which trees do not grow—plant life is limited to low-growing plants.
    • The tops of some mountains are so cold that no plants can survive.
  • 13.  
  • 14. Wind
    • Colder air sinks below warmer air and pushes it upward.
    • These motions create air currents that are called wind.
  • 15. The Rain Shadow Effect
    • By the time the cool air crosses over the top of the mountain, it has lost most of its moisture.
    • The other side of the mountain range receives much less precipitation.
  • 16.
    • Compare and contrast biotic and abiotic factors in ecosystems.
    • Explain why soil is considered a abiotic and biotic factor.
    • On day 1, you hike in shade under tall trees. On day 2, the trees are shorter and farther apart. On day 3, you see small plants but no trees. On day 4, you see snow. What abiotic factors may contribute to these changes?
    Questions Section 13.1