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Increasing classroom engagement and students comprehension through the use of clickers: an Italian secondary school experience
 

Increasing classroom engagement and students comprehension through the use of clickers: an Italian secondary school experience

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Slide presented at 2013 ATEE Winter Conference

Slide presented at 2013 ATEE Winter Conference
Learning & Teaching with Media & Technology
Genova 8 March 2013

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    Increasing classroom engagement and students comprehension through the use of clickers: an Italian secondary school experience Increasing classroom engagement and students comprehension through the use of clickers: an Italian secondary school experience Presentation Transcript

    • Giovanni Bonaiuti, Università di Cagliari, Dipartimento di pedagogia, psicologia, filosofiaGiovanni Bonaiuti, Università di CagliariAntonio Calvani, Università di FirenzeDanilo Piazza, Collegio Villoresi - MonzaIncreasing classroom engagement and studentscomprehension through the use of clickers:an Italian secondary school experience2013 ATEE Winter ConferenceLearning & Teaching with Media & TechnologyGenova 8 March 2013
    • Giovanni Bonaiuti, Università di Cagliari, Dipartimento di pedagogia, psicologia, filosofia1. What are clickers?2. How can they be used?3. Researches findings4. Our researchOutline
    • Giovanni Bonaiuti, Università di Cagliari, Dipartimento di pedagogia, psicologia, filosofiaWhat are clickers?• Clickers are handheld devices that looks like a TV remote• They allow each student to respond to the teachers questions during a lesson
    • Giovanni Bonaiuti, Università di Cagliari, Dipartimento di pedagogia, psicologia, filosofiaDifferent type of clickers- Basic set of buttons- Without display- Regular set of buttons- Small display- Full keyboard- Large displayThere are many types of clickers that allow different uses, like:- yes/no response- multiple choices response- free-text response
    • Giovanni Bonaiuti, Università di Cagliari, Dipartimento di pedagogia, psicologia, filosofiaCollect and display information• Software on the teacher’s computer collects the students’ answers• The teacher can decide to show the data to the class via computer projector• For example it could be produced a bar chart showing how many studentschose each of the answer choices or other graphical representation of data.
    • Giovanni Bonaiuti, Università di Cagliari, Dipartimento di pedagogia, psicologia, filosofiaA typical learning cycleTeacher posesquestionsStudents useclicker handheld torespondResponses aretransmitted to theteacher’s computerTeacher visualizesthe answerseventually displayedto the class
    • Giovanni Bonaiuti, Università di Cagliari, Dipartimento di pedagogia, psicologia, filosofiaPedagogical frameworkCommon uses are the following:• to increase or manage interaction (i.e. start a discussions or collect votesafter a debate)• to assess students preparation for formative (diagnostic) or summativepurpose;• to find out more about students (i.e. polling student opinions or probingstudents’ pre-existing level of understanding)• to guide thinking, leading students through a multistep process by askingwhich step should come next• to make lecture fun.
    • Giovanni Bonaiuti, Università di Cagliari, Dipartimento di pedagogia, psicologia, filosofiaTypes of questionsRecallQuestionsrecall factsconceptstechniquesrelevant toclassApplicationQuestionsapply theirknowledgeunderstandingto particularsituations andcontextsCriticalThinkinganalyzerelationshipsamong multipleconceptsmakeevaluationsbased onparticular criteriaStudentPerspectiveQuestionsstudents sharetheir opinionsexperiencesdemographicinformationMonitoringQuestionshow studentsare approachingthe learningprocessIt is possible to use clickers with different type of questions, for example:
    • Giovanni Bonaiuti, Università di Cagliari, Dipartimento di pedagogia, psicologia, filosofiaWhy should they be used?The literature suggests that they can be used to:• maintain students’ attention and promote active engagement during a lecture;• encourage participation from every student in a class;• allow anonymous, simultaneous, and fast response;• obtain feedbacks and track students comprehension;• collecting opinions and encourages follow-up discussion;• create a safe space for shy and unsure students to participate in class;• add a little fun to the classroom.
    • Giovanni Bonaiuti, Università di Cagliari, Dipartimento di pedagogia, psicologia, filosofiaResearch findings• Since international research has emphasized the importance of feedback ineducation, there has been a growing interest in clickers.• Effective forms of feedback provide cues or reinforcement to the learner aswell as from the learner to the teacher (Hattie, 2009).• Teacher requires a continuous feedback from learners to know whether theyare following the lecture, if they understand it or if it is being delivered at theadequate pace (Zarraonandia et al., 2010).• Even though it is clear that numerous methods allow for increasing activestudent responding and the associated feedback opportunities, it wasrecognized that clickers can improve teacher feedback practice in many ways:– engaging students,– providing immediate feedback to everyone (also in large settings),– allowing students response data to be automatically collected,– increasing the likelihood that a shy or reticent student will participate(Lantz, 2010)
    • Giovanni Bonaiuti, Università di Cagliari, Dipartimento di pedagogia, psicologia, filosofiaOur researchOur research took place in CollegioVilloresi S. Giuseppe a school of Monzain the north of Italy
    • Giovanni Bonaiuti, Università di Cagliari, Dipartimento di pedagogia, psicologia, filosofiaResearch questions• Clickers are mainly used in large classrooms situation and at college level.• Our research aims to verify whether the clickers are a way to improveattention, participation and learning also in a small classes environment and ina first grade secondary school level.• To do this we compared two different situations that use "questioning methods"to foster learning:– Questions and answers by “hand-raising”– Questions and answers with clickers
    • Giovanni Bonaiuti, Università di Cagliari, Dipartimento di pedagogia, psicologia, filosofiaParticipants• The study took place in the school year 2012-2013 in five sections of a firstgrade secondary school at Collegio Villoresi of Monza• Participants in this study included:– 92 students (12–14 years old)– 5 teachers (2 grammar teachers, 3 history teachers)
    • Giovanni Bonaiuti, Università di Cagliari, Dipartimento di pedagogia, psicologia, filosofiaProcedures"B" SituationTwo lessons with clickers"A" SituationTwo lessons without clickers
    • Giovanni Bonaiuti, Università di Cagliari, Dipartimento di pedagogia, psicologia, filosofiaIntroduction.Q&A on previous lectures(5 minutes)Teacher explanation (3 min.)Questions and answers(2 minutes)Students understanding test(up to 10 minutes)Schematic representation of process"B" Situationwith clickers"A" Situationwithout clickersBoth experiences have provided students the same number of interactions with teachers:• in the first case with questions and answers (“hand-raising condition”),• in the second case with the use of SRSs (“technological condition”).8 times
    • Giovanni Bonaiuti, Università di Cagliari, Dipartimento di pedagogia, psicologia, filosofiaResults• Our research attest that in a normal class discussion situation (without clickers)only few students have the opportunity to answer a question.• Classroom observation in the "A conditions" situations shown that 23% ofstudents answer only one time (Mean=1.41 answers, DS=1.25)• In the "B conditions" (two lessons with clickers) 100% of participant answer toall questions (more than 8 questions each hour)
    • Giovanni Bonaiuti, Università di Cagliari, Dipartimento di pedagogia, psicologia, filosofia
    • Giovanni Bonaiuti, Università di Cagliari, Dipartimento di pedagogia, psicologia, filosofia
    • Giovanni Bonaiuti, Università di Cagliari, Dipartimento di pedagogia, psicologia, filosofia
    • Giovanni Bonaiuti, Università di Cagliari, Dipartimento di pedagogia, psicologia, filosofiaES = 0,32
    • Giovanni Bonaiuti, Università di Cagliari, Dipartimento di pedagogia, psicologia, filosofiaES = -0,50
    • Giovanni Bonaiuti, Università di Cagliari, Dipartimento di pedagogia, psicologia, filosofiaSummary of findings• We verify that students and teachers like clickers use• Clickers provide a "safe" way for shy students to participate in classroomdiscussion. Because of the anonymity, students feel safe to participate• In the "hand raising" situations only few students answer the questions– even if the answer is correct, the instructor has no way to gauge if theother students knew the correct answer;– a student who is unsure of the correct answer may be unwilling to take thepublic risk of being incorrect.• Even though, at the end of the experience, our teachers have highlighted somechallenges :– using clickers in class takes up class time– writing effective multiple-choice questions can be a tough job– leading class-wide discussions can be challenging for teachers used to justlecturing– for the students the fun can lead to loss of concentration
    • Giovanni Bonaiuti, Università di Cagliari, Dipartimento di pedagogia, psicologia, filosofiaIssues• Results are consistent with other researches, which forecast students intechnological conditions are more cognitively engaged during learning;participants also reported greater positive emotions during the lecture andwere more likely to respond fairly to in-class review questions.• Although the present study provides some indication about the students, in theclicker conditions, are more involved results about the in learning are not clear• Data show small learning gain in grammar (ES=0.32), worst results in history(ES= -0.50)• It seems that the use of clickers could be influenced by the subject matter and,conceivably, by the type of specific topic. In fact the arguments in grammarwere more clearly defined and the questions were much more precise than inhistory• We believe that this technology offers great potential also in a small classesand in a lower grade settings but further researches are needed to investigatethe underlying mechanisms.
    • Giovanni Bonaiuti, Università di Cagliari, Dipartimento di pedagogia, psicologia, filosofiaReferencesCaldwell, J. E. (2007). Clickers in the large classroom: current research and best-practice tips. CBE life sciences education, 6(1),9–20.Hattie, J. (2009). Visible Learning: A Synthesis of Over 800 Meta-Analyses Relating to Achievement. New York, NY: Routledge.Herreid, C. F. (2006). “Clicker” Cases : Introducing Case Study Teaching Into Large Classrooms. Library.Lantz, M. E. (2010). The use of “Clickers” in the classroom: Teaching innovation or merely an amusing novelty? Computers inHuman Behavior, 26(4), 556–561.Mayer, R. E., Stull, A., DeLeeuw, K., Almeroth, K., Bimber, B., Chun, D., Bulger, M., et al. (2009). Clickers in college classrooms:Fostering learning with questioning methods in large lecture classes. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 34(1), 51–57.Mestre, J. P., Gerace, W. J., Dufresne, R. J., & Leonard, W. J. (1997). Promoting active learning in large classes using a classroomcommunication system. In E. F. Redish & J. S. Rigden (Eds.), Journal of Consumer Research (Vol. 2, pp. 1019–1036). AmericanInstitute of Physics.Mollborn, S., & Hoekstra, A. (2010). “A Meeting of Minds”: Using Clickers for Critical Thinking and Discussion in Large SociologyClasses. Teaching Sociology, 38(1), 18–27.Morling, B., McAuliffe, M., Cohen, L., & DiLorenzo, T. M. (2008). Efficacy of Personal Response Systems (“Clickers”) in Large,Introductory Psychology Classes. Teaching of Psychology, 35(1), 45–50.Nicol, D. J., & Boyle, J. T. (2003). Peer Instruction versus Class-wide Discussion in Large Classes: A comparison of two interactionmethods in the wired classroom. Studies in Higher Education, 28(4), 457–473.Penuel, W. R., Boscardin, C. K., Masyn, K., & Crawford, V. M. (2006). Teaching with student response systems in elementary andsecondary education settings: A survey study. Educational Technology Research and Development, 55(4), 315–346.Trees, A. R., & Jackson, M. H. (2007). The learning environment in clicker classrooms: student processes of learning andinvolvement in large university level courses using student response systems. Learning, Media and Technology, 32(1), 21–40.Zarraonandia, T., Francese, R., Passero, I., Díaz, P., & Tortora, G. (2011). Augmented lectures around the corner? British Journalof Educational Technology, 42(4), E76–E78.
    • Giovanni Bonaiuti, Università di Cagliari, Dipartimento di pedagogia, psicologia, filosofiaThanks for your attentiong.bonaiuti@unica.it