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  • Structura de coordonare si functionare a RNMCA Comitet de Management al Retelei - CMR Grup Tehnic Central – GTC Operator Local – OL Unitatea de QA/QC Unitatea de comunicare si informare a publicului –UCIP Operator intretinere si service – OIS Furnizor de Materiale de Referinta - FMR
  • 01 - 02 sepetembrie 2008, Sovata, jud Mures
  • How AAQD work… Margin of tolerance concept can be deceiving : if above LV or if trends do not follow the decreasing MoT trend, consider action (preparation of plan) immediately, otherwise there might not be enough time!

Boca   eu legislation on air quality implementation Boca eu legislation on air quality implementation Presentation Transcript

  • Experiences in implementation of EU legislation on ambient air quality; an introduction with lessons from a new member state Romania GABRIELA BOCA Environmental Protection Agency TAIEX RTP 33743, HATAY, Turkey , 15 October 2009
  • Content
    • EU Legislation on Air Quality
    • Council Directive 96/62/EC on ambient air quality assessment and management and the daughter directives TRANSPOSITION
    • INSTITUTION FRAMEWORK for air quality management
    • IMPLEMENTATION STATUS of the Council Directive 96/62/EC on ambient air quality assessment and management and the daughter directives
    • CONCLUSIONS
  • EU Legislation on Air Quality
    • EoI ... Council Dec. 97/101/EC of 27 January 1997 establishing a reciprocal exchange of information and data from networks and individual stations measuring ambient air pollution within the Member States (OJ L 35, 5.2.1997, p. 14–22)
    • FWD ... Council Dir. 96/62/EC of 27 September 1996 on ambient air quality assessment and management (OJ L 296, 21.11.1996, p. 55–63)
    • 1 st DD ... Council Dir. 1999/30/EC of 22 April 1999 relating to limit values for SO 2 , NO 2 , NO X , PM, Pb in ambient air (OJ L163, 29.06.1999, pp.41-60)
    • 2 nd DD ... Dir. 2000/69/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 16 November 2000 relating to limit values for benzene and CO in ambient air (OJ L313, 13.12.2000, p.12-21)
    • 3 rd DD ... Dir. 2002/3/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 12 February 2002 relating to O 3 in ambient air (OJ L67, 09.03.2002, p.14-30)
    • 4 th DD ... Dir. 2004/107/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 15 December 2004 relating to As, Cd, Hg, Ni, PAH in ambient air (OJ L23, 26.01.2005, pp.3-16)
  • EU Legislation on Air Quality
    • 2004/224/EC ... Commission Dec. 2004/224/EC of 20 February 2004 laying down arrangements for the submission of information on plans or programmes required under Council Dir. 96/62/EC in relation to limit values for certain pollutants in ambient air (Text with EEA relevance) (notified under document number C(2004) 491)
    • 2004/461/EC ... Commission Dec. 2004/461/EC of 29 April 2004 laying down a questionnaire to be used for annual reporting on ambient air quality assessment under Council Dir. 96/62/EC and 1999/30/EC and under Dir. 2000/69/EC and 2002/3/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council (notified under document number C(2004) 1714), (Text with EEA relevance) (OJ L156, 30.04.2004, pp.78-125)
    • CLRTAP ... Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution, UN 1979
    • AQD - the new AQ Directive - Directive 2008/50/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 21 May 2008 on ambient air quality and cleaner air for Europe enters into force on 11 June 2008 - merges FWD, 1st DD, 2nd & 3rd DD which will be repealed on the date of transposition of the new Directive, i. e. 11 June 2010
  • Council Directive 96/62/EC on ambient air quality assessment and management and daughter directives TRANSPOSITION
    • Council Directive 96/62/EC on ambient air quality assessment and management and daughter directives (Council Directive 1999/30/EC relating to limit values for sulphur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide and nitrogen oxides, particulate matter and lead in ambient air, Directive 2000/69/EC relating to limit values for benzene and carbon monoxide in ambient air, Directive 2002/3/EC relating to ozone in ambient air)
    • Emergency Governmental Ordinance no. 243/2000 regarding atmosphere protection, amended and approved by Law no. 655/2001 (Of. J. no. 773/04.12.2001)
    • M. Order no. 745/2002 establishing the agglomerations and the classification of the agglomerations and zones for the assessment of the air quality in Romania (Of. J. no. 739/09.10.2002)
    •   MO no. 592/2002 to approve the Norms in establishing the limit values, threshold values and the criteria and assessment methods regarding sulphur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5), lead, benzene, carbon monoxide and ozone in ambient air (Of. J. no. 765/21.10.2002)
    • Government Decision no. 586/2004 for setting up and organizing the National Integrated System for Assessment and Management of Air Quality (SNEGICA) (Of. J. no. 389/03.05.2004)
    • Council Directive 96/62/EC on ambient air quality assessment and management and daughter directives (Council Directive 1999/30/EC relating to limit values for sulphur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide and nitrogen oxides, particulate matter and lead in ambient air, Directive 2000/69/EC relating to limit values for benzene and carbon monoxide in ambient air, Directive 2002/3/EC relating to ozone in ambient air)
    • GD no. 543/2004 on the elaboration and implementation of the air quality management plans and programmes (Of. J. no. 393/04.05.2004)
    • GD no. 731/2004 to approve the National Strategy on Atmosphere Protection (Of. J. no. 496/02.06.2004)
    • GD no. 738/2004 to approve the National Action Plan on Atmosphere Protection (Of. J. no. 889/09.12.2004)
    • Council Directive 96/62/EC on ambient air quality assessment and management and daughter directives (Council Directive 1999/30/EC relating to limit values for sulphur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide and nitrogen oxides, particulate matter and lead in ambient air, Directive 2000/69/EC relating to limit values for benzene and carbon monoxide in ambient air, Directive 2002/3/EC relating to ozone in ambient air)
    • Specific requirements transposed in the Romanian legislation
    • Transpose d the alert threshold, limit and target values, margin of tolerance, upper and lower assessment threshold;
    • Establish ed and enforce d measures to meet criteria for determining minimum numbers of sampling points for fixed measurement of concentrations; setting up the monitoring stations;
    • Introduced data quality objectives &compilation of results of air quality assessment;
    • Introduce d reference methods for assessment of concentration;
    • Provided access to information for the public.
    • The Council Directive 96/62/EC on ambient air quality assessment and management and daughter directives were ENTIRELY TRANSPOSED in the Romanian legislation
  • Institutional framework for air quality management
  • MINISTRY OF ENVIRONMENT AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL GUARD NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY ICIM 8 REPAs 42 LEPAs Laboratories National Reference Laboratory for Air Quality CECA
  • MESD REPA LEPA I.C.I.M. Bucureşti Co operation/ Coordination / Subordination The central authority for industry The central authority for transport The central authority for health The central authority for public administration NEPA NEG The central authority for agriculture The national institute for statistics
  • NEPA www.anpm.ro www.calitateaer.ro Local public health authority Public at request EMSD REPA LEPA I.C.I.M. Bucureşti Mass-Media Co operation/ Coordination / Subordination / Comuni cation / National Administration on Meteorology Regional/County statistics department NEG NGO Road administration
    • IMPLEMENTATION STATUS of the Council Directive 96/62/EC on ambient air quality assessment and management and daughter directives
  • 1. The National System of Air Quality Assessment and Integrated Management was set up with two parts:
    • The National System of Air Quality Monitoring
    • The National System for Atmospheric Pollutant Emissions Inventory
    All relevant central and local authorities provide appropriate data and information STEPS FOLLOWED
    • 2. The Ce nt re for Air Quality Assessment was set up , CECA – belongs to the National Environmental Protection Agency and it integrate the information from the National Air Quality System and the National Inventory System.
    • RESPONSIBILITIES
    • - to ensure there is consistency in the approach to air quality assessment across the country;
    • to design the air quality network at the local, regional and national level, establishing the design of each monitoring station;
    • to collect the air quality data from the local and regional network;
    • to collaborate with the National Reference Laboratory for Air Quality in order to implement QA/QC procedures of the measurements and for setting up the Standard Operating Procedures for all the instruments;
    • to set up the emission inventory at the national level ;
    • to use computer dispersion models for preliminary air quality assessment (stationary and mobile sources)
    • OBJECTIVES
    • To maintain the quality of ambient air in the zones that comply with the limits set by the legal norms for quality indicators;
    • To improve ambient air quality in the zones that do not comply with the limits set by the legal norms for quality indicators;
    • To adopt the necessary measures to minimise and finally eliminate negative environment and/or transboundary impacts;
    • To fulfil all the obligations assumed by international agreements and treaties to which Romania is a party
    3. The National Strategy on Atmosphere Protection was set up
  • Costs
    • According to Romania’s position paper Chapter 22 Environmental Protection, with regard to EU accession, about 2-2,5% of GDP should be allocated in the period 2000/2020 to expenditures on environmental protection
    • The total cost of achieving the strategy objectives was approximately 1709, 07 Million Euro for the period 2004-2007.
    • The costs on the Air Quality Framework Directive implementation -investments on AQMN and EIS plus maintenance 2004-2006
    • 2005 2006 TOTAL
    • 14,462 9,86 5,9 30,222 ( M il lion Euro )
    • plans and strategies yearly 2.2 ( M il lion Euro )
    • personnel yearly 3.35 ( M il lion Euro )
    The administrative costs for the public administration on the Framework Directive implementation 2007-2013 - 6,62 M il lion Euro yearly value
  • Personal Staff numbers at governmental organizations in the field of environment Organization Staff 2004 Staff 2006 MESD 270 327 NEPA 100 339 REPAs 88 192 LEPAs 1379 2225 National Environment Guard 460 903 National Administration Apele Romane «Romanian Waters» 9456 9549 National Institute for Meteorology, Hydrology and Water 1369 1425 Authority for implementation of the economical –social cohesion funds for environmental infrastructure within MESD 50 100 Administration of Environmental Fund --- 40
  • The required additional staff in the field of air quality until 2006 is specified in the table below EU Directive National staff Regional Staff Local staff Air monitoring and reporting   68 (NEPA 66; MESD 2)   31 53
  • 4. The National Action Plan on Atmosphere Protection was set up
    • Implement the new system of ambient Air Quality Assessment and Integrated Management
    • Establish a comprehensive ambient Air Quality monitoring network throughout Romania
    • Develop a system to set ambient Air Quality as an indicator of Sustainable Development
    • Provide public access to information regarding Air Quality and raise awareness of the main causes of low level of air quality and its effects on human health and environment
    • Prepare and implement local air quality action plans and program where the EU limit values are exceeded
    • Implement the environmental financial program
    • Continue the development of close co-operation with neighboring countries and the international community on atmosphere protection
    • Steering group to provide technical assistance for the national strategy and action plan for atmosphere protection
    • 5. Identifying the agglomerations and zones for air quality management
    • 11 agglomerations for air quality management
    • were identified and assessed : Bucharest ,
    • Ploieşti, Piteşti, Craiova, Braşov, Timişoara,
    • Baia Mare, Cluj-Napoca, Iaşi,
    • Galaţi – Brăila, Constanţa
    • 8 zones for air quality management
    • were identified and assessed:
    • 1 – Region 1 REPA Bacau
    • 2 – Region 2 REPA Galati,
    • 3 – Region 3 REPA Pitesti,
    • 4 – Region 4 REPA Craiova
    • 5 – Region 5 REPA Timisoara
    • 6 – Region 6 REPA Cluj-Napoca
    • 7 – Region 7 REPA Sibiu
    • 8 – Region 8 REPA Bucharest
    • 6. Preliminary assessment of air quality
    • This process was initiated with the assistance of the Danish Environmental Protection Agency, the result of the project was the elaboration of the “Guide on performing the preliminary assessment of air quality” (finalized in 2002). Within this project a preliminary assessment on air quality was done in 2 pilot agglomerations (Bucharest and Ploiesti) and a zone (Bistrita valey, includes part of Bacau and Neamt counties).
    • The next phase of the process consisted in the preliminary assessment on air quality for all 11 agglomerations , study achieved within the technical assistance PHARE project, elaborated by AGRIFOR Company Belgium.
    • At the beginning of 2003 the activity on preliminary assessment on quality air started in the entire Romanian territory.
    • The preliminary assessment on air quality for 8 regions was drawn up by the National Research-Development Institute for Environmental Protection in cooperation with NEPA, the studies was elaborated in three phases:
    • for Region 8 (identified from an administrative point of view with Bucharest agglomeration) the study was done in 2003;
    • for the regions 2, 3, 5, 7 and 8 the study was done in June 2005;
    • for the regions 1, 4 and 6 the study was done in October 2005.
    • 7. Framing the agglomerations and zones of air quality management in lists and the elaboration of these lists
    • framing the zones from the Bucharest agglomeration in lists in conformity with MO no. 745/2002 – the lists were approved by Ministerial Order of the minister of environment and water management no. 1273/14.12.2005;
    • provisional framing of the localities from the regions 1, 4 and 6 in lists according to MO no. 745/2002 – the provisional lists were approved by Ministerial Order of the minister of the environment and water management no. 1294/23.12.2005;
    • provisional framing of the agglomerations except Bucharest and localities from the regions 2, 3, 5 and 7 in lists according to MO no. 745/2002 – were approved by Ministerial Orders of the minister of the environment and water management at the end of 2007 ( 346/2007, 347/2007, 348/2007, 349/2007, 350/2007, 351/2007 şi 352/2007 ) .
  • VL UAT LAT MT Assessment Conformity Compulsory measurement Compulsory measurement plus modeling Exclusive modeling could be used Non-conformity List 1 List 2 List 3.1 List 3.2 List 3.3 cand nu exita MT Lista 2 devine Lista 1
    • 8. Setting up the National Monitoring Network on Air Quality
    • Joint monitoring System on air quality in the localities on the Romanian – Bulgarian border along side Lower Danube – through PHARE CBC 99 project, investment value 1.7 millions Euro
    • Monitoring network on air quality in Bucharest agglomeration – through PHARE 2000 project, investment value 1,8 millions Euro
    • Design of the monitoring networks on air quality for 10 out of the 11 agglomerations was achieved through PHARE 2000 project
    • Air quality monitoring network on three agglomerations Craiova, Cluj-Napoca and Iasi – through PHARE 2002 project, investment value 2,6 millions Euro
    • The endowment of the National Reference Laboratory on Air Quality within NEPA – through PHARE 2002 project. LNRCA was endowed with laboratory equipments for the implementation of the procedure assuring the data quality and quality data control on air quality coming from the National Network on Air Quality. The staff of NRLAQ has been trained in order to use the equipment procured.
    • The main equipments which have been endowed the LNRCA – through PHARE 2002 project – are:
    • Atomic absorption spectrophotometer system, complete-flame and graphite furnace
    • Gas chromatograph (GC) system and accessories (including Tube conditioning unit)
    • Ion chromatograph system, complete, for anions
    • Microbalance for lead in PM10 and PM2,5
    • Enclosure for digestion system
    • National reference calibration system for SO2, NO2, NO, CO, VOC high precision gas mixing system and gas phase titration system
    • Modem system for data transmission between all the stations and LNRCA
    • The endowment of 7 agglomerations and 7 air quality management zones with automatic monitoring station on air quality
      • investment value – 14 million Euro out of which 7 million Euro are loaned from the Council of Europe Development Bank and 7 million Euro are from the state budget;
      • 117 stationary automatic monitoring stations on air quality placed on the entire Romanian territory:
          • - 20 traffic stations; - 47 industrial stations; - 30 urban background stations; - 12 suburban background stations; - 5 regional background stations; - 3 EMEP stations, placed at an average altitude, in the mountain area - Semenic, Fundata, Poiana Stampei – long-range Tranboundary air pollution;
      • 17 LEPAs are endowed with laboratory equipment;
      • 17 mobile air quality monitoring stations
      • in 34 county residencies exterior panels to inform the public are placed;
      • the staff of all LEPAs are trained for using the monitoring stations – 170 persons, 14 weeks in total (for monitoring system), 34 persons, 51 days in total (for laboratory equipment);
      • project deadline – December 2007
  • traffic stations
    • -            evaluate the traffic influence on air quality
    • -           representative of air quality in a surrounding area with a radius of 10-100m;
    • -           should be at least 25m from the edge of major junctions and at least 4 m from the centre of the nearest traffic lane,
    • -           for particulate matter and lead inlets should be sited so as to be representative of air quality near to the building line.
    • -           the pollutants measured are sulphur dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, ozone, organic volatile compounds, and particulate matter (PM10 and PM 2,5)
  • industrial stations - evaluate the industrial activities influence on air quality -representative of air quality in a surrounding area with a radius of 100m-1km; - the pollutants measured are sulphur dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, ozone, organic volatile compounds, and particulate matter (PM10 and PM 2,5) and meteorological parameters (wind direction and speed, pressure, temperature, solar radiation, relative humidity, precipitation)
  • urban background stations -     evaluate the human settlements influence on air quality -   located far away from local emission sources as: traffic, petrol station, etc -      located in ventilated areas where cold be measured concentration levels for pollutants mix -   representative of air quality in a surrounding area with a radius of 1-5 km; areas recommended for that stations are: commercial areas, open spaces from educational, sports or recreational centres, big pedestrian streets the pollutants measured are sulphur dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, ozone, organic volatile compounds, and particulate matter (PM10 and PM 2,5) and meteorological parameters (wind direction and speed, pressure, temperature, solar radiation, relative humidity, precipitation)
  • suburban background stations evaluate the human settlements influence on air quality -      representative of air quality in a surrounding area with a radius of 1-5 km; -       areas recommended for that stations are: to a certain distances from the areas with maximum emissions, in the course of dominant wind associated with ozone forming, on those areas where the population, the crops and the naturals ecosystems located at the external limit of an agglomeration are expose at high concentration of ozon -         the pollutants measured are sulphur dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, ozone, organic volatile compounds, and particulate matter (PM10 and PM 2,5) and meteorological parameters (wind direction and speed, pressure, temperature, solar radiation, relative humidity, precipitation)
  • EMEP stations -           monitoring and assess air pollution in long range Tran boundary context -       located on areas with low population density, far away from traffic, urban areas or local emissions sources -       located on mountain area at medium altitude: Fundata, Semenic si Poiana Stampei; -      representative for an area of about 10 000 square kilometres -        the pollutants measured are sulphur dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, ozone, organic volatile compounds, and particulate matter (PM10 and PM 2,5) and meteorological parameters (wind direction and speed, pressure, temperature, solar radiation, relative humidity, precipitation)
  • Public information
  •  
  • The structure for coordination and operation of the national air quality monitoring network
  • Local operator station operations Laboratory analyse air quality database & public information SO2, NO/NOx, CO, O3, COV, meteo filt er PM10, Pb valida tion r eporting certification Unitatea QA/QC
  • Data Quality Objectives – DQO – are defined on the Directives - precision, accuracy and/or correctness, representiveness, data capture, time coverage Having defined the DQOs it is necessary to establish a QA/QC plan The minimum QA/QC plan - Accuracy and precision - Data capture - Time coverage The complete QA/QC plan the best one – the existence of an accredited laboratory(central) ISO 17025 – both – Calibration laboratory + Test laboratory(s) QA/QC procedures necessary part of any Air Quality monitoring system
  • In situ calibration (on monthly basis) Remote (via PC) calibration (on daily basis) Development of measurement’s and calibration’s protocols QA/QC procedures (measurements)
    • Three stages:
      • 1. On hourly basis during the data transmission from remote stations to central unit
      • 2. On daily basis
      • 3. On monthly basis (based on calibration findings)
    QA/QC procedures (data validation)
  • Future needs – the way forward
    • Accreditation of measuring procedures
    • Better overall co-ordination and administration of air-pollution monitoring system
    • Continuous evaluation of impacts of policies and measures to alleviate air pollution levels, such as great public works (i.e metro, new highways, the “ring” system, etc)
    • Development of tools for the establishment of connection between assessment of air pollution and decision making bodies in national and local scale, (the role of NGO)
  • Spatial distribution of air pollutants emission point sources from Region I V –2006 grila de calcul 232.5 x 212.5 km rezolutia spatiala de 2,5 km MEASUREMENT & MODELLING grila de calcul 20 x 20 km rezolutia spatiala de 0,5 km
  • Spatial distribution of air pollutants emission areal sources from Region I V –2006
  • Spatial distribution of air pollutants emission liniar sources from Region I V –2006
  • SO 2 horary : Modelling Regional & Local / Measure Regiunea IV - SV
  • SO 2 dayly : Modelling Regional & Local / Measure Regiunea IV - SV
  • NO 2 horary : Modelling Regional & Local / Measure Regiunea IV - SV
  • NO 2 anually : Modelling Regional & Local / Measure Regiunea IV - SV
  • PM10 dayly : Modelling Regional & Local / Measure Regiunea IV - SV
    • Extension of the National Air Quality Monitoring Network with 35 new stationary monitoring stations, in 2008
    2006 Added 2007 near future stations 50 from which 23 stations with analyzers f or Daughter Directives components 117 stations with analyzers f or Daughter Directives components 25 stations with analyzers f or Daughter Directives components
  • Development of the Romanian national network for air quality monitoring - 2008
    • TOTAL
    • 25 new air quality monitoring stationary stations
    • 27 new public information panels: 19 internal and 8 external panels
    • Set up stationary stations on the areas not covered by the existing network, in special on the SE region and on the boarder areas;
    • Update and improve the RNNAQM performance through completing the endowments
  • AIR QUALITY MANAGEMENT
  • Group 3: below limit value: annual report to Commission. Good air quality maintained Group 2: between limit value and margin of tolerance: annual report to Commission. Directive comes into force limit value limit value Attainment date: limit value must be met everywhere time Group 1: above margin of tolerance: annual report and plans or programmes to improve air quality sent to Commission. concentration in the agglomeration or zone margin of tolerance
  • Margin of tolerance - MT e.g. Benzene limit value: 5 µg/m³ margin of tolerance EXCEEDANCE!  Plan/Programme! attainment date
  •  
    • Plans and programmes on air quality management
    • Guide on elaborating and putting in practice the plans and programmes on air quality management
    • Elaborate the joint programme on air quality management, on the Romanian-Bulgarian border along side Lower Danube – Phare CBC 2003
    • Elaborate the programmes on air quality management, on Bucharest, Ia ş i, Craiova şi Cluj; these programs will be finalized and approved by the Local Councils till the end of 2008;
    • 1 twinning project at the national level and 2 twinning project al the regional level:
      • „ Implementation and enforcement of environmental acquis and coordination of all 8 regional twinning projects (NEPA);
      • „ Implementation and enforcement of environmental acquis, focused on air quality” (REPA Cluj);
      • „ Implementation and enforcement of environmental acquis, focused on VOCs and noise” (REPA Bucharest).
  • RESULTS
    • Accomplishment of full legal transposition
    • Clearly responsibilities assigned
    • Increase of staff at national, regional and local level
    • Capacity building of environmental authorities
    • Procurement of equipment for monitoring and enforcement
    • Awareness raising and information dissemination
    • Evaluation activities
  • STRENGTHS
    • existence of local environmental laboratories subordinated to the national environmental authority
    • specialised personal at local level
    • administrative capacity for transposing and implementing the AQ EU legislation as well as for external funds absorption
    WEAKNESSES
    • lack of needed resources
    • poor experience in working with the new reference methods for sampling and analyses
    • poor experience on QA/QC procedures implementation
    • difficulties in the planning of the needed action plans and measures for the limitation of expediencies
    OPPORTUNITIES
    • existence of opportunities for accessing technical and financial external support
    • the AQMN was unitary projected and developed
    • the personal was unitary trained
  • Thank you for attention ! www.mmediu.ro www.anpm.ro coordonare@apmms.ro