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Job satisfaction Job satisfaction Presentation Transcript

  • A STUDY ON JOB SATISFACTION OF EMPLOYEES IN MADRAS CEMENTS Pvt. Ltd., a PROJECT REPORT submitted to S.R.M School of Management for partial fulfillment for the award of the degree of MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINSTRATION By C.Kalaiselvi (Reg no: 35104135) S.R.M School of Management, S.R.M Nagar, Kattankulathur, Kancheepuram District. May-2006
  • S.R.M SCHOOL OF MANAGEMENT S.R.M INSTITUTE OF SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY (Deemed University) S.R.M Nagar, Kattankulathur, Kancheepuram District – 603203. Tamilnadu. Phone: 044-27451317, 27453901, 27453804, 27453377, 27452270. E-mail: srmec@vsnl.com Internet: www.srmec.ac.in Dr.Jayashree Suresh Date: Professor & HOD BONAFIDE CERTIFICATE Certified that this project report titled “EMPLOYEE JOB SATISFACTION IN MADRAS CEMENTS” is the bonafide work of C.KALAI SELVI who carried out the project under my supervision. Certified further, that to the best of my knowledge the work reported here in does not form part of any other project or dissertation on the basis of which a degree or award was confirmed on an earlier occasion on this or any other candidate. Signature of the Guide Signature of HOD Professor Dr.Velu Dr. Jayashree Suresh External In-charge
  • ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I express my profound gratitude to Dr.Velu Ph.D., Professor of Department of Management Studies for his expert guidance in this project. And my sincere thanks to Dr. Jayashree Suresh, B.A, M.B.A, PH.D, Dean, the H.O.D of SRM School of Management Studies who has also enabled me to carry out my project. I wish to express my sincere thanks to Mr. Varadharajan (D.G.M – Management system), Mr. Hudson for their help and co-operation during the course of the project. I also thank the entire staff members, for their valuable suggestions towards the completion of this project. Last but not least I thank my parents for their encouragement and support. PLACE : SIGNATURE DATE :
  • DECLARATION I hereby declare that the project has been prepared by me during the period 1st Feb 2006 to 29th Apr 2006 under the guidance of Dr.Velu Ph.D., Professor of Department of Management Studies. I also declare that this project has not been submitted at anytime to any other university or institute for the award of any degree or diploma. PLACE : SIGNATURE DATE :
  • TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter No. Description Page No. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. INTRODUCTION 1.1 Meaning 1.2 Concepts of Job Satisfaction 1.3 Process of Job Satisfaction 1.4 Need for the study 1.5 Scope of the study 1.6 Objectives of the study REVIEW OF LITERATURE 2.1 Theories of job satisfaction 2.2 The effect of job satisfaction on employee performance 2.3 Components of job satisfaction COMPANY PROFILE RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 4.1 Research design 4.2 Data collection method 1 1 1 4 4 5 6 7 7 8 10 14 19 19 20 21
  • 6. 7. 8. DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION SUMMARY OF FINDINGS AND SUGGESTIONS CONCLUSION APPENDICES I. BIBLIOGRAPHY II. QUESTIONNAIRE 50 52 53 53 54
  • LIST OF TABLES Serial No. Title Of Table Page No. 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.8 5.9 5.10 5.11 5.12 Distribution of respondents based on Age wise distribution Distribution of respondents based on the year of service Distribution of respondents based on the Educational qualification Distribution of respondents based on Working condition Distribution of respondents based on the Relationship between Management and union Distribution of respondents based on the Relationship between Management and Employee Distribution of respondents based on the type of Training Distribution of respondents based on the Level of satisfaction Distribution of respondents based on the Job security Distribution of respondents based on the Promotion policy Distribution of respondents based on the Grievance handled Distribution of respondents based on the One time payment Distribution of respondents based on the Job provides enough freedom 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32
  • 5.13 5.14 5.15 5.16 5.17 5.18 5.19 5.20 Distribution of respondents based on the Pay system Distribution of respondents based on the Social interaction Distribution of respondents based on the Welfare measures Distribution of respondents based on the Safety measures Distribution of respondents based on the Motivation level Distribution of respondents based on the Training and Development Distribution of respondents based on the Satisfactory level 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 CHAPTER-I JOB SATISFACTION OF THE EMPLOYEES IN MADRAS CEMENTS Ltd. (MCL) 1. INTRODUCTION Job satisfaction one of the most crucial but controversial issues in industrial psychology and behavioral management in organization. It ultimately decides the extent of employee motivation through the development of organizational climate of environment.
  • 1.1 MEANING The term “Job Satisfaction” refers to an employee’s general attitude towards his job. Locke defines job satisfaction as a “Pleasurable or positive emotional state resulting from the appraisal of one’s job or job experiences.” To the extent that a person’s job fulfils his dominant need and is consistent with his expectations and values, the job will be satisfying. 1.2 CONCEPTS OF JOB SATISFACTION There are so many definitions regarding job satisfaction. It is also a fact that job satisfaction is nothing but the favourable attitude or high industrial morale. But “job satisfaction” is an elaborate composite concept including individual’s mental disposition, interpersonal relations that exists in the industry.” It may be defined as “The satisfaction where in one derives from doing his which is the composite product of favorable attitude, high level morale and the positive job related and even social factors.” Job satisfaction is an important factor in industrial environment. The satisfied workers produce more; the industrial climate is relatively smooth and conductive. The satisfied workers are creative and innovative. The factors that contribute to the positive morale and attitude also result in higher degree of job satisfaction. The important factors contribute to the higher level of job satisfaction. Challenging and responsible job. Numerous promotional opportunities. Impartial treatment by the management. Creativity and innovative ideas of job security. Attractive salary and perks. Freedom in work situation. Participative management. Welfare facilities like medical, uniform, canteen etc; Spontaneous “TOP TO BOTTOM” and “BOTTOM TO TOP” Communication pattern. The job satisfaction depends upon the individual mind. A source, which provides satisfaction to some employees, may not give satisfaction to others. But in general the above-mentioned factors are having correlation with the job satisfaction. Job satisfaction can be measured through,
  • 1. Interviews Closed interviews Open ended interviews 2. Discussions, seminars 3. Surveys with proper questionnaires 4. Data collection through self appraisal 5. Expert approach 6. Industrial Spy etc; Whenever the survey and research are conducted on job satisfaction area, appropriate steps are to be taken to reinforce the existing job satisfaction in certain areas. In such cases immediate corrective measures are to be introduced after implementation of such measures for further reforms and modifications. In absence of introduction of appropriate corrective measures the dissatisfied workers contribute to: High labour turn over Indiscipline Low quality and quantity of production Industrial conflicts and violence like strikes, lockouts etc; Break down of communication system Disrespect of superiors No scope for good interpersonal and industrial relations So all the precautionary measures and care to be taken in case the study shows negative results. 1.3 PROCESS OF JOB SATISFACTION Every human being has his own needs and desires of them, some are conscious and some are unconscious. These needs become strong in the individual and create
  • tension, which stimulate a behavior towards fulfilling those needs. But all needs never completely of permanently satisfied entertains extraordinary high hope and needs which are beyond his capacity to fulfill. 1.4 NEED FOR THE STUDY The doctrine of modern management laid its emphasis on effective human resource management. The modern school of management lay its stress on the need for human resource management and human resource development as it is the fulcrum of management. Hence the choice of the topic job satisfaction in HRD of Madras Cements Pvt Ltd. as my project work. Job satisfaction is in a way of feeling of fulfillment that one gets on performing or doing one’s job. Some of the factors, which influence job satisfaction, are like. Specific work environment. Specific individual targets. Capacity of an individual. Targets or other types of yardstick to measure one’s performance. Compensation package. This also has relevant to the cultural economical, ecological environment. It won’t be extravagant to state that a sound and successful management is the result of job satisfaction of the cross section of its employees. Eventually management policy should be in consonance with deriving maximum job satisfaction. 1.5 SCOPE OF THE STUDY This project aims on eliciting the job satisfaction of the employees of Madras Cement Ltd. for this purpose a unit was chosen by the company and the study was confined in that unit of Madras Cement Ltd (Chennai). In these unit 80 employees has been chosen randomly by random sampling method.
  • The data have been collected through questionnaire and analysed by constructing tables and diagrams. The questionnaire was carefully prepared to evaluate the skills, communication level and rewards gained by the employee, which would lead them to get complete job satisfaction. 1.6 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY The main objective is to analyse whether the employees are satisfied with their job in Madras cement Ltd. To find out the employee’s level of satisfaction association with nature of job and working atmosphere. To study management-employee relationship. To assess the level of satisfaction of the employee on what type of training undergone in the company. To analyse the employee’s grievance in the organization. To study about the motivation level in Madras Cement Ltd. CHAPTER-2 2.1 REVIEW OF LITERATURE Different authors have defined job satisfaction differently. Job satisfaction is nothing but the individual’s general attitude towards his or her job. The person with the high level of job satisfaction holds positive attitude towards the job, while a person who is dissatisfied with his or her job holds only negative attitude about the job. According to Dr.P.C.TRIPATHI the term “job satisfaction refers to an employee’s general attitude towards his job.” The job will be satisfactory if the individual’s job fulfills his dominant need and if it is consistency with his expectations.
  • According to KEITH DAVIS, “job satisfaction expresses the attitude towards one’s job, the difference between the amount of rewards workers receive and the amount that they believed that should receive.” Thus job satisfaction represents an attitude rather than behaviour. It is related to human needs and their fulfillment throughout the work. In fact, job satisfaction is generated by individual’s perception of how well his job satisfies his basic needs on the whole. The m need for satisfaction is it brings high productivity. Turnover and interest towards the job .For the person to be productive, he should be satisfied with his work. Thus, job satisfaction is a very important motivating factor for all the organizations. 2.2 THEORIES OF JOB SATISFACTION MASLOWS’ THEORY According to this theory, there is hierarchy of five needs they are. 1. PHYSIOLOGICAL: Includes security and Protection from physical and emotional needs. 2. SAFETY: Includes security and Protection from physical and emotional harm. 3. SOCIAL: Includes affection, belongingness, acceptance and friendship. 4. ESTEEM: Includes internal esteem factors such as self-respect autonomy and achievement and external factors such as status, recognition and attention. 5. SELF-ACTUALISATION: The drive to become hat one is capable of becoming includes growth, achieving one’s potential and self-fulfillment. HERZBERG’S TWO FACTOR THEORY In 1950, Herzberg conducted a study with 200 engineers and accountants employed in a firm. He asked people to describe, in detail, situations in which they felt exceptionally good or bad about their jobs. This response were then tabulated and categorized. From the categorized responses, Herzberg concluded a theory.
  • In this theory, Herzberg divides the factor contributing to job satisfaction in to two sets, one called intrinsic factors and other called as extrinsic factor. Intrinsic factors are related to job satisfaction, while extrinsic factors are associated with job dissatisfaction. Intrinsic factors such as the work itself, responsibility and the achievement, seem to be related to job satisfaction. Extrinsic factors such as supervision, pay, company policies and working conditions, seem to be related to job dissatisfaction. According to Herzberg, the factors leading to job satisfactions are separate and distinct from those that lead to job dissatisfaction. As a result, conditions surrounding the job such as quality of supervision, pay, company policies, physical working condition, relationship with others and job security were characterized by Herzberg as “Hygiene Factors”. When these factors are adequate, people will not be dissatisfied. Those factors, which are contributing to job satisfaction, are also called as “Motivation Factors”. Finally, Herzberg suggested that the opposite of “Satisfaction” is “No satisfaction”, and opposite of “Dissatisfaction” is “ No dissatisfaction”. 2.3 THE EFFECT OF JOB SATISFACTION ON EMPLOYEE PERFORMANCE The following are the effect of job satisfaction on employee performance. They are • High Productivity • Turn Over • Less Absenteeism SATISFACTION AND PRODUCTIVITY: Historically, the concept of human relations assumed that high job satisfaction leads to high productivity but later research indicated that it was an incorrect perception. The question that has been often raised is whether job satisfactions leads to performance or performance leads to job’ satisfaction. CORNELL in his studies said, ”A satisfied worker is a productive worker”. Out of this study, he concludes that if the needs of the worker like pay, promotion etc, are satisfied in the above said job, he will be a productive worker. He will be motivated to work out of his needs are satisfies and production would be increased. Lawrence and Porter have developed a model suggesting that “Productivity leads to job satisfaction”. SATISFACTION AND ABSENTEEISM AND TURNOVER:
  • The study conducted by C.Rost and Alwin F.Aander explains that satisfied worker will stay in the same job for a long time. The worker will satisfied when his heed are satisfied. Satisfying the needs of the worker can reduce the labour turnover and absenteeism . 2.4 COMPONENTS OF JOB SATISFACTION According to Abraham A. Korhan, there are two types of variables that determine the job satisfaction of an individual. They are: Organizational Variables Personal Variables The individual variables are occupational level, job contents, considerate leadership, pay, promotional opportunities, and interaction and work group. The personal variables are age, educational level, sex, and family size and service with the company. The following are some of the job factor that is taken into consideration in developing job satisfaction job satisfaction scales. There are three types of job factors which includes: Personal factors Factors inherent in the job Factors controllable by management PERSONAL FACTORS • AGE: There is some evidence indicating increases job satisfaction with increased employees age. From the consensus of Indian studies, job satisfaction tends to increase with age but in some job, the trend may be different. This relationship has been attributed to a combination of factors including the termination of employment by dissatisfied older personnel and a kind of conservation are resignation with advancing age to the realities of life and job. • EDUCATION: There is a great deal of conflicting evidence on the relationship between education and job satisfaction. One study indicated that those who had not completed high school were more satisfied. But the education and intelligence is connected with age in giving satisfaction to workers. Indian studies have generally shown that there is only less job satisfaction for a more educated worker.
  • FACTORS INHERENT IN THE JOB: • TYPE OF WORK: The type of work is most important factor inherent in the job. Some studies have shown that people will be more satisfied with the job involving changes than involving routine monotonous work. Although the type of work must be consider as a important determinant of job satisfaction, in Indian organization. • SKILL: Skill is one or the major determinants of job satisfaction. As a determinant it cannot be operated alone. It can be operated together with the kind of work, occupational status, responsible, personal characteristics, and opportunities to use the skill. • OCCUPATIONAL STATUS: Occupational status is usually found to arrange themselves in hierarchy according to their relative status, prestige or values to the particular society. Occupational status and job satisfaction are related together but not identical with each other. • SIZE OF THE PLANT: Size of the organization does not independently affect the employees. It affects there along with the management practices and various other factors. Thus, a small organization cannot attain effectiveness by being small one. FACTORS CONTROLLABLE BY MANAGEMENT: • SECURITY: Security can be provided by the organization to the employee. It is the steadiness of the employment. It is positive when the employee feels that he has reasonable chances of working under the condition of company stability. Security on job gives him opportunity to feel that he has satisfaction over his job. • PRODUCTION INCENTIVES: Incentive is to increase production and to serve the economic needs of the employees. To get the incentives, the employee must be skilled person. Higher the productive skills, higher the incentives. Simply saying, an incentive is a difference between the extra efforts they put in and extra benefit they get it. • WORK ENVIORNMENT: The condition under which a person works is consider as the working conditions. For an employee, the working condition must be safe and secure and pleasant. • SALARY: Salary is defined as the wages given to the employees for their work. It is common to all the people in the organization. People expect the salary for their work. Salary plays in important role in job satisfaction.
  • • PERSONNEL POLICY: Personnel policies refer to what the management wants to accomplish in a management or personnel. A policy is predetermined and accepted course of thought and action that is define and establish as a guide towards accepted goals and objectives. • COMMUNICATION: Communication is defined as the “the Transference and understanding of meaning”. It is tool to express the ideas, opinion, messages etc. It acts as a bridge between the communicator and listener. The communication will be effective and perfect only if the listener understood the message communicated by the speaker exactly. By using this bridge a person can safely cross the river of misunderstanding that separate the peoples. • GRIEVANCE PRODCEDURE: According to Prof.R.P.Calhoon, “A grievance is defined as any thing that an employee thinks or feels is wrong generally accompanied by a actively disturbing feeling. It does not have to be justified’. Prof.M.J.Jucius defines that” a grievance can be a discontent or dissatisfaction, whether expressed or not, whether valid or not arising out of any thing connected with the company that an employee thinks, beliefs or even feels as unfair, unjust or in equalitable. Grievance can be caused due to difference of opinion, status of union, working condition, doubts and fears etc., grievance procedure is the formal method of dealing with grievance. There are two types of grievance procedure viz, open door type and stepladder type. In an open door policy the management asserts that no employee is prevented from going to it directly with his grievance, and even meet the head of the concern in an effort to have his grievance properly attended to. Open door policy may be useful in the case of small units.
  • CHAPTER-3 3.1 COMPANY PROFILE ABOUT CEMENT INDUSTRY: Cement, the most predominant construction material in usage all over the bridges and skyscrapers owe their existence to cement. “Construction and Cement” have become synonymous. “Cement” is genetic term used for all powdered material which, when mixed with water has a plastic form, but becomes a solid structure within a few hours, the structure gaining strength building and bonding properties with age. Cement is an ancient building material. Lime and volcanic ash formed “cement” in the construction of classic Roman and Greek structures. Burnt gypsum was the “cement” used for the pyramids for Egypt. Evidence exists of it’s the Indus Civilization of Mohenjodaro Credit for the invention of “cement” goes to an English-man by the name of Joseph Aspadin of England in 1984, Aspadin manufactured cement in a rudimentary form by burning mixture of limestone and clay. It was termed “Portland Cement” as it resembled the “Portland Stone”, a popular limestone used for building in England. Another quarter of a century passed before yet another English man Issac Charles Johnson produced a slightly better quality of cement in 1850. In 1857, an American named David Saylor improved the mix design of limestone and clay resulting in a much more superior quality of cement. He also called his cement by the same name, viz. “Portland Cement.” It was only in 1900 that further impetus was given for development of the cement industry mainly because of two factors. Firstly it had become feasible, through research work done by two French chemists, to procedure Portland cement of such a uniform quality that if could win the common faith of the building industry. Secondly, two very important mechanical inventions were made around the turn of the century. One consisted of the use of a Rotary kiln for making clinker and the other was the use of a tube mill for the grinding of cement. These two machines made it possible of manufacture Portland cement in large quantities of consistent quality and of high strength. Over the year, numerous developments took place in technology, equipment, transportation, etc., in the cement field, directed towards reducing cost of cement enabling it to be competitive not only in the national market but also in the international area. The wet kilns slowly began yielding their place to dry kilns, reducing fuel cost to 70 percent. Improvement in thermal efficiency was obtained by installation of preceptors
  • and further efficiency was achieved with the use of precalcinatory. Finally computerization and quality control of raw material resulted in optimal usage of fuel and power. ORIGIN OF THE INDUSTRY IN INDIA In India Portland the South India Industrial Ltd first manufactured cement in 1904 near Madras. In a 30 tones per day plant, However, this venture failed. In October 1914 another enterprise. Indian Cement co. Ltd. Commissional 100 tones per day rotary kiln at Porbandar (Gujarat). The next couple of years saw the emergence of two new factories when plants at Katni (MadhyaPradesh) and Lakher (Rajasthan) were commissioned. The First World War gave a fidllip to the cement industry and by 1918; the three factories together were able to procedure about 85,000 tones per year. Starting with less than a 1000 tones annum in (1914), cement production is expected to reach capacity of over 60.00 million tones per annum by the end of the Seventh Five Year Plan (1989-90). During these 80 years, the cement industry has passed through various phases of acute foreign and indigenous completion; stagnation of capacity, low productivity, and low profitability was also prolonged years of price controls. Consequently the growth has neither been uniform over the years, nor has the capacity utilization been consistently high. STATUS OF INDIAN CEMENT INDUSTRY TODAY SUMMARIZED BELOW THE RAMCO GROUP: Ram co Group is one of the South India’s Strongest and most respected industrial group. It has nine companies and 16 Business Units under its fold. The group has well diversified business interest like cement, cotton yarn, fiber cement products, software systems, surgical dressings etc., Shri PAC Ramasamy Raja of Rajapalaiyam founded the Ram co Group. “Rajapalaiyam Mills” is the first company of the group Shri P.R.Ramasubramaneya Rajha is the present Chairman of the Group. In 2002-2003, the group turn over is about Rs.1400 Crores. In addition to Industrial activities, the Ram co Group is also well known for its charity activities. A fiercely competitive global market space, Ram co group is creating new markets, challenging the status quo. Ram co group feels proud to say ‘‘we are delivering quality to our highly discerning customers worldwide. Regardless of time Zones”. With a total turnover of Rs.4, 000 million, assets worth Rs.2, 500 million and personnel numbering over 6,000 the group is looking towards the future from position of strength. The Ram co Group was founded by Shri PAC Ramasamy raja of Rajapalayam.”Rajapalayam Mills” is the first company of the group. Shri P.R.Ramasubramaneya Rajha is the present Chairman of the Group.
  • The former President of India, R.Venkataraman says, “For PACR, business was intended more as a service to the community by providing much needed to many. Money to him was secondary. An indication of his dedication to his work and his people”. For Ramasamy Raja religion and Charity were part and parcel of his life. He realized that it was only education that could crase poverty and the pitiable condition of the people. So he formed a trust and started various schools. Colleges and polytechnics, which today educate over 7000 students. He also started hospitals for the benefit of the people. GROUP OF COMPANIES AT A GLANCE Rajapalaiyam mills ltd and its divisions Rajapalaiyam (SpintextDivision) Rajapalaiyam Textiles Shri Ram co Biotech Madras Cements Ltd Ram co Industries Ltd that includes Ram co Lanka (Private) Ltd (Subsidiary) Sri Ram co spinners (Division) Ram co Systems Ltd Sandhya spinning Mill Ltd. MADRAS CEMENTS LTD Madras Cements Ltd. Is the flagship company of the Ram co GroupTechnoligical excellence, Commitment to Quality and the inherent faith in the infinite potential of Human resources are the three corner stones of the success of the company. As a financially and fundamentally strong corporate entity, Madras Cements ltd is built on an asset base of rS.1445 Crores and its not Worth stands at Rs.270 Crores. It has a consistent dividend paying record and has won national level awards for its financial performance from such renowned groups such as Economic Times, Dalal Street Journal etc., the present turn over of Madras Cements Ltd is about Rs.800 crores per annum and poised for high growth in years to come.
  • The most modern manufacturing facilities are located at R.R.Nagar and Alathiyur in T.N. Jayanthipuram in A.P and Mathod in Karnataka. The four plants together are capable of producing 60 lakh tons of cement per annum. The cement plants of the MCL employ the state of the art technologies such as vertical mills for cement grinding, surface miners, X-ray Analysers, fuzzy logic, bag filters etc, the company is a pioneer and trend-setter and can boast of many firsts in the industry – such as setting trend for larger capacity kilns in the south, to change of dry process, to implement pre-calcinations technology in-house, to install ESP for pollution control to use surface miners etc. Madras cements have proved its engineering abilities when it has set up its 15 MTA second line at Alathiyur in a record time of just nine months. The Alathiyur Plant has world-class features. He kiln is fitted with crossbar cooler, which is the first outside the USA. The vertical cement grinding will is the biggest of its class in whole of’ Asia. The plant is designed for the lowest power consumption and emissions. The cost of production is the lowest for the total industry. Madras Cements Ltd manufactures both OPC and blended cement varieties, which are sold under the brand name “Ram co”. It is leader and the pioneer in the Blended Cement segment more than 905 of cement produced by the company is the Blended cement variety. The cement is sold through a network of about 4000 cement dealers all throughout the South Asia, which is the largest for any cement company in the country. Also, Ram co is the single largest cement brand is south. It is known for its customer service, ethics and values that are the foundations of MCL’s marketing. Being an eco-friendly company, MCL setup the Ram co Winfarm in 1993 at Muppandal in Tirunelveli district of Tamil Nadu. This was followed by another wind farm was setup in Poolavadi near Coimbatore in 1995.The combined capacity of these two put together is about 35 MW which makes Ram co Winfarm as one of the largest private sector wind farm in South Asia. In the year 1999,MCL commissioned the most sophisticated Ready mix Concrete Plant in Medavakkam in South Chennai and a second RMc plant Vichur in north Chennai. CHAPTER-4 4. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Research in common parlance refer to a search for knowledge, one can also define research as a scientific and systematic search for pertinent information on a scientific topic.
  • According to clifford woody research “ comprises defining and redefining problems, formulating hypothesis or suggested solutions, collecting, organizing and evaluation data, marking deductions and reaching and conclusions, and at last carefully testing the conclusions of determine whether they fit the formulating hypothesis”. 4.1 RESEARCH DESIGN For this research study a descriptive research design was used the factors that are affecting the employees in work environment is studies and the findings were described in detail. The statisticals tools like Chi-square test were applied for data analysis. TYPES OF SAMPLING NON-RANDOM SAMPLING Non-probability sampling is that sampling procedure which does not afford any basis for estimating the probability that each item in the population has of being included in the sample. Non-probability sampling is also known by different names such as deliberate sampling, purposive sampling and judgement sampling. JUDGEMENT SAMPLING In judgement sampling the researcher’s judgement is used for selecting items, which he considers as representative of the population. The researcher has used judgement-sampling method for selecting 80 respondents from Madras Cement Ltd., Chennai judgement sampling is used quite frequently in qualitative research where the desire happens to be, to develop hypothesis rather than to generalize to large population. 4.2 DATA COLLECTION METHOD QUESTIONNAIRE METHOD The researcher used a questionnaire, which was self-developed so as to measure the job satisfaction of the employees in the organization. Questionnaire to be used must be prepared very carefully so that it may prove to be effective in collecting the relevant information.
  • SCALING TECHNIQUE The questionnaire measures four dimensions of the job satisfaction with the help at itemized, graphic rating scale techniques. The graphic rating scale is quite simple and is commonly used in practice. Under it the various points are usually put along the line to form a continuum and rather indicates this rating by simple marking a mark. STATISTICAL TOOLS USED The data collected were carefully analysed & interpreted statistical technology- chi-square test is applied to draw meaningful references. A chi-square distribution method is used for judging the significant different between observed and expected frequencies. As a non-parametric test, it can be used to determine if categorical data shows dependency or the two classifications are independent. CHAPTER-5 5. DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION TABLE-5.1: Classification based on Age wise distribution S.no Age (Year) No. Of Respondents (No) Percentage (%) 1. 20-30 10 12.5 2. 30-40 48 60 3. 40-50 14 17.5 4. 50 and above 8 10 Total 80 100 Source: Field survey-2006
  • The above table shows that 12.5% of the respondents were in the age group 20-30 and the majority of the respondents (around 48%) were in the age group 30-40 year of the age remaining of 27.5% of the respondents were in the age group of 40-50 and 50 and above. TABLE-5.2: Classification based on Year of Service S.no Year of Service No. Of Respondents (No) Percentage (%) 1. Less than 5 22 27.5 2. 5-10 18 22.5 3. 10-15 17 21.25 4. 15-20 13 16.25 5. 20 and above 10 12.5 Total 80 100 Source: Field survey-2006 The above table shows that 27.5% of the respondents were in the year of service less than 5, 22.5% of the respondents were in the year of service 5-10, 21.5% of the respondents were in the year of service 10-15, 16.25 of the respondents were in the year of service 15-20. Remaining 12.5% of the respondents were in the year of service 20 and above.
  • TABLE-5.3: Classification based on Educational qualification S.no Particular No. Of Respondents (No) Percentage (%) 1. Diploma 16 20 2. Graduate 17 21.25 3. Post-Graduate 13 16.25 4. Profession 22 27.5 5. Others 12 15 Total 80 100 Source: Field survey-2006 The above table shows that 20% of the respondents were in the educational qualification of Diploma. 21.25% of the respondents were in the educational qualification of Graduate 16.25% of the respondents were in the educational qualification of Post graduate, 27.5% of the respondents were in the educational qualification of Professional. Remaining 15% of the respondents were in the educational qualification of others.
  • TABLE-5.4: Classification based on working condition S.no Particular No. Of Respondents (No) Percentage (%) 1. Highly satisfied 21 26.25 2. Satisfied 31 38.75 3. Average 14 17.5 4. Dis-satisfied 9 11.25 5. Highly dissatisfied 5 6.25 Total 80 100 Source: Field survey-2006 The above table shows that 26.25% of the respondents were in the working conditions were highly satisfied. 38.5% of the respondents were in the working conditions were satisfied.17.5% of the respondents were in the working conditions were average. 11.25% of the respondents were in the working conditions were dissatisfied. Remaining 6.25% of the respondents were in the working conditions were highly satisfied.
  • TABLE-5.5: Classification based on Relationship between Management and Union S.no Particular No. Of Respondents (No) Percentage (%) 1. Highly cordial 21 26.25 2. Cordial 28 35 3. Low 12 15 4. Not-cordial 7 8.75 5. Better cordial 12 15 Total 80 100 Source: Field survey-2006 The above table shows that 26.25% of the respondents were in the relationship between management and union are highly cordial. 35% of the respondents were in the relationship between management and union of cordial. 15% of the respondents were in the relationship between management and unions are low. 8.75% of the respondents were in the relationship between management and unions are not cordial. Remaining 15% of the respondents were in the relationship between management and unions are better cordial.
  • TABLE-5.6: Classification based on Relationship between Management and Employee S.no Particular No. Of Respondents (No) Percentage (%) 1. Highly cordial 17 21.25 2. Cordial 31 38.75 3. Low 11 13.75 4. Not-cordial 11 13.75 5. Better cordial 10 12.5 Total 80 100 Source: Field survey-2006 The above table shows that 21.25% of the respondents were in the relationship between management and employees are highly cordial. 38.75% of the respondents were in the relationship between management and employees of cordial. 13.75% are both respondents in the relationship between management and employees are low and not cordial. Remaining 12.5% of the respondents were in the relationship between management and employees are better cordial. TABLE-5.7: Classification based on Types of training undergone by the employee when joining the company
  • S.no Particular No. Of Respondents (No) Percentage (%) 1. Technical 14 17.5 2. Soft-skill 23 28.75 3. On-job 21 26.25 4. Management 14 17.5 5. Others 8 10 Total 80 100 Source: Field survey-2006 The above table shows that 17.5% of the respondents were in the types of training undergone by the employee in technical. 28.75% of the respondents were in the types of training in soft skill. 26.25% of the respondents were in the types of training of on-job. 17.5% of the respondents were in the types of training in management. Remaining 10% of the respondents were in the types of training of others. TABLE-5.8: Classification based on Level of satisfaction
  • S.no Particular No. Of Respondents (No) Percentage (%) 1. Highly satisfied 23 28.75 2. Satisfied 36 45 3. Average 11 13.75 4. Dis-satisfied 5 6.25 5. Highly dissatisfied 5 6.25 Total 80 100 Source: Field survey-2006 The above table shows that 17.5% of the respondents were in the level of satisfaction of highly satisfied.45% of the respondents were in the level of satisfaction of satisfied. 13.5% of the respondents were in the level of satisfaction of average. 6.25% of the respondents were in the level of satisfaction of dissatisfied. Remaining 6.25% of the respondents were in the level of satisfaction of highly dissatisfied. TABLE-5.9: Classification based on Job security
  • S.no Particular No. Of Respondents (No) Percentage (%) 1. Highly satisfied 9 11.25 2. Satisfied 21 26.25 3. Average 17 21.25 4. Dis-satisfied 20 25 5. Highly dissatisfied 13 16.25 Total 80 100 Source: Field survey-2006 The above table shows that 17.5% of the respondents were in the job security of highly satisfied. 26.25% of the respondents were in the job security of satisfied. 21.25% of the respondents were in the job security of average. 25% of the respondents were in the job security of dissatisfied. Remaining of the respondents was in the job security of highly dissatisfied. TABLE-5.10: Classification based on Promotion policy S.no Particular No. Of Respondents (No) Percentage (%) 1. Highly satisfied 11 13.75
  • 2. Satisfied 24 30 3. Average 20 25 4. Dis-satisfied 15 18.75 5. Highly dissatisfied 10 12.5 Total 80 100 Source: Field survey-2006 The above table shows that 13.75% of the respondents were in promotion policy of highly satisfied. 30% of the respondents were in promotion policy of satisfied. 25% of the respondents were in promotion policy of average. 18.75% of the respondents were in promotion policy of dissatisfied. Remaining 12.5 of the respondents were in promotion policy of highly dissatisfied. TABLE-5.11: Classification based on Grievance S.no Particular No. Of Respondents (No) Percentage (%) 1. Highly satisfied 12 15 2. Satisfied 21 26.25 3. Average 24 30
  • 4. Dis-satisfied 15 18.75 5. Highly dissatisfied 8 10 Total 80 100 Source: Field survey-2006 The above table shows that 15% of the respondents were in Grievance handled of highly satisfied. 26.25% of the respondents were in Grievance handled of satisfied. 30% of the respondents were in Grievance handled of average. 18.75% of the respondents were in Grievance handled of dissatisfied. Remaining 10% of the respondents were in Grievance handled of highly dissatisfied. TABLE-5.12: Classification based on one time payment S.no Particular No. Of Respondents (No) Percentage (%) 1. Highly satisfied 23 28.75 2. Satisfied 32 40 3. Average 15 18.75 4. Dis-satisfied 5 6.25 5. Highly dissatisfied 5 6.25 Total 80 100 Source: Field survey-2006 The above table shows that 28.75% of the respondents were in the one time payment of highly satisfied.40% of the respondents were in the one time payment of
  • satisfied.18.75% of the respondents were in the one time payment of average. Remaining both of 6.25% of the respondents was in the one time payment of dissatisfied and highly dissatisfied. TABLE-5.13: Classification based on Job provides enough freedom S.no Particular No. Of Respondents (No) Percentage (%) 1. Highly satisfied 25 31.25 2. Satisfied 22 27.5 3. Average 15 18.75 4. Dis-satisfied 12 15 5. Highly dissatisfied 6 7.5 Total 80 100 Source: Field survey-2006 The above table show that 13.25% of the respondents were in the job provides enough freedom to discharge your responsibility of highly satisfied. 27.5% of the respondents were in the satisfied. 18.75% of the respondents were in the job provides enough freedom of highly average. 15% of the respondents were in the dissatisfied. Remaining 7.5% of the respondents were in the job provides enough freedom of highly dissatisfied.
  • TABLE-5.14: Classification based on Pay system S.no Particular No. Of Respondents (No) Percentage (%) 1. Highly satisfied 24 30 2. Satisfied 26 32.5 3. Average 12 15 4. Dis-satisfied 9 11.25 5. Highly dissatisfied 9 11.25 Total 80 100 Source: Field survey-2006 The above table shows that 30% of the respondents were in the pay system of highly satisfied. 32.5% of the respondents were in the pay system of satisfied. 15% of the respondents were in the pay system of average. Remaining 11.25% of the respondents were in the pay system of both dissatisfied highly dissatisfied.
  • TABLE-5.15: Classification based on social Interaction S.no Particular No. Of Respondents (No) Percentage (%) 1. Highly satisfied 22 27.5 2. Satisfied 24 30 3. Average 15 18.75 4. Dis-satisfied 11 13.75 5. Highly dissatisfied 8 10 Total 80 100 Source: Field survey-2006 The above table shows that 27.5% of the respondents were in the social interaction of highly satisfied. 30% of the respondents were in the social interaction of satisfied. 18.75% of the respondents were in the social interaction of average. 13.75% of the respondents were in the social interaction of dissatisfied. Remaining 10% of the respondents were in the social interaction of highly dissatisfied. TABLE-5.16: Classification based on Welfare measure
  • S.no Particular No. Of Respondents (No) Percentage (%) 1. Highly satisfied 24 30 2. Satisfied 20 25 3. Average 15 18.75 4. Dis-satisfied 12 15 5. Highly dissatisfied 9 11.25 Total 80 100 Source: Field survey-2006 The above table shows that 30% of the respondents were in the welfare measures of highly satisfied. 25% of the respondents were in the welfare measures of satisfied. 18.75% of the respondents were in the welfare measures of average. 15% of the respondents were in the welfare measures of dissatisfied. Remaining 11.25% of the respondents were in the welfare measures of highly dissatisfied TABLE-5.17: Classification based on Safety measures
  • S.no Particular No. Of Respondents (No) Percentage (%) 1. Highly satisfied 17 21.25 2. Satisfied 29 36.25 3. Average 13 16.25 4. Dis-satisfied 13 16.25 5. Highly dissatisfied 8 10 Total 80 100 Source: Field survey-2006 The above table shows that 21.25% of the respondents were in the safety measures of highly satisfied. 36.25% of the respondents were in the safety measures of satisfied. 16.25% of the respondents were in the safety measures of average. Remaining 10% of the respondents were in the safety measures of highly dissatisfied. TABLE-5.18: Classification based on Motivation level in the organization
  • S.no Particular No. Of Respondents (No) Percentage (%) 1. Highly satisfied 22 27.5 2. Satisfied 25 32.5 3. Average 15 18.75 4. Dis-satisfied 13 16.25 5. Highly dissatisfied 10 12.5 Total 80 100 Source: Field survey-2006 The above table shows that 27.5% of the respondents were in the motivational level in the organization of highly satisfied. 25% of the respondents were in the motivational level in the organization of satisfied. 18.75% of the respondents were in the motivational level in the organization of average. 16.25% of the respondents were in the motivational level in the organization of dissatisfied. Remaining 12.5% of the respondents were in the motivational level in the organization of highly dissatisfied. TABLE-5.19: Classification based on Training and development given by the organization S.no Particular No. Of Respondents (No) Percentage (%) 1. Highly satisfied 23 28.75 2. Satisfied 28 35 3. Average 9 11.5 4. Dis-satisfied 12 15 5. Highly dissatisfied 8 10 Total 80 100 Source: Field survey-2006
  • The above table shows that 28.75% of the respondents were in the training and development of highly satisfied. 35% of the respondents were in the training and development of satisfied. 11.25% of the respondents were in the training and development of average. 15% of the respondents were in the training and development of dissatisfied. Remaining of the respondents was in the training and development of highly dissatisfied. TABLE-5.20: Classification based on satisfactory level S.no Particular No. Of Respondents (No) Percentage (%) 1. Highly satisfied 21 26.25 2. Satisfied 29 36.25 3. Average 12 15 4. Dis-satisfied 10 12.5 5. Highly dissatisfied 8 10 Total 80 100 Source: Field survey-2006 The above table shows that 26.25% of the respondents were in the satisfactory level of highly satisfied. 36.25% of the respondents were in the satisfactory level of satisfied.15% of the respondents were in the satisfactory level of average. 12.5% of the
  • respondents were in the satisfactory level of dissatisfied. Remaining 10% of the respondents were in the satisfactory level of highly dissatisfied. TESTING OF HYPOTHESIS CHI-SQUARE TEST To test the classification based on year of service and the level of significance. Test – 1 Year of Service LEVEL OF SIGNIFICANCE Less than5 5-10 10-15 15-20 20 &ABOVE TOTAL H.S S Average D.S H.D.S 6 12 2 1 1 5 8 3 1 1 5 8 2 1 1 4 5 2 1 1 3 3 2 1 1 23 36 11 5 5 Total 22 18 17 13 10 80 Null Hypothesis (H0) There is no association between the classification based on year of service and the classification based on level of satisfaction. Alternative Hypothesis (H1)
  • There is association between the classification based on year of service and the classification based on level of satisfaction Chi-square Test X2 =  i i ) 2 Ei i = Observed frequency Ei = Expected frequency Ei = Rt * Ct Gt Rt = Row total Ct = Column total Gt = Grand total Expected frequency
  • i Ei  i i ) 2  i i ) 2 Ei 6 5 5 4 3 12 8 8 5 3 2 3 2 2 2 1 6.32 5.17 4.89 3.73 2.89 9.9 8.1 7.65 5.85 4.5 3.04 .37 2.35 1.78 1.37 1.31 0.1024 0.0289 0.0121 0.0729 0.0289 4.41 0.01 0.1225 0.7225 2.25 1.0816 0.3969 0.4225 0.0484 0.3969 0.0961 0.01621 0.0056 0.0025 0.0195 0.01 0.4454 0.0012 0.0160 0.1235 0.5 0.3558 0.1675 1.1798 0.0272 0.2897 0.0733
  • 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1.22 1.06 0.8 0.62 1.31 1.22 1.06 0.8 0.62 0.084 0.036 0.04 0.1444 0.0961 0.0484 0.0036 0.04 0.144 0.07396 0.0034 0.05 0,2329 0.0733 0.0396 0,0034 0.05 0.2329 X2 =  i i ) 2 = 2.9593 Ei d.f (or) r = (r-1) (c-1) = (5-1) (5-1) = 4*4 d.f = 16 Tabulated value of X2 0.05 d.f at 5% level of significance is 26.3 Conclusion: Since the calculated value (Cv) is less than the tabulated value (Tv), null hypothesis (H0) is accepted. So, we conclude that there is no association between the classifications based on year of service and the classification based on the level of satisfaction.
  • Test - 2 To test the classification based on educational qualification and the relationship between management and employee. Particulars (relationship) Qualification H.S S Average D.S H.D.S TOTAL H.S S Average N.C Better cordial 4 8 3 3 3 7 15 3 3 3 3 5 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 17 31 11 11 10 Total 21 31 14 9 5 80 Null Hypothesis (H0) There is no association between the classification working condition and the classification based on relationship between management and employee. Alternative Hypothesis (H1) There is association between the classification working condition and the classification based on relationship between management and employee. Chi-square Test X2 =  i i ) 2 Ei
  • i = Observed frequency Ei = Expected frequency Ei = Rt * Ct Gt Rt = Row total Ct = Column total Gt = Grand total Expected frequency i Ei  i i ) 2  i i ) 2 Ei 4 7 3 2 1 8 15 5 2 1 3 4.47 6.59 2.98 1.9 1.06 8.14 12.01 5.42 3.49 1.94 2.89 0.2209 0.1681 0.0004 0.01 0.0036 0.0196 8.9401 0.1764 2.2201 0.8836 0.0121 0.0494 0.0255 0.001 0.0053 0.0034 0.0024 0.7443 0.0325 0.6361 0.4554 0.0041
  • 3 2 2 1 3 4.26 1.9 1.24 0.71 2.81 1.5876 0.01 0.5776 0.0841 0.0361 0.3726 1.0052 0.4658 0.1184 0.0128 3 2 2 1 3 3 2 1 1 4.26 1.9 1.24 0.71 2.61 3.88 1.8 1.13 0.53 1.5876 0.01 0.5776 0.0841 0.1521 0.7744 0.04 0.0169 0.1764 0.3726 0.0052 0.4658 0.1184 0.0582 0.1995 0,0222 0.0149 0.3041 X2 =  i i ) 2 = 4.4942 Ei d.f (or) r = (r-1) (c-1)
  • = (5-1) (5-1) = 4*4 d.f = 16 Tabulated value of X2 0.05 d.f at 5% level of significance is 26.3 Conclusion: Since the calculated value (Cv) is less than the tabulated value (Tv), null hypothesis (H0) is accepted. So, we conclude that there is no association between the classifications based on working condition and the classification based on the job security 6. SUMMARY OF FINDINGS AND SUGGESTIONS FINDINGS • Majority of the respondents’ i.e, 60% had more than 30-40 of Age group. • 27.5% of the respondents in the year of service less than 5, 22.5 of the respondents in the year of service 5-10. 21.25% 5 of the respondents in the year of service 10-15. 16.25% 5 of the respondents in the year of service 15-20. Remaining 12.5% 5 of the respondents in the year of service 20 and above. • Majority of the year respondents’ i.e, 27.5% had more than educational qualification of professional. • 38.75% of the respondents are satisfied with their working condition. • 35% of the respondents were relationship between management and union. • 45% of the respondents are satisfied with their current job. • 26.25% of the respondents are satisfied with their job security. • 30% of the respondents are satisfied with their promotion policies.
  • • 40% of the respondents were satisfied with their one time payment. • 31.25% of the respondents were highly satisfied to the providing enough freedom to the job. • 32.5% of the respondents are satisfied with the pay systems. • 30% of the respondents are satisfied to the social integration in this organization. • 30% of the respondents are highly satisfied to the welfare measures provided by the organization. • 36.5% of the respondents are satisfied with the safety measures in the organization. • 27.5% of the respondents are highly satisfied to the motivation level in the organization. SUGGESTIONS Promotion Rearrangement of individual to a job higher rank provides work force with flexibility and mobility. In this research study 12.5% are dissatisfied with the promotional policy. It suggested that the management need to look into the promotion system and necessary steps for the correction and rectification if any. Any organization needs to have Grievance handling system to reduce discontent or dissatisfaction. 18.75% of the respondents have expressed pessimism towards Grievance handling system. Since Grievance handling system play a major role in the performance of employees in the organization. Additional or special attention need to taken care by the management so as to have an efficient and effective Grievance handling system.
  • 7. CONCLUSION Thus, from the above study it is concluded that the employees at Madras Cements Limited were satisfied in almost all the expect in promotion policy and grievance handling system. Any organization functions with the integration of 4M’s i.e, men, machine money and material. Any change in any of the M is reflected in the output. Therefore the first M men need to be looked at constantly for the better performance of the enterprise APPENDICES 1. BIBLIOGRAPHY BOOKS: HUMAN RESOURSES MANAGEMENT - L.M.PRASAD ORGANISATION BEHAVIOUR - STEPHEN P. ROBBINS RESEARCH METHODOLOGY - C.R KOTHARI HUMAN BEHAVIOUR AT WORK - KEITH DAVIS
  • 2. QUESTIONNAIRE Age : Sex : Marital status : No. of dependents : 1. What is your Year of service in this company? Less than 5 5-10 10-15 20 & above 2. What is your Educational and Technical qualification? Diploma Graduate Post graduate Professional Others 3. Are you satisfied with your working conditions? Highly satisfied Satisfied Average Dissatisfied Highly dissatisfied 4. How is the relationship between management and union? Highly cordial Cordially Low Not cordial Better cordial
  • 5. How is the relationship between management and employee? Highly cordial Cordially Low Not cordial Better cordial 6. What is the level of affairs that the company provides to the family members? Excellent Good Fair Average Poor 7. What type of training you have undergone when you join in this company? Technical Soft-skill On-job Management Others 8. Comparing with the other companies this company treat well? Highly satisfied Satisfied Average Dissatisfied Highly dissatisfied 9. Are you satisfied with your current job? Highly satisfied Satisfied Average Dissatisfied Highly dissatisfied 10. Do you find your job is a challenging one? Highly challenging Challenging Average
  • Not challenging None 11. What do you feel about your job security? Highly satisfied Satisfied Average Dissatisfied Highly dissatisfied 12. What do you feel about promotion policy? Highly satisfied Satisfied Average Dissatisfied Highly dissatisfied 13. What is your opinion about bonus/one time payment? Highly satisfied Satisfied Average Dissatisfied Highly dissatisfied 14. Is the pay system in the organization is competitive with the industry? Highly satisfied Satisfied Average Dissatisfied Highly dissatisfied 15. How is the social interaction among the colleagues? Highly satisfied Satisfied Average Dissatisfied Highly dissatisfied 16. How is the motivation level in the organization?
  • Highly satisfied Satisfied Average Dissatisfied Highly dissatisfied 17. How is the training and development given by the organization to the employee? Highly satisfied Satisfied Average Dissatisfied Highly dissatisfied 18. How is the satisfactory level regarding existing communication system in the organization? Highly satisfied Satisfied Average Dissatisfied Highly dissatisfied 19. I gain more information from my job? Highly satisfied Satisfied Average Dissatisfied Highly dissatisfied 20. If you get any other good job I will switch over to other company? Highly satisfied Satisfied Average Dissatisfied Highly dissatisfied