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Ocean Floor Features: Ocean Trenches and Volcanic Arcs
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Ocean Floor Features: Ocean Trenches and Volcanic Arcs

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  • 1. Ocean Trenches and Volcanic Arcs Convergent margins generate ocean trenches.  Deepest part of oceans  Most in Pacific Ocean  Deepest trench – Mariana Trench at 11,022 meters (36,161 feet) Volcanic arc on nonsubducted ocean plate  May produce island arc, e.g., Japan Continental arc on land © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 2. Pacific Ring of Fire Margins of Pacific Ocean Majority of world’s active volcanoes and earthquakes Marked by convergent boundaries © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 3. Ocean Trenches and Ring of Fire© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 4. Mid-Ocean Ridge Longest mountain chain On average, 2.5 km (1.5 miles) above surrounding sea floor Wholly volcanic Basaltic lava Divergent plate boundary © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 5. Mid-Ocean Ridge© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 6. Mid-Ocean Ridge Features  Central rift valley downdropped by seafloor spreading  Fissures and faults in rift valley  Seamounts – tall volcanoes  Pillow lava or pillow basalt – shapes formed when hot basaltic lava quickly cools© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 7. Mid-Ocean Ridge FeaturesSeamount Pillow lava © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 8. Mid-ocean Ridge FeaturesHydrothermal Vents Sea floor hot springs Foster unusual deep-ocean ecosystems able to survive without sunlight Warm water vents – temperatures below 30 C (86 F) White smokers – temperatures from 30–350 C (86–662 F) Black smokers – temperatures above 350 C (662 F) © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 9. Hydrothermal Vents© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 10. Fracture Zones and Transform Faults© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 11. Transform Faults and Fracture Zones© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 12. Oceanic Islands Volcanic activity Hotspots Island arcs © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

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