Hydrothermal Ventshttp://www.flickr.com/photos/noaaphotolib/5015582586/Dive and Discover!
1) How and where are hydrothermalvents created?They form in places where there is volcanic activity, suchas along the Mid-Ocean Ridge.Cold ocean water seeps into the earth’s mantle and getsheated to incredibly high temperatures.The hot water/steam is ejected from a fissure in theocean floor.
2. What are the vent chemical processes?http://www.divediscover.whoi.edu/vents/vent-chemistry.html#1. Cold seawater sinks downthrough cracks in the crust.2. The fluids have reachedtheir highest temperatures.Copper, zinc, iron, andsulfur from the crustdissolve in the fluids.3. Hot fluids carryingdissolved metals rise upthrough crust.4. The hydrothermal fluids mixwith cold, oxygen-richseawater. Metals and sulfurcombine to form blackmetal-sulfide minerals.
3. What are similarities and differences ofChemosynthesis vs. Photosynthesis?http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/vents/nemo/education/curr_p1_12.html• Photosynthetic animalsuse the sun’s light energyto reduce carbon to getenergy. Gives off oxygen.• Chemosynthetic animalsuse sulfide fromhydrothermal vents toreduce carbon compoundsto get energy. Producessulfur.• Both methods involve anenergy source: 1) CarbonDioxide and 2) water toproduce sugars.
4. What are the chemical reactions forphotosynthesis and chemosynthesis?SunlightPhotosynthesis:6CO2 + H2O > C6H12O6 + 6O2In the above reaction, sunlight supplies the energy to convert carbon dioxideand water to glucose and oxygen.BacteriaChemosynthesis:6CO2 + 6H2O + 3 H2S > C6H12O6 + 3H2SO4In the above reaction, hydrogen sulfide supplies the energy to convert carbondioxide and water to glucose and hydrogen sulfide.Answer:1. What is different about the two reactions?2. What is similar about the two?
5. Where were they 1stdiscovered?Hydrothermal vents were first discovered in 1977near the Galapagos islands.http://www.treehugger.com/files/2010/11/5-things-everyone-should-know-about-galapagos.php
6. What is the Angus Mission?Angus Mission (1977):8,250 feet deep forperiods of 12 – 14hours.Temperature: 36degrees Fahrenheit.Photographs: 30,000pictures of barren rock.http://www.flickr.com/photos/noaaphotolib/5424699937/*This is not Angus but Alvin another famous research submersible
7. What life forms exists inthese extreme conditions?
Mr. Bantay in front of aHydrothermal vent display at theNew York City Museum ofNatural History.