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Cwc Children200612 5

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  • 1. Attachment Attachment in the context of involving children in assessment
  • 2. What is attachment?
    • Theory of personality development in the context of close relationships (Howe 1999)
    • An affectionate bond between two individuals that endures through time and space and serves to join them emotionally (Kennel 1976)
  • 3. What does it provide?
    • Safe base
    • Balance between trust and autonomy
    • Psychological development
    • Physical development
    • Cognitive development
    • Conscience development
    • Identity
  • 4. How long does it last?
    • Shifted and renegotiated through life:
    • Infant…
    • Toddler…
    • Child…
    • Adolescent…
    • Independence…
    • Parenthood…
    • Care of elders
  • 5. Why of interest to children's professions?
    • Why close relationships matter
    • How the quality influences development
    • Assessing relationships – children's state and parents’ ability to care
    • Quality and character of relationships
    • Improving parent and child relationships
    • Parents’ own experiences
    • Extended family – relevance for kinship care
  • 6. What are attachment behaviours?
    • Bring child in close proximity to caregiver
    • Maximise care and protection
    • Evolutionary – increase survival chances
    • Doesn’t automatically mean healthy bond
    • Give information about nature of attachment – behaviours and responses
    • Relevant to developmental stage
  • 7. Patterns of attachment
    • Secure
    • Ambivalent
    • Avoidant
    • Disorganised
    • Combinations of the above
    • Unattached
  • 8. Care giving Care giving behaviours reinforce good attachment or compound attachment. Optimum behaviours on the left and cause for concern on the right .
    • Sensitive -------- Not attuned
    • Acceptance -------- Rejection
    • Cooperation -------- Interference
    • Accessibility -------- Ignoring
  • 9. Attachment – cultural issues
    • Basic concepts are same universally
    • Aspects vary across cultures
    • Attachment figures affected by family structure
    • Long-term separations
    • Family networks and connections vital
    • Asylum seeking children – effects of separation.
  • 10. Effects of lack of attachment
    • Difficulty relating normally
    • Difficulty growing socially, maintaining relationships
    • Difficulty caring for others
    • Egocentric, impulsive, babyish,
    • Difficulties with rules and laws
    • Lack of trust – highly defended
  • 11. Separation and loss
    • Separation involves fear which needs to be mastered; and loss involves grief which needs to be expressed (Aldgate & Simmonds 1990)
    • Grief is the process through which one passes in order to recover from loss (Fahlberg 1994)
  • 12. Stages of grief (taken from On Death and Dying by Kubler-Ross,1969)
    • Shock
    • Denial
    • Anger
    • Bargaining
    • Sadness/despair
    • Resolution
  • 13. Stages of withdrawal (taken from A Child’s Journey Through Placement by Fahlberg, 1994)
    • Protest
    • Despair
    • Quiet withdrawal

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