Cwc Children200612 5

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Cwc Children200612 5

  1. 1. Attachment Attachment in the context of involving children in assessment
  2. 2. What is attachment? <ul><li>Theory of personality development in the context of close relationships (Howe 1999) </li></ul><ul><li>An affectionate bond between two individuals that endures through time and space and serves to join them emotionally (Kennel 1976) </li></ul>
  3. 3. What does it provide? <ul><li>Safe base </li></ul><ul><li>Balance between trust and autonomy </li></ul><ul><li>Psychological development </li></ul><ul><li>Physical development </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive development </li></ul><ul><li>Conscience development </li></ul><ul><li>Identity </li></ul>
  4. 4. How long does it last? <ul><li>Shifted and renegotiated through life: </li></ul><ul><li>Infant… </li></ul><ul><li>Toddler… </li></ul><ul><li>Child… </li></ul><ul><li>Adolescent… </li></ul><ul><li>Independence… </li></ul><ul><li>Parenthood… </li></ul><ul><li>Care of elders </li></ul>
  5. 5. Why of interest to children's professions? <ul><li>Why close relationships matter </li></ul><ul><li>How the quality influences development </li></ul><ul><li>Assessing relationships – children's state and parents’ ability to care </li></ul><ul><li>Quality and character of relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Improving parent and child relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Parents’ own experiences </li></ul><ul><li>Extended family – relevance for kinship care </li></ul>
  6. 6. What are attachment behaviours? <ul><li>Bring child in close proximity to caregiver </li></ul><ul><li>Maximise care and protection </li></ul><ul><li>Evolutionary – increase survival chances </li></ul><ul><li>Doesn’t automatically mean healthy bond </li></ul><ul><li>Give information about nature of attachment – behaviours and responses </li></ul><ul><li>Relevant to developmental stage </li></ul>
  7. 7. Patterns of attachment <ul><li>Secure </li></ul><ul><li>Ambivalent </li></ul><ul><li>Avoidant </li></ul><ul><li>Disorganised </li></ul><ul><li>Combinations of the above </li></ul><ul><li>Unattached </li></ul>
  8. 8. Care giving Care giving behaviours reinforce good attachment or compound attachment. Optimum behaviours on the left and cause for concern on the right . <ul><li>Sensitive -------- Not attuned </li></ul><ul><li>Acceptance -------- Rejection </li></ul><ul><li>Cooperation -------- Interference </li></ul><ul><li>Accessibility -------- Ignoring </li></ul>
  9. 9. Attachment – cultural issues <ul><li>Basic concepts are same universally </li></ul><ul><li>Aspects vary across cultures </li></ul><ul><li>Attachment figures affected by family structure </li></ul><ul><li>Long-term separations </li></ul><ul><li>Family networks and connections vital </li></ul><ul><li>Asylum seeking children – effects of separation. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Effects of lack of attachment <ul><li>Difficulty relating normally </li></ul><ul><li>Difficulty growing socially, maintaining relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Difficulty caring for others </li></ul><ul><li>Egocentric, impulsive, babyish, </li></ul><ul><li>Difficulties with rules and laws </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of trust – highly defended </li></ul>
  11. 11. Separation and loss <ul><li>Separation involves fear which needs to be mastered; and loss involves grief which needs to be expressed (Aldgate & Simmonds 1990) </li></ul><ul><li>Grief is the process through which one passes in order to recover from loss (Fahlberg 1994) </li></ul>
  12. 12. Stages of grief (taken from On Death and Dying by Kubler-Ross,1969) <ul><li>Shock </li></ul><ul><li>Denial </li></ul><ul><li>Anger </li></ul><ul><li>Bargaining </li></ul><ul><li>Sadness/despair </li></ul><ul><li>Resolution </li></ul>
  13. 13. Stages of withdrawal (taken from A Child’s Journey Through Placement by Fahlberg, 1994) <ul><li>Protest </li></ul><ul><li>Despair </li></ul><ul><li>Quiet withdrawal </li></ul>

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