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  • 1. The Brain Fingerprinting Technology 1
  • 2. ABSTRACTBrain Fingerprinting is a new computer-based technology toidentify the perpetrator of a crime accurately and scientificallyby measuring brain-wave responses to crime-relevant words orpictures presented on a computer screen. Brain Fingerprintinghas proven 100% accurate in over 120 tests, including tests onFBI agents, tests for a US intelligence agency and for the USNavy, and tests on real-life situations including felony crimes.Why Brain Fingerprinting??? Brain Fingerprinting is based on the principle that the brain iscentral to all human acts. In a criminal act, there may or may notbe many kinds of peripheral evidence, but the brain is alwaysthere, planning, executing, and recording the crime. Thefundamental difference between a perpetrator and a falselyaccused, innocent person is that the perpetrator, havingcommitted the crime, has the details of the crime stored in hisbrain, and the innocent suspect does not. This is what BrainFingerprinting detects scientifically. 2
  • 3. CONTENTS: 1. Introduction. 2. MERMER Methodology. 3. Technique. 4. Four phases of Farwell Brain Fingerprinting. 5. Scientific procedures, Research and Applications. 6. Advantages and Limitations of Brain Fingerprinting. 7. Conclusion. 8. References. 3
  • 4. 1.Introduction:Brain Fingerprinting is a Related Multifacetedcontroversial proposed Electroencephalographicinvestigative technique that Response") response to detectmeasures recognition of familiarity reaction. One offamiliar stimuli by measuring the applications is lieelectrical brain wave detection. Dr. Lawrence A.responses to words, phrases, Farwell has invented,or pictures that are presented developed, proven, andon a computer screen. Brain patented the technique offingerprinting was invented Farwell Brain Fingerprinting,by Lawrence Farwell. The a new computer-basedtheory is that the suspects technology to identify thereaction to the details of an perpetrator of a crimeevent or activity will reflect if accurately and scientificallythe suspect had prior by measuring brain-waveknowledge of the event or responses to crime-relevantactivity. This test uses what words or pictures presentedFarwell calls the MERMER on a computer screen.("Memory and Encoding Farwell Brain Fingerprinting 4
  • 5. has proven 100% accurate in in situations whereover 120 tests, including tests investigators have a sufficienton FBI agents, tests for a US amount of specificintelligence agency and for information about an event orthe US Navy, and tests on activity that would be knownreal-life situations including only to the perpetrator andactual crimes. investigator. In this respect, Brain Fingerprinting isWhat is Brain considered a type of GuiltyFingerprinting? Knowledge Test, where theBrain Fingerprinting is "guilty" party is expected todesigned to determine react strongly to the relevantwhether an individual detail of the event of therecognizes specific activity. Existing (polygraph)information related to an procedures for assessingevent or activity by the validity of a suspectsmeasuring electrical brain "guilty" knowledge relywave responses to words, on measurement ofphrases, or pictures presented autonomic arousal (e.g.,on a computer screen. The palm sweating and hearttechnique can be applied only 5
  • 6. rate), while Brain of the perpetrator. BrainFingerprinting measures Fingerprinting provides aelectrical brain activity via a means to objectively andfitted headband containing scientifically connectspecial sensors. Brain evidence from the crimeFingerprinting is said to be scene with evidence stored inmore accurate in detecting the brain. (This is similar to"guilty" knowledge distinct the process of connectingfrom the false positives of DNA samples from thetraditional polygraph perpetrator with biologicalmethods, but this is hotly evidence found at the scenedisputed by specialized of the crime; only theresearchers. evidence evaluated by Brain Fingerprinting is evidenceThe secrets of Brain stored in the brain.) BrainFingerprinting: Fingerprinting measuresMatching evidence at the electrical brain activity incrime scene with response to crime-relevantevidence in the brain words or pictures presentedWhen a crime is committed, a on a computer screen, andrecord is stored in the brain reveals a brain MERMER 6
  • 7. (memory and encoding presented via computer to therelated multifaceted subject for a fraction of aelectroencephalographic second each. Each of theseresponse) when, and only stimuli are organised by thewhen, the evidence stored in test-giver to be a “Target,”the brain matches the “Irrelevant,” or a “Probe.”evidence from the crime The Target stimuli are chosenscene. Thus, the guilty can be to be relevant information toidentified and the innocent the tested subject, and arecan be cleared in an accurate, used to establish a baselinescientific, objective, non- brain response forinvasive, non-stressful, and information that is significantnon-testimonial manner to the subject being tested. The subject is instructed to press on button for Targets,2.MERMER and another button for allMethodology: other stimuli. Most of theThe procedure used is similar non-Target stimuli areto the Guilty Knowledge Irrelevant, and are totallyTest; a series of words, unrelated to the situation thatsounds, or pictures are the subject is being tested for. 7
  • 8. The Irrelevant stimuli do not response does not elicit aelicit a MERMER, and so MERMER, indicating thatestablish a baseline brain the information is absentresponse for information that from their mind. Note thatis insignificant to the subject there does not have to be anin this context. Some of the emotional response of anynon-Target are relevant to the kind to the stimuli- this test issituation that the subject is entirely reliant uponbeing tested for. These recognition response to thestimuli, Probes, are relevant stimuli, and relies upon ato the test, and are significant difference in recognition-to the subject, and will elicit hence the association with thea MERMER, signifying that Oddball effectthe subject has understoodthat stimuli to be significant. 3.Technique:A subject lacking this The person to be tested wearsinformation in their brain, the a special headband withresponse to the Probe electronic sensors thatstimulus will be measure theindistinguishable from the electroencephalography fromirrelevant stimulus. This 8
  • 9. several locations on the scalp. milliseconds after it isIn order to calibrate the brain confronted with a stimulus offingerprinting system, the test special significance, e.g. ais presented with a series of rare vs. a common stimulasirrelevant stimuli, words, and or a stimulas the proband ispictures, and a series of asked to count. The novelrelevant stimuli, words, and interpretation in brainpictures. The test subjects fingerprinting is to look forbrain response to these two P300 as response to stimulidifferent types of stimuli related to the crime inallow the tester to determine question e.g., a murderif the measured brain weapon or a victims face.responses to test stimuli, Because it is based on EEGcalled probes, are more signals, the system does notsimilar to the relevant or require the testee to issueirrelevant responses. The verbal responses to questionstechnique uses the well or stimuli. Brainknown fact that an electrical fingerprinting uses cognitivesignal known as P300 is brain responses, brainemitted from an individuals fingerprinting does notbrain approximately 300 depend on the emotions of 9
  • 10. the subject, nor is it affected suspect is apprehended, isby emotional responses. scientifically compared withBrain fingerprinting is evidence on the person of thefundamentally different from suspect to detect a match thatthe polygraph (lie-detector), would place the suspect at thewhich measures emotion- crime scene. Farwell Brainbased physiological signals Fingerprinting workssuch as heart rate, sweating, similarly, except that theand blood pressure. Also, evidence collected both at theunlike polygraph testing, it crime scene and on thedoes not attempt to determine person of the suspect (i.e., inwhether or not the subject is the brain as revealed bylying or telling the truth. electrical brain responses) is informational evidence rather4.Four phases of Farwell than physical evidence. ThereBrain Fingerprinting: are four stages to FarwellIn fingerprinting and DNA Brain Fingerprinting, whichfingerprinting, evidence are similar to the steps inrecognized and collected at fingerprinting and DNAthe crime scene, and fingerprinting:preserved properly until a 10
  • 11. 1. Brain Fingerprinting Crime Collection in order toScene Evidence Collection; determine whether or not the evidence from the crime2. Brain Fingerprinting Brain scene matches evidenceEvidence Collection; stored in the brain of the3. Brain Fingerprinting suspect. In the ComputerComputer Evidence Analysis; Evidence Analysis, theand Farwell Brain Fingerprinting system makes a mathematical4. Brain Fingerprinting determination as to whetherScientific Result. or not this specific evidenceIn the Crime Scene Evidence is stored in the brain, andCollection, an expert in computes a statisticalFarwell Brain Fingerprinting confidence for thatexamines the crime scene determination. Thisand other evidence connected determination and statisticalwith the crime to identify confidence constitute thedetails of the crime that Scientific Result of Farwellwould be known only to the Brain Fingerprinting: eitherperpetrator. The expert then "information present" – theconducts the Brain Evidence details of the crime are stored 11
  • 12. in the brain of the suspect – Fingerprinting presents a newor "information absent" – the paradigm in forensic science.details of the crime are not This new system detectsstored in the brain of the information directly, on thesuspect. basis of the electrophysiological5.Scientific procedures, manifestations ofResearch and information-processing brainApplications: activity, measured non-  Informational invasively from the scalp. Evidence Detection. Since Brain Fingerprinting depends only on brainThe detection of concealed information processing, itinformation stored in the does not depend on thebrains of suspects, witnesses, emotional response of theintelligence sources, and subject.others is of central concern toall phases of law  The Brain MERMERenforcement, government and Brain Fingerprinting utilizesprivate investigations, and multifacetedintelligence operations. Brain electroencephalographic 12
  • 13. response analysis (MERA) to computerized signal-detect information stored in detection algorithm.the human brain. A memory  Scientific Procedureand encoding relatedmultifaceted Brain Fingerprintingelectroencephalographic incorporates the followingresponse (MERMER) is procedure. A sequence ofelicited when an individual words or pictures is presentedrecognizes and processes an on a video monitor underincoming stimulus that is computer control. Eachsignificant or noteworthy. stimulus appears for aWhen an irrelevant stimulus fraction of a second. Threeis seen, it is insignificant and types of stimuli arenot noteworthy, and the presented: "targets,"MERMER response is "irrelevants," and "probes."absent. The MERMER The targets are made relevantoccurs within about a second and noteworthy to allafter the stimulus subjects: the subject is givenpresentation, and can be a list of the target stimuli andreadily detected using EEG instructed to press aamplifiers and a particular button in response 13
  • 14. to targets, and to press MERMER. For an innocentanother button in response to subject lacking this detailedall other stimuli. Since the knowledge of the crime, thetargets are noteworthy for the probes are indistinguishablesubject, they elicit a from the irrelevant stimuli.MERMER. Most of the non- For such a subject, the probestarget stimuli are irrelevant, are not noteworthy, and thushaving no relation to the probes do not elicit acrime. These irrelevants do MERMER.not elicit a MERMER. Some  ComputerControlledof the non-target stimuli arerelevant to the crime or The entire Brainsituation under investigation. Fingerprinting System isThese relevant stimuli are under computer control,referred to as probes. For a including presentation of thesubject who has committed stimuli and recording ofthe crime, the probes are electrical brain activity, asnoteworthy due to his well as a mathematical dataknowledge of the details of analysis algorithm thatthe crime, and therefore compares the responses to theprobes elicit a brain three types of stimuli and 14
  • 15. produces a determination of 2: Aid in identifying trained"information present" terrorists with the potential to("guilty") or "information commit future terrorist acts,absent" ("innocent"), and a even if they are in a “sleeper”statistical confidence level cell and have not been activefor this determination. At no for years.time during the testing and 3: Help to identify peopledata analysis do any biases who have knowledge orand interpretations of a training in banking, financesystem expert affect the or communications and whostimulus presentation or brain are associated with terroristresponses. teams and acts.Counter terrorism: Brain 4: Help to determine if anfingerprinting can help individual is in a leadershipaddress the following critical role within a terroristelements in the fight against organization. Brainterrorism: fingerprinting technology is1: Aid in determining who based on the principle thathas participated in terrorist the brain is central to allacts, directly or indirectly. human acts. In a terrorist act, 15
  • 16. there may or may not be to determine scientificallyperipheral evidence such as whether or not a person hasfingerprints or DNA, but the terrorist training andbrain of the perpetrator is knowledge of terroristalways there, planning, activities. With the Brainexecuting, and recording the Fingerprinting system, acrime. The terrorist has significant scientificknowledge of organizations, breakthrough has nowtraining and plans that an become a practical appliedinnocent person does not technology. A new era inhave. Until the invention of security and intelligenceBrain Fingerprinting testing, gathering has begun. Now,there was no scientific way to terrorists and thosedetect this fundamental supporting terrorism can bedifference. Brain identified quickly andFingerprinting testing accurately. No longer shouldprovides an accurate, any terrorist be able to evadeeconomical and timely justice for lack of evidence.solution to the central And there is no reason whyproblem in the fight against an innocent individual shouldterrorism. It is now possible be falsely imprisoned or 16
  • 17. convicted of terrorist activity. Fingerprinting testing, thereA Brain Fingerprinting test was no scientifically validcan determine with an way to detect thisextremely high degree of fundamental difference.accuracy those who are Brain Fingerprinting testinginvolved with terrorist does not prove guilt oractivity and those who are innocence. That is the role ofnot. a judge and jury. This exciting technology gives theCriminal justice: A critical judge and jury new,task of the criminal justice scientifically valid evidencesystem is to determine who to help them arrive at theirhas committed a crime. The decision. DNA evidence andkey difference between a fingerprints are available inguilty party and an innocent only about 1% of majorsuspect is that the perpetrator crimes. It is estimated thatof the crime has a record of Brain Fingerprinting testingthe crime stored in their will apply in approximatelybrain, and the innocent 60 to 70% of these majorsuspect does not. Until the crimes. The impacts on theinvention of Brain criminal justice system will 17
  • 18. be profound. The potential first time, how memory andnow exists to significantly cognitive functioning ofimprove the speed and Alzheimer sufferers areaccuracy of the entire system, affected by medications. Firstfrom investigations to parole generation tests have provenhearings. Brain to be more accurate thanFingerprinting testing will be other routinely used tests, andable to dramatically reduce could be commerciallythe costs associated with available in 18-24 months.investigating and prosecuting The 30 minute test involvesinnocent people and allow wearing a headband withlaw enforcement built-in electrodes;professionals to concentrate technicians then presenton suspects who have words, phrases and imagesverifiable, detailed that are both known andknowledge of the crimes. unknown to the patient to determine whetherMedical: information that should be in‘Brain Fingerprinting’ is the the brain is still there. Whenpatented technology that can presented with familiarmeasure objectively, for the information, the brain 18
  • 19. responds by producing be able to offer significantlyMERMERs, specific more advanced, scientificincreases in neuron activity. methods to help determineThe technician can use this the effectiveness ofresponse to measure how campaigns and be very costquickly information is competitive with currentdisappearing from the brain methodologies. Thisand whether the drugs they technology will be able toare taking are slowing down help determine whatthe process. information is actually retained in memory byAdditional Applications: individuals. For example, in aIn advertising, Brain branding campaign do peopleFingerprinting Laboratories remember the brand, thewill offer significant product, etc. and how do theadvances in measuring results vary withcampaign and media demographics? We will alsoeffectiveness. Most be able to measure theadvertising programs today comparative effectiveness ofare evaluated subjectively multiple media types. In theusing focus groups. We will insurance industry, Brain 19
  • 20. Fingerprinting Laboratorieswill be able to help reducethe incidence of insurance 6.Advantages andfraud by determining if an Limitations of Brainindividual has knowledge of Fingerprinting:fraudulent or criminal acts. Advantages:The same type of testing can a. Identify the Crimehelp to determine if an Perpetrator quickly andindividual has specific scientificallyknowledge related to b. Record of 100 % Accuracycomputer crimes where there c. Reduced expenditure ofis typically no witness or Money and Man Hours ofphysical evidence. Law enforcement d. Provide smooth handlingThe devices used in brain of suspects to the Lawfingerprinting Enforcement Agency e. Human rights friendly f. Likely to be an admissible evidence in Court of Law, because the evidence is 20
  • 21. scientific, objective, accurate 7.Conclusion:and non-invasive in nature. Brain Fingerprinting is a revolutionary new scientificLimitations: technology for solvinga.It does not detect how that crimes, identifyinginformation got there. perpetrators, and exonerating innocent suspects, with ab. Brain Fingerprinting record of 100% accuracy indetects only information, and research with US governmentnot intent. agencies, actual criminalc. Where the suspects knows cases, and other applications.everything that the The technology fulfills aninvestigator can ask. urgent need for governments, law enforcement agencies,d. Authorities have no corporations, investigators,information about what crime crime victims, and falselymay have taken place. Brain accused, innocent suspects.Fingerprinting does notdetect lies. It simply detectsinformation. 21
  • 22. 8.References: • Farwell LA and Smith SS. Using Brain MERMER Testing To Detect Concealed Knowledge Despite Efforts To Conceal Journal of Forensic Sciences 2001. • Farwell LA and Donchin E. The Truth Will Out:Interrogative Polygraphy (“Lie Detection”) With Event Related Potentials. • Farwell LA. • Lander ES. DNA fingerprinting on trial. Nature 1989. • Lambourne GTC. The Use of Fingerprints in Identification. Med. Sci Law 1979. 22
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