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The Toulmin Model

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extra credit assignment

extra credit assignment


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  • 1. The Toulmin Model
    By
    Gavin Markowitz
  • 2. The Toulmin Model
  • 3. Grounds
    what you have observed either first hand or second hand.
  • 4. Warrant
    A general rule which links the claim to the grounds.
  • 5. Claim
    The conclusion of the argument. What the arguer is attempting to convince the audience to do or think.
  • 6. Backing
    Specific support for the grounds or warrant. Where did it come from.
  • 7. Reservation
    Reasons why the warrant not apply. Exceptions to the rule.
  • 8. Qualifier
    A word or phrase which suggests the degree of validity of the claim.
  • 9. The Toulmin Model
    Goal of Studying the Toulmin Model
    My goal in introducing the Toulmin model to you is not to have you become experts on argumentative analysis, that would be nice, but I will be happy if you realize four things:
    1. The conclusion of an argument, the claim, is based on specific support and reasoning.
    2. We argue by attacking the foundation of the argument, the parts like the backing, warrant and reservations, not just directly disagreeing with the claim. This is more like bickering.
    3. The more we understand the specific parts of an argument, the better we can determine the strengths and weaknesses of a particular argument and know how to challenge it.
    4. The qualifier gives us the idea of the degree of validity of the claim. A claim that is "very highly" correct is more valid than a claim that is "most likely" correct.
  • 10. credits
    All thanks to you professor Marteney!!