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Complexity And The Environment
 

Complexity And The Environment

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    Complexity And The Environment Complexity And The Environment Presentation Transcript

    •  
    • About The Speaker
      • Author
        • 50 Awesome Auto Projects for the Evil Genius
        • Build Your Own Car PC
        • 50 Model Rocket Projects for the Evil Genius
        • Domestic Solar Energy
        • Solar Energy Projects for the Evil Genius
        • 101 Fuel Cell Projects for the Evil Genius
      • Diploma Design & Innovation
      • BSc. (Hons.) Technology (Open) 2(i)
      • MSc. Architecture: Advanced Environmental & Energy Studies
        • (Awaiting result)
      • Worked on ‘Alternative Energy Strategy’ 2007 Think Tank @ Centre for Alternative Technology
      • Advised Members of U.S. Congress On Energy Policy
        • Working on Dennis Kucinich’s Presidential Energy Manifesto for the U.S.
    • Renewable Energy – Powering Your Future Gavin D. J. Harper
    • Why Renewables?
      • Predictable Shortage Of Fossil Fuels
      • Enduring Energy Security
      • No ‘Wastes’
      • Carbon Emissions / Climate Change
    • Hubbert’s Peak
      • M. King Hubbert 1956
      • Presented to the
      • American Petroleum Institute in 1956
      • Peak Oil
      • Peak Coal
      • Peak Gas
      • Peak Uranium
    • Hubbert’s Peak Theory
      • Production at first increases approximately exponentially, as more extraction commences and more efficient facilities are installed. At some point, a peak output is reached, and production begins declining until it approximates an exponential decline.
    • Carbon Emissions
    • Climate Change
      • Producing 10% of UK electricity from renewables by 2010 could cut carbon emissions by 2.5 million tonnes p.a. (DTI)
    •  
    • Concerns About Renewables
      • Intermittency
      • Small ‘Unit Size’
    • Concerns - Intermittency
      • Geographically distributed renewables ‘even out’ variations.
      • Load balancing
        • Pumped Storage
          • Dinorwig
          • ‘ Quarries as Batteries’
        • Fuel Cells
    • Solar Energy
    •  
    • Solar Energy Stats
      • 164 W m -2 on average over the Earth’s surface over the course of 24 hours
      • The Earth Receives 84TW power
    • Seasonal Variation (Northern Hemisphere)
    • Sunpath Diagrams
    • Orient Solar Collectors To Maximise Power Output
    • Angle of Incidence Affects Power Output
      • The same area of light coming at an angle is spread over a larger area.
    • Solar Trackers
    • History of the Solar Cell
      • Photovoltaic Effect - Alexandre-Edmond Becquerel. (1833)
      • First Solar Cell Made – Charles Fritts (1883)
      • Russell Ohl Patents first Solar Cell US2402662 “Light sensitive device” (1946)
      • Bell Laboratories discover doped silicon responsive to light (1954)
    • Types of Solar Cell
      • Cell Material Efficiency Area For 1 kW Peak
      • Monocrystalline Silicon 15-18% 7-9m 2
      • Polycrystalline Silicon 13-16% 8-11m 2
      • Thin Film (CIS) 7.5-9.5% 11-13m 2
      • Thin Film Cadmium Telluride 6-9% 14-18m 2
      • Amorphous Silicon 5-8% 16-20m 2
    • Silicon
    • Phosphorus Doping ‘Adds’ an Electron
    • Boron Doping ‘Removes’ an Electron
    • Monocrystalline Solar Cell
      • Silicon Solar Cell
      • PN Junction
    • Nanosolar Source: www.treehugger.com
    • Nanosolar
      • Printable Solar Production Process
      • Copper-Indium-Gallium-Selenium on Polymer Substrate (thin film).
      • Cells estimated to cost 1/5 th to 1/10 th cost of traditional silicon cell.
      • New plant capacity of 430MW / year.
    • Photochemical Solar Cells
    •  
    •  
    • Photovoltaic Organic LED’s Source: www.ecogeek.org
    • Photovoltaic Organic LED’s
      • Combines Light-Emitting Diode with the ability to generate electricity.
      • Research undertaken at Cornell University.
      • Process needs efficiency-boost to practical.
      • Possibility for windows that generate power in the day and illuminate at night.
    • Holographic Solar Cells Source: www.prismsolar.com
    • Holographic Solar Cells
      • Use Holographic Optical Elements to concentrate light.
      • More compact, and lighter than traditional concentrators.
      • 25-85% reduction in silicon Watt for Watt
      • Possible cost reductions of up to 75%?
      • Multiplies light falling on cells by up to 10%.
    • ‘ EnviroMission’ Solar Tower Source: www.ecogeek.org
    • ‘ EnviroMission’ Solar Tower
      • Functioning Experimental Prototype Solar Tower in Spain
      • 1600 feet tall, 260 feet diameter
      • Two mile diameter canopy
      • Planned for Australia, China, America
      • Power for a small city
    • Hydro Power
    •  
    • Hydropower Technologies
      • ‘Traditional’ Large Hydro (Big Dams)
      • Micro Hydro (Small Rivers / Streams)
      • Wave Power
        • Waves Driven By Wind On The Sea
        • Less Predictable
      • Tidal Power
        • Lunar Driven Process
        • Very Predictable
    • Wave Power
      • "The World Energy Council has estimated the ‘useful’ global ocean wave energy resource as ... >2TW (17,500TWh/year). From this it has been estimated (Thorpe 1999) that the practical economic contribution from wave energy converters could be 2,000TWh/year (similar to current installed nuclear or hydroelectric generation capacity). Such generating capacity could result in up to 2 billion tonnes of CO2 emissions being displaced from fossil fuel generation per year - similar to current emissions from electricity generation in the US."
        • via. www.treehugger.com
    • Hydropower Physics
      • The amount of power a hydroelectric dam can produce is determined by the amount of potential energy stored in the water behind the dam.
      • The water is at a height (head) above the turbine, and the amount of work it can do is the product of the head and the weight of the water.
    • Hydropower Physics
      • E = mgh
      • E = Energy
      • m = mass
      • g = acceleration due to gravity (9.8 m s -1 )
      • h = Height
    • Hydropower Physics
      • The height of the dam will not change so the head remains constant.
      • The force as a result of gravity does not change.
      • So the only things that change over time is the mass flowing through the turbine – which is directly proportional to the energy produced.
    • Hydropower Physics
      • E = Energy
      • t = Time
      • m = Mass
      • g = Gravity
      • h = Height
    • Biofuels
    • Biofuels
      • Biogas
      • Waste as a Resource
      • Ethanol
      • Biodiesel
      • Wood
      • Algae
    • Biogas
      • Anaerobic Digestion of Wastes
        • Sewerage
        • Agricultural Wastes / Slurry
        • Food Processing Waste
      • Pyrolysis – Production of Syngas
        • Syngas – Carbon Monoxide / Hydrogen
    • Waste as a Resource Waste Pyrolysis Synthesis Gas Combustion Heat & Power
      • Wide Range of Feedstocks
      • Combustion / Fuel Cell Technology
      • Good Waste Management Practise
    • Waste as a Resource Science 7 July 2006: Vol. 313. no. 5783, p. 25 DOI: 10.1126/science.313.5783.25d 250 Tonnes of Chocolate Volume = 33 Double Deckers 33 of these Not these
    • Waste as a Resource
      • … if the chocolate were burned for energy, it could provide 5500 gigajoules (1,530,000 kilowatt-hours)--enough to power a town of 90,000 people for a week. "Chocolate is biomass," says Gaynor Hartnell of the Renewable Energy Association in London. "It is also very calorific, so burning seems a sensible idea."
    • Biodiesel
      • Clean
      • Non Toxic
      • ‘Carbon Neutral (?)’
    • The Chemistry of Biodiesel Triglyceride (Vegetable Oil)
    • Algae
      • Research into ‘Hydrogen Producing’ Algae
      • Research into using algae with pyrolysis to make ‘syngas’
      • Algae Biodiesel
    • Wind Power
    • Power Available From The Wind
      • P = Power
      • ρ = Density of Air
      • π = pi – 3.14…
      • r = Radius of Turbine
      • v = Velocity
    • Density of Air
      • The Density of Air Changes with Altitude and atmospheric conditions…
      • As an baseline, on a cool 15°C day at sea level, air density is 1.225 kg m -3
    • What Does This Tell Us? Energy available to the turbine increases as a ‘ cube’ of wind speed Economies of scale with scaling up turbines. Power increases as a square of the radius of the turbine.
    • Suggested Reading
      • George Monbiot ( www.monbiot.com )
      • New Scientist, 3rd October 2006
      • “ Small is Useless”
      • Monbiot asserts… “Micro generation can’t solve climate change”
    • Betz’ Law
      • Developed by Albert Betz, German Physicist.
      • Regardless of design of turbine Betz’ limit applies
      • It states maximum amount of energy a turbine can extract from moving air is 59%
    • Wind Energy Myths
      • DTI Wind Power: 10 Myths Explained
        • A single 1.8MW turbine provides power for 1,000 homes.
        • Existing wind capacity provides power for 500,000 homes.
        • The energy used to manufacture a wind turbine is recovered within 3-5 months.
        • Over the life of a turbine, the energy in manufacture will be repaid at least 50 times.
    • Climate Change
      • Denmark has a turbine density 30 times that of the UK (DTI)
      • To produce 10% of our electricity by wind we would need to increase current capacity by a factor of one and a half times again.
    • ‘Wind Trees’ Source: www.inhabitat.com
    • ‘Wind Trees’
      • One Architecture, Tom Matton, NL Architects
      • Commissioned by the Dutch Government
      • Hold up to 8 Turbines
      • 120 Metres High
    • Grimshaw Aerogenerator Source: www.ecogeek.org
    • Grimshaw Aerogenerator
      • Design Concept
      • Spins at 3 rpm
      • Generates a projected 9MW
      • Omnidirectional
      • Possibility to integrate wave/tidal power
      • 3-5 years development reauired
    • Display Turbines Source: www.ecogeek.org
    • Display Turbines
      • Provides additional income stream at the expense of some energy.
      • Turbine ‘scans’ a row of LED’s across the onlooker’s field of view.
      • The LED’s are rapidly turned on and off by a microcontroller.
      • Persistence of vision allows the viewer to see the display as a complete image.
    • Hydrogen Fuel Cells
    • William Robert Grove
    • Hydrogen Fuel Cells
      • Hydrogen Is Not An ‘Energy Source’ It Is An ‘Energy Carrier’.
      • Hydrogen Is Only ‘Clean’ If It Is Produced In A Sustainable Manner.
      • ‘Long Tailpipe’ Argument
      • Only Emission At Point Of Use Is Water
      • Not Limited By ‘Carnot Efficiency’ of Thermal Engines
    • Significance of Hydrogen for Renewable Energy
      • Provides A Means Of ‘Storing Power’
      • Turns ‘Renewable Energy’ into ‘Transportable Fuel’
      • Technology Capable of Displacing Oil For Transport
    • How Fuel Cells Integrate With Renewables
    • Types of Fuel Cell
      • Alkaline Fuel Cell
      • Proton Exchange Membrane
        • AKA. (Polymer Electrolyte Membrane)
      • Direct Methanol Fuel Cell
      • Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell
      • Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell
      • Solid Oxide Fuel Cell
    • Hydrogen In Oxygen In Exhaust Out Proton Exchange Membrane Catalyst Electrical Current
    • H H H H H H
    • H H H H + + H H + + e - e - e - e - e -
    • O O e - e - e - e - e - H H + + H H + + O O
    • O O e - e - e - e - e - H H + + H H + + O O
    • O O H 2 O H 2 O H 2 O H H + + e - e -
    • Hydrogen Production
      • Electrolysis (Renewable Energy)
      • Biomass Gasification & Reformation
      • Steam Reformation of Fossil Fuel
      • Photoelectrolysis
      • ‘ Clean’ Coal
      • Biologically Produced Hydrogen
    • Fuel Cell Applications
      • Portable Electronic Devices
      • ‘Private’ Transport
      • ‘Public’ Transport
      • Marine Transport
      • Power Distribution
    • Technology Status
      • Major Vehicle Manufactures Say ‘2010’ For ‘General Sale’
      • Infrastructure Barrier
      • ‘Platinum’ Provides Cost Barrier
        • 2002 £600 For Every kW Output
        • 2007 £20 For Every kW Output
    • Further Reading
      • www.makezine.com
      • Search for: “Build Your Own Band Aid Fuel Cell”
    • The Obligatory Book Plug Solar Energy Projects for the Evil Genius Mc Graw Hill Professional ISBN-10: 0071477721 ISBN-13: 978-0071477727 Gavin D. J. Harper TREMENDOUS VALUE At the meagre sum of… £12.47 (www.amazon.co.uk) $16.47 (www.amazon.com)
    •