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Complexity And The Environment
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Complexity And The Environment Presentation Transcript

  • 1.  
  • 2. About The Speaker
    • Author
      • 50 Awesome Auto Projects for the Evil Genius
      • Build Your Own Car PC
      • 50 Model Rocket Projects for the Evil Genius
      • Domestic Solar Energy
      • Solar Energy Projects for the Evil Genius
      • 101 Fuel Cell Projects for the Evil Genius
    • Diploma Design & Innovation
    • BSc. (Hons.) Technology (Open) 2(i)
    • MSc. Architecture: Advanced Environmental & Energy Studies
      • (Awaiting result)
    • Worked on ‘Alternative Energy Strategy’ 2007 Think Tank @ Centre for Alternative Technology
    • Advised Members of U.S. Congress On Energy Policy
      • Working on Dennis Kucinich’s Presidential Energy Manifesto for the U.S.
  • 3. Renewable Energy – Powering Your Future Gavin D. J. Harper
  • 4. Why Renewables?
    • Predictable Shortage Of Fossil Fuels
    • Enduring Energy Security
    • No ‘Wastes’
    • Carbon Emissions / Climate Change
  • 5. Hubbert’s Peak
    • M. King Hubbert 1956
    • Presented to the
    • American Petroleum Institute in 1956
    • Peak Oil
    • Peak Coal
    • Peak Gas
    • Peak Uranium
  • 6. Hubbert’s Peak Theory
    • Production at first increases approximately exponentially, as more extraction commences and more efficient facilities are installed. At some point, a peak output is reached, and production begins declining until it approximates an exponential decline.
  • 7. Carbon Emissions
  • 8. Climate Change
    • Producing 10% of UK electricity from renewables by 2010 could cut carbon emissions by 2.5 million tonnes p.a. (DTI)
  • 9.  
  • 10. Concerns About Renewables
    • Intermittency
    • Small ‘Unit Size’
  • 11. Concerns - Intermittency
    • Geographically distributed renewables ‘even out’ variations.
    • Load balancing
      • Pumped Storage
        • Dinorwig
        • ‘ Quarries as Batteries’
      • Fuel Cells
  • 12. Solar Energy
  • 13.  
  • 14. Solar Energy Stats
    • 164 W m -2 on average over the Earth’s surface over the course of 24 hours
    • The Earth Receives 84TW power
  • 15. Seasonal Variation (Northern Hemisphere)
  • 16. Sunpath Diagrams
  • 17. Orient Solar Collectors To Maximise Power Output
  • 18. Angle of Incidence Affects Power Output
    • The same area of light coming at an angle is spread over a larger area.
  • 19. Solar Trackers
  • 20. History of the Solar Cell
    • Photovoltaic Effect - Alexandre-Edmond Becquerel. (1833)
    • First Solar Cell Made – Charles Fritts (1883)
    • Russell Ohl Patents first Solar Cell US2402662 “Light sensitive device” (1946)
    • Bell Laboratories discover doped silicon responsive to light (1954)
  • 21. Types of Solar Cell
    • Cell Material Efficiency Area For 1 kW Peak
    • Monocrystalline Silicon 15-18% 7-9m 2
    • Polycrystalline Silicon 13-16% 8-11m 2
    • Thin Film (CIS) 7.5-9.5% 11-13m 2
    • Thin Film Cadmium Telluride 6-9% 14-18m 2
    • Amorphous Silicon 5-8% 16-20m 2
  • 22. Silicon
  • 23. Phosphorus Doping ‘Adds’ an Electron
  • 24. Boron Doping ‘Removes’ an Electron
  • 25. Monocrystalline Solar Cell
    • Silicon Solar Cell
    • PN Junction
  • 26. Nanosolar Source: www.treehugger.com
  • 27. Nanosolar
    • Printable Solar Production Process
    • Copper-Indium-Gallium-Selenium on Polymer Substrate (thin film).
    • Cells estimated to cost 1/5 th to 1/10 th cost of traditional silicon cell.
    • New plant capacity of 430MW / year.
  • 28. Photochemical Solar Cells
  • 29.  
  • 30.  
  • 31. Photovoltaic Organic LED’s Source: www.ecogeek.org
  • 32. Photovoltaic Organic LED’s
    • Combines Light-Emitting Diode with the ability to generate electricity.
    • Research undertaken at Cornell University.
    • Process needs efficiency-boost to practical.
    • Possibility for windows that generate power in the day and illuminate at night.
  • 33. Holographic Solar Cells Source: www.prismsolar.com
  • 34. Holographic Solar Cells
    • Use Holographic Optical Elements to concentrate light.
    • More compact, and lighter than traditional concentrators.
    • 25-85% reduction in silicon Watt for Watt
    • Possible cost reductions of up to 75%?
    • Multiplies light falling on cells by up to 10%.
  • 35. ‘ EnviroMission’ Solar Tower Source: www.ecogeek.org
  • 36. ‘ EnviroMission’ Solar Tower
    • Functioning Experimental Prototype Solar Tower in Spain
    • 1600 feet tall, 260 feet diameter
    • Two mile diameter canopy
    • Planned for Australia, China, America
    • Power for a small city
  • 37. Hydro Power
  • 38.  
  • 39. Hydropower Technologies
    • ‘Traditional’ Large Hydro (Big Dams)
    • Micro Hydro (Small Rivers / Streams)
    • Wave Power
      • Waves Driven By Wind On The Sea
      • Less Predictable
    • Tidal Power
      • Lunar Driven Process
      • Very Predictable
  • 40. Wave Power
    • "The World Energy Council has estimated the ‘useful’ global ocean wave energy resource as ... >2TW (17,500TWh/year). From this it has been estimated (Thorpe 1999) that the practical economic contribution from wave energy converters could be 2,000TWh/year (similar to current installed nuclear or hydroelectric generation capacity). Such generating capacity could result in up to 2 billion tonnes of CO2 emissions being displaced from fossil fuel generation per year - similar to current emissions from electricity generation in the US."
      • via. www.treehugger.com
  • 41. Hydropower Physics
    • The amount of power a hydroelectric dam can produce is determined by the amount of potential energy stored in the water behind the dam.
    • The water is at a height (head) above the turbine, and the amount of work it can do is the product of the head and the weight of the water.
  • 42. Hydropower Physics
    • E = mgh
    • E = Energy
    • m = mass
    • g = acceleration due to gravity (9.8 m s -1 )
    • h = Height
  • 43. Hydropower Physics
    • The height of the dam will not change so the head remains constant.
    • The force as a result of gravity does not change.
    • So the only things that change over time is the mass flowing through the turbine – which is directly proportional to the energy produced.
  • 44. Hydropower Physics
    • E = Energy
    • t = Time
    • m = Mass
    • g = Gravity
    • h = Height
  • 45. Biofuels
  • 46. Biofuels
    • Biogas
    • Waste as a Resource
    • Ethanol
    • Biodiesel
    • Wood
    • Algae
  • 47. Biogas
    • Anaerobic Digestion of Wastes
      • Sewerage
      • Agricultural Wastes / Slurry
      • Food Processing Waste
    • Pyrolysis – Production of Syngas
      • Syngas – Carbon Monoxide / Hydrogen
  • 48. Waste as a Resource Waste Pyrolysis Synthesis Gas Combustion Heat & Power
    • Wide Range of Feedstocks
    • Combustion / Fuel Cell Technology
    • Good Waste Management Practise
  • 49. Waste as a Resource Science 7 July 2006: Vol. 313. no. 5783, p. 25 DOI: 10.1126/science.313.5783.25d 250 Tonnes of Chocolate Volume = 33 Double Deckers 33 of these Not these
  • 50. Waste as a Resource
    • … if the chocolate were burned for energy, it could provide 5500 gigajoules (1,530,000 kilowatt-hours)--enough to power a town of 90,000 people for a week. "Chocolate is biomass," says Gaynor Hartnell of the Renewable Energy Association in London. "It is also very calorific, so burning seems a sensible idea."
  • 51. Biodiesel
    • Clean
    • Non Toxic
    • ‘Carbon Neutral (?)’
  • 52. The Chemistry of Biodiesel Triglyceride (Vegetable Oil)
  • 53. Algae
    • Research into ‘Hydrogen Producing’ Algae
    • Research into using algae with pyrolysis to make ‘syngas’
    • Algae Biodiesel
  • 54. Wind Power
  • 55. Power Available From The Wind
    • P = Power
    • ρ = Density of Air
    • π = pi – 3.14…
    • r = Radius of Turbine
    • v = Velocity
  • 56. Density of Air
    • The Density of Air Changes with Altitude and atmospheric conditions…
    • As an baseline, on a cool 15°C day at sea level, air density is 1.225 kg m -3
  • 57. What Does This Tell Us? Energy available to the turbine increases as a ‘ cube’ of wind speed Economies of scale with scaling up turbines. Power increases as a square of the radius of the turbine.
  • 58. Suggested Reading
    • George Monbiot ( www.monbiot.com )
    • New Scientist, 3rd October 2006
    • “ Small is Useless”
    • Monbiot asserts… “Micro generation can’t solve climate change”
  • 59. Betz’ Law
    • Developed by Albert Betz, German Physicist.
    • Regardless of design of turbine Betz’ limit applies
    • It states maximum amount of energy a turbine can extract from moving air is 59%
  • 60. Wind Energy Myths
    • DTI Wind Power: 10 Myths Explained
      • A single 1.8MW turbine provides power for 1,000 homes.
      • Existing wind capacity provides power for 500,000 homes.
      • The energy used to manufacture a wind turbine is recovered within 3-5 months.
      • Over the life of a turbine, the energy in manufacture will be repaid at least 50 times.
  • 61. Climate Change
    • Denmark has a turbine density 30 times that of the UK (DTI)
    • To produce 10% of our electricity by wind we would need to increase current capacity by a factor of one and a half times again.
  • 62. ‘Wind Trees’ Source: www.inhabitat.com
  • 63. ‘Wind Trees’
    • One Architecture, Tom Matton, NL Architects
    • Commissioned by the Dutch Government
    • Hold up to 8 Turbines
    • 120 Metres High
  • 64. Grimshaw Aerogenerator Source: www.ecogeek.org
  • 65. Grimshaw Aerogenerator
    • Design Concept
    • Spins at 3 rpm
    • Generates a projected 9MW
    • Omnidirectional
    • Possibility to integrate wave/tidal power
    • 3-5 years development reauired
  • 66. Display Turbines Source: www.ecogeek.org
  • 67. Display Turbines
    • Provides additional income stream at the expense of some energy.
    • Turbine ‘scans’ a row of LED’s across the onlooker’s field of view.
    • The LED’s are rapidly turned on and off by a microcontroller.
    • Persistence of vision allows the viewer to see the display as a complete image.
  • 68. Hydrogen Fuel Cells
  • 69. William Robert Grove
  • 70. Hydrogen Fuel Cells
    • Hydrogen Is Not An ‘Energy Source’ It Is An ‘Energy Carrier’.
    • Hydrogen Is Only ‘Clean’ If It Is Produced In A Sustainable Manner.
    • ‘Long Tailpipe’ Argument
    • Only Emission At Point Of Use Is Water
    • Not Limited By ‘Carnot Efficiency’ of Thermal Engines
  • 71. Significance of Hydrogen for Renewable Energy
    • Provides A Means Of ‘Storing Power’
    • Turns ‘Renewable Energy’ into ‘Transportable Fuel’
    • Technology Capable of Displacing Oil For Transport
  • 72. How Fuel Cells Integrate With Renewables
  • 73. Types of Fuel Cell
    • Alkaline Fuel Cell
    • Proton Exchange Membrane
      • AKA. (Polymer Electrolyte Membrane)
    • Direct Methanol Fuel Cell
    • Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell
    • Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell
    • Solid Oxide Fuel Cell
  • 74. Hydrogen In Oxygen In Exhaust Out Proton Exchange Membrane Catalyst Electrical Current
  • 75. H H H H H H
  • 76. H H H H + + H H + + e - e - e - e - e -
  • 77. O O e - e - e - e - e - H H + + H H + + O O
  • 78. O O e - e - e - e - e - H H + + H H + + O O
  • 79. O O H 2 O H 2 O H 2 O H H + + e - e -
  • 80. Hydrogen Production
    • Electrolysis (Renewable Energy)
    • Biomass Gasification & Reformation
    • Steam Reformation of Fossil Fuel
    • Photoelectrolysis
    • ‘ Clean’ Coal
    • Biologically Produced Hydrogen
  • 81. Fuel Cell Applications
    • Portable Electronic Devices
    • ‘Private’ Transport
    • ‘Public’ Transport
    • Marine Transport
    • Power Distribution
  • 82. Technology Status
    • Major Vehicle Manufactures Say ‘2010’ For ‘General Sale’
    • Infrastructure Barrier
    • ‘Platinum’ Provides Cost Barrier
      • 2002 £600 For Every kW Output
      • 2007 £20 For Every kW Output
  • 83. Further Reading
    • www.makezine.com
    • Search for: “Build Your Own Band Aid Fuel Cell”
  • 84. The Obligatory Book Plug Solar Energy Projects for the Evil Genius Mc Graw Hill Professional ISBN-10: 0071477721 ISBN-13: 978-0071477727 Gavin D. J. Harper TREMENDOUS VALUE At the meagre sum of… £12.47 (www.amazon.co.uk) $16.47 (www.amazon.com)
  • 85.