About The Speaker <ul><li>Author  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>50 Awesome Auto Projects for the Evil Genius </li></ul></ul><ul><u...
Building Integrated Renewables Gavin D. J. Harper
Why Renewables? <ul><li>Predictable Shortage Of Fossil Fuels </li></ul><ul><li>Enduring Energy Security </li></ul><ul><li>...
Hubbert’s Peak <ul><li>M. King Hubbert 1956 </li></ul><ul><li>Presented to the  </li></ul><ul><li>American Petroleum Insti...
Hubbert’s Peak Theory <ul><li>Production at first increases approximately exponentially, as more extraction commences and ...
Carbon Emissions
UK emissions reduction targets <ul><li>The government has agreed a number of targets to reduce releases of greenhouse gase...
DTI Energy White Paper <ul><li>20% reduction in CO2 emissions below 1990 levels by 2010 </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce CO2 emiss...
Climate Change <ul><li>Average annual increase in UK temperature is expected to be around 2.5 to 3.5oC by 2080. </li></ul>...
Economic Drivers
Building Regulations : Part L <ul><li>CO2 Emissions Performance Goal </li></ul><ul><li>Scrutinizes Energy Management </li>...
Consider Renewables Last- Not First <ul><li>Stage One </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Remove unnecessary loads, design for efficienc...
Stage One – Remove Loads <ul><li>Ensure Airtightness </li></ul><ul><li>Low u-values </li></ul><ul><li>Efficient Structure ...
Stage Two – Optimise Loads <ul><li>High Efficiency Lighting </li></ul><ul><li>Heat Recovery </li></ul><ul><li>Variable Dri...
Stage Three – Renewable Power <ul><li>Solar </li></ul><ul><li>Wind </li></ul><ul><li>Biomass </li></ul><ul><li>Geothermal ...
Why Renewables for Electricity?
Digest of UK Energy Statistics - DTI
Renewables Planning <ul><li>The Merton Rule </li></ul><ul><li>Mayor Ken Livingstone’s Energy Strategy, Proposal 13 </li></ul>
Mayor’s Directive <ul><li>Proposal 13 in the Mayor’s Energy Strategy reads: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“…  generate  at least 1...
The Merton Rule <ul><li>The London Borough of Merton was the first to formalise the governments renewable energy targets i...
The Merton Rule <ul><li>Liverpool is considered to be ‘actively progressing’ towards a Merton Rule style directive. </li><...
Things to consider: <ul><li>There should be reference to impact on landscape, townscape, natural, historical and cultural ...
Things to consider: <ul><li>Consideration should be given to the wider environmental, economic and social benefits of rene...
Funding <ul><li>The Low Carbon Buildings Programme (LCBP) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For Business / Public / Not For Profit </l...
Planning Permission <ul><li>All micro wind requires planning consent. </li></ul><ul><li>Decisions must be in accordance wi...
Solar Energy
SOLAR
Solar Energy Stats <ul><li>164 W m -2  on average over the Earth’s surface over the course of 24 hours </li></ul><ul><li>T...
Seasonal Variation (Northern Hemisphere) SOLAR
Sunpath Diagrams SOLAR
Orient Solar Collectors To Maximise Power Output SOLAR
Angle of Incidence Affects Power Output <ul><li>The same area of light coming at an angle is spread over a larger area. </...
Solar Photovoltaic Advantages <ul><li>No Noise </li></ul><ul><li>No Emissions </li></ul><ul><li>Minimal Visual Intrusion <...
Types of Solar Cell <ul><li>Cell Material Efficiency Area For 1 kW Peak </li></ul><ul><li>Monocrystalline Silicon  15-18% ...
PV Terminology SOLAR
Inverters SOLAR
Orientation <ul><li>South facing </li></ul><ul><li>Pitch of between 20 and 50 degrees optimal </li></ul>SOLAR
Occupant Feedback <ul><li>Raises awareness of renewable energy </li></ul><ul><li>Promotes ‘energy aware’ habits </li></ul>...
Nanosolar SOLAR Source: www.treehugger.com
Nanosolar <ul><li>Printable Solar Production Process </li></ul><ul><li>Copper-Indium-Gallium-Selenium on Polymer Substrate...
Solar for Electricity <ul><li>Convert light to electricity </li></ul><ul><li>1kWp costs £4000 - £8000 depending on size of...
Solar for Electricity : Case Study <ul><li>Ormiston Wire </li></ul><ul><li>10.2kWp installed at a small manufacturing unit...
Solar for Thermal <ul><li>Evacuated Tubes </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Thermos Flask Principle’ </li></ul><ul><li>Each individual t...
Selective Coatings <ul><li>Black Bodies Absorb Most Light </li></ul><ul><li>But… Also “Re emit” infrared radiation as they...
Solar Water Heating : Case Study <ul><li>Thamesmead, London </li></ul><ul><li>39 two to four bedroom homes </li></ul><ul><...
Biofuels
Biofuels BIOFUEL
Biofuels <ul><li>Biomass </li></ul><ul><li>Biogas </li></ul><ul><li>Waste as a Resource </li></ul><ul><li>Ethanol </li></u...
Biomass BIOFUEL
Biomass <ul><li>Woodchips,  </li></ul><ul><li>Wood Pellets </li></ul><ul><li>Straw Bales </li></ul><ul><li>Require local r...
Automatic Wood Heating <ul><li>Automatic Feed </li></ul><ul><li>Electric Ignition </li></ul><ul><li>Remote Monitoring </li...
Advantages of Wood Heating <ul><li>Mature, reliable technology   </li></ul><ul><li>25 years of development, hundreds of th...
Options for Heating with Wood (UK) <ul><li>Recycled wood – more than 1 million tonnes ODT </li></ul><ul><li>Arboricultural...
Options for Heating with Wood (Import) <ul><li>Wood chips </li></ul><ul><li>Pellets </li></ul><ul><li>Olive cake and pits ...
Cost of Heating With Wood <ul><li>Wood chip £30/tonne  (@25% mc)  </li></ul><ul><li>Wood chip £50/tonne  (@25% mc) </li></...
Cost of Heating With Wood BIOFUEL
Combined Heat & Power BIOFUEL
Why Combined Heat & Power? <ul><li>When fuel is burnt to produce electricity, there is a by-product of excess waste heat. ...
Case Study : Biomass CHP Boiler <ul><li>Bed ‘not-quite’ ZED </li></ul><ul><li>Problems with Biomass Boiler </li></ul><ul><...
Case Study :  Kingsmead Primary School, Cheshire <ul><li>50kW </li></ul><ul><li>Wood pellets are sourced locally through a...
The Future? - Fuel Cell CHP <ul><li>Higher Efficiency </li></ul><ul><li>Run on Hydrogen – Water Emissions </li></ul><ul><l...
Wind Power
Horizontal vs. Vertical Axis Turbines WIND
Power Available From The Wind <ul><li>P = Power </li></ul><ul><li>ρ  = Density of Air </li></ul><ul><li>π  = pi – 3.14… </...
Density of Air <ul><li>The Density of Air Changes with Altitude and atmospheric conditions…  </li></ul><ul><li>As an basel...
What Does This Tell Us? WIND Energy available  to the turbine increases as a  ‘ cube’ of wind speed   Economies of scale  ...
Turbine Size WIND
Case Study: Swift Turbine <ul><li>Manufactured by Renewable Devices </li></ul><ul><li>Scottish & Southern Energy has 20% s...
Case Study: Swift Turbine <ul><li>Innovative design reduces noise of turbine to under 35db. </li></ul><ul><li>Means no obj...
Case Study : Windsave <ul><li>Sales agreement with B&Q </li></ul><ul><li>Installation agreement with British Gas </li></ul...
Case Study Swift vs. Windsave <ul><li>Swift Windsave </li></ul><ul><li>Rated power (W) 1500 1000 </li></ul><ul><li>Cost (£...
Case Study Swift vs. Windsave <ul><li>Swift looks best option. </li></ul><ul><li>Windsave will look better when accredited...
Suggested Reading <ul><li>George Monbiot ( www.monbiot.com ) </li></ul><ul><li>New Scientist, 3rd October 2006  </li></ul>...
Wind Energy Myths <ul><li>DTI Wind Power: 10 Myths Explained </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A single 1.8MW turbine provides power f...
Wind Energy Myths <ul><li>BWEA </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Birds ocassionally collide with turbines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>N...
Wind Energy Myths <ul><li>BWEAMicro wind unlinkely to cause interference with: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Broadcasts </li></ul>...
Financial Breakdown <ul><li>Cost (£) Annual Output (kWh)Payback time (yrs) </li></ul><ul><li>0.6kW (domestic) 2770   1315 ...
Maintenance <ul><ul><li>Turbines designed for long life – 20 years + </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Should not require mainten...
What Windspeed Do I Need? <ul><li>Small turbines start to generate electricity in wind speeds of approximately 3-4 m/s </l...
UK National Windspeed Database <ul><li>Values stored averaged for 1km squares </li></ul>WIND
On-Site Assessment of Windspeed <ul><li>Carried out using anemometer datalogger </li></ul><ul><li>•  www.windandsun.co.uk ...
Other Small Turbines <ul><li>Manufacturer (kW) Website </li></ul><ul><li>Iskra 5 www.iskrawind.com </li></ul><ul><li>Gazel...
Display Turbines WIND Source: www.ecogeek.org
Display Turbines <ul><li>Provides additional income stream at the expense of some energy. </li></ul><ul><li>Turbine ‘scans...
Case Study : Ford UK Dagenham Plant <ul><li>2 x 1.8 MW Turbines </li></ul><ul><li>100% of site electricity requirement </l...
Geothermal Energy
How Does Geothermal Power Work <ul><li>The Earth absorbs energy from the sun, and stores it underground in the form of hea...
How Does Geothermal Power Work <ul><li>Outside Air Temperature </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fluctuates with the seasons </li></ul...
Case Study: Reykjavik <ul><li>In Reykjavik, the capital of Iceland, 95% of the buildings are supplied by hot water at 86 °...
Heat Pumps <ul><li>‘ Transfers’ Heat – Does not ‘create’ heat </li></ul><ul><li>Proven Technology 500,000 units worldwide....
What Can I Use GSHP’s For? <ul><li>Space Heating </li></ul><ul><li>Water Heating </li></ul><ul><li>Heat Recovery </li></ul...
What Are The Components Of A Geothermal System? <ul><li>Heat Pump </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inside the building, takes heat fr...
Open / Closed Loop Systems <ul><li>Open Loop </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Water extracted from an aquifer, heat is added or remov...
Horizontal vs. Vertical Loop Systems GEOTHERMAL Image Source: www.redcar.cleveland.gov.uk
Horizontal Loop System <ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Requires no boring </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Only 6ft bel...
Vertical Loop System <ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be installed on a small land area. </li></ul></ul><ul><l...
Pond Loop System <ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Water has superior heat transfer properties to earth. </li></ul>...
How Big Are The Coils? <ul><li>50-100m for an ‘average’ house </li></ul><ul><li>Commercial Dwelling can entail 1000’s metr...
Heat Pump Efficiency <ul><li>As a rule of thumb, for every “1kWh” input to a heat pump system, it will provide around “3-4...
Case Study : IKEA Distribution Centre <ul><li>198 kW heating </li></ul><ul><li>232 kW cooling </li></ul>GEOTHERMAL
Case Study: GSHP & HE Boilers Compared <ul><li>Electricity Carbon Emissions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Take 0.422kg as the CO2 ...
Case Study: GSHP & HE Boilers Compared <ul><li>Ground Source Heat Pump </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A GSHP produces 4 times more ...
Case Study: GSHP & HE Boilers Compared <ul><li>Ground Source Heat Pump </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A GSHP produces 4 times more ...
Case Study: GSHP & HE Boilers Compared <ul><li>Ground Source Heat Pump </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A GSHP produces 4 times more ...
Case Study: GSHP & HE Boilers Compared <ul><li>To produce 1kWh heat output </li></ul><ul><li>GSHP = 0.422 / 4 = 0.106kg CO...
Recommended Reading <ul><li>http://www.nextenergysolutions.com/multimedia/HowGeothermalWorks.mov </li></ul>GEOTHERMAL
Buying Off-Site Renewable Electricity
Buying Renewable Energy From A Supplier <ul><li>No up-front investment </li></ul><ul><li>Easy </li></ul><ul><li>No On-Goin...
<ul><li>Ecotricity </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.ecotricity.co.uk/   </li></ul><ul><li>Good Energy </li></ul><ul><li>http:/...
The Obligatory Book Plug SOLAR Solar Energy Projects for the Evil Genius Mc Graw Hill Professional ISBN-10:  0071477721  I...
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Building Integrated Renewables Public

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  • The materials with which we build and furnish places for worship are not merely functional. They create an
    environment for liturgy that is either inspiring or insipid, sacramental to specious.
    Building Maintenance Merton
    This essay argues that the classic materials of church architecture and
    art?limestone, marble, slate, terra cotta, oak, gold leaf and others?serve the action of the liturgy
    better than plastics, polyesters and laminates.
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Building Integrated Renewables Public

  1. 2. About The Speaker <ul><li>Author </li></ul><ul><ul><li>50 Awesome Auto Projects for the Evil Genius </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Build Your Own Car PC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>50 Model Rocket Projects for the Evil Genius </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Domestic Solar Energy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Solar Energy Projects for the Evil Genius </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fuel Cell Projects for the Evil Genius </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Diploma Design & Innovation </li></ul><ul><li>BSc. (Hons.) Technology (Open) 2(i) </li></ul><ul><li>MSc. Architecture: Advanced Environmental & Energy Studies </li></ul><ul><li>Worked on ‘Alternative Energy Strategy’ 2007 </li></ul>
  2. 3. Building Integrated Renewables Gavin D. J. Harper
  3. 4. Why Renewables? <ul><li>Predictable Shortage Of Fossil Fuels </li></ul><ul><li>Enduring Energy Security </li></ul><ul><li>No ‘Wastes’ </li></ul><ul><li>Carbon Emissions / Climate Change </li></ul>
  4. 5. Hubbert’s Peak <ul><li>M. King Hubbert 1956 </li></ul><ul><li>Presented to the </li></ul><ul><li>American Petroleum Institute in 1956 </li></ul><ul><li>Peak Oil </li></ul><ul><li>Peak Coal </li></ul><ul><li>Peak Gas </li></ul><ul><li>Peak Uranium </li></ul>
  5. 6. Hubbert’s Peak Theory <ul><li>Production at first increases approximately exponentially, as more extraction commences and more efficient facilities are installed. At some point, a peak output is reached, and production begins declining until it approximates an exponential decline. </li></ul>
  6. 7. Carbon Emissions
  7. 8. UK emissions reduction targets <ul><li>The government has agreed a number of targets to reduce releases of greenhouse gases: </li></ul><ul><li>As part of the Kyoto Protocol, reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 12.5% below 1990 levels by 2012. </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce CO2 emissions by 20% from a 1990 baseline by the year 2010. </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce CO2 emissions 'by some 60% by about 2050'. </li></ul><ul><li>In March 2005 EU Heads of State agreed greenhouse gases must be reduced by 15-30% by 2020 from 1990 levels. </li></ul><ul><li>Produce 10% of energy from renewable sources by 2010 and 15% by 2015, with an aspiration of 20% by 2020. </li></ul>
  8. 9. DTI Energy White Paper <ul><li>20% reduction in CO2 emissions below 1990 levels by 2010 </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce CO2 emissions by 60% by about 2050 with real progress by 2020 </li></ul><ul><li>10% generation from renewables by 2010 </li></ul>
  9. 10. Climate Change <ul><li>Average annual increase in UK temperature is expected to be around 2.5 to 3.5oC by 2080. </li></ul><ul><li>Increase of up to 50C in the south </li></ul>
  10. 11. Economic Drivers
  11. 12. Building Regulations : Part L <ul><li>CO2 Emissions Performance Goal </li></ul><ul><li>Scrutinizes Energy Management </li></ul>
  12. 13. Consider Renewables Last- Not First <ul><li>Stage One </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Remove unnecessary loads, design for efficiency and low energy. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Stage Two </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Whatever loads you are left with control efficiently. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Stage Three </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Then look at meeting this load with renewables. </li></ul></ul>
  13. 14. Stage One – Remove Loads <ul><li>Ensure Airtightness </li></ul><ul><li>Low u-values </li></ul><ul><li>Efficient Structure </li></ul><ul><li>Solar Shading </li></ul><ul><li>Use Natural Light Where Possible </li></ul><ul><li>Remove Unnecessary Devices </li></ul>
  14. 15. Stage Two – Optimise Loads <ul><li>High Efficiency Lighting </li></ul><ul><li>Heat Recovery </li></ul><ul><li>Variable Drives / Solid State Drives </li></ul><ul><li>Lighting Control Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Building Energy Managements Systems </li></ul>
  15. 16. Stage Three – Renewable Power <ul><li>Solar </li></ul><ul><li>Wind </li></ul><ul><li>Biomass </li></ul><ul><li>Geothermal </li></ul><ul><li>Hydro??? – If site suits. </li></ul>
  16. 17. Why Renewables for Electricity?
  17. 18. Digest of UK Energy Statistics - DTI
  18. 19. Renewables Planning <ul><li>The Merton Rule </li></ul><ul><li>Mayor Ken Livingstone’s Energy Strategy, Proposal 13 </li></ul>
  19. 20. Mayor’s Directive <ul><li>Proposal 13 in the Mayor’s Energy Strategy reads: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“… generate at least 10% of a site’s demand for energy (electricity and heat) on site from renewable resources where feasible…” </li></ul></ul>
  20. 21. The Merton Rule <ul><li>The London Borough of Merton was the first to formalise the governments renewable energy targets in its adopted UDP, setting the target for the use of onsite renewable energy to reduce annual CO 2 emissions for all new major developments* in the borough by 10%. </li></ul>
  21. 22. The Merton Rule <ul><li>Liverpool is considered to be ‘actively progressing’ towards a Merton Rule style directive. </li></ul><ul><li>Source: www.themertonrule.org </li></ul>
  22. 23. Things to consider: <ul><li>There should be reference to impact on landscape, townscape, natural, historical and cultural features and areas. </li></ul><ul><li>Is the development appropriate for the area (Avoid “NIMBYism”). </li></ul>
  23. 24. Things to consider: <ul><li>Consideration should be given to the wider environmental, economic and social benefits of renewable energy developments. </li></ul><ul><li>What effect will the technology have on the area, who will benefit? </li></ul>
  24. 25. Funding <ul><li>The Low Carbon Buildings Programme (LCBP) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For Business / Public / Not For Profit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Grants cover 40-50% of the total installation costs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>some organisations may be able to seek match funding remainder </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>public funds or government aid. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>www.lowcarbonbuildings.org.uk/home. </li></ul></ul>
  25. 26. Planning Permission <ul><li>All micro wind requires planning consent. </li></ul><ul><li>Decisions must be in accordance with PPS22, PAN45 or TAN8 – the national RE policies for England, Scotland and Wales. </li></ul><ul><li>Right to appeal if refused </li></ul>
  26. 27. Solar Energy
  27. 28. SOLAR
  28. 29. Solar Energy Stats <ul><li>164 W m -2 on average over the Earth’s surface over the course of 24 hours </li></ul><ul><li>The Earth Receives 84TW power </li></ul>SOLAR
  29. 30. Seasonal Variation (Northern Hemisphere) SOLAR
  30. 31. Sunpath Diagrams SOLAR
  31. 32. Orient Solar Collectors To Maximise Power Output SOLAR
  32. 33. Angle of Incidence Affects Power Output <ul><li>The same area of light coming at an angle is spread over a larger area. </li></ul>SOLAR
  33. 34. Solar Photovoltaic Advantages <ul><li>No Noise </li></ul><ul><li>No Emissions </li></ul><ul><li>Minimal Visual Intrusion </li></ul><ul><li>Minimal / No maintenance </li></ul><ul><li>Can Be Integrated Into Building Structure </li></ul>SOLAR
  34. 35. Types of Solar Cell <ul><li>Cell Material Efficiency Area For 1 kW Peak </li></ul><ul><li>Monocrystalline Silicon 15-18% 7-9m 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Polycrystalline Silicon 13-16% 8-11m 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Thin Film (CIS) 7.5-9.5% 11-13m 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Thin Film Cadmium Telluride 6-9% 14-18m 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Amorphous Silicon 5-8% 16-20m 2 </li></ul>SOLAR
  35. 36. PV Terminology SOLAR
  36. 37. Inverters SOLAR
  37. 38. Orientation <ul><li>South facing </li></ul><ul><li>Pitch of between 20 and 50 degrees optimal </li></ul>SOLAR
  38. 39. Occupant Feedback <ul><li>Raises awareness of renewable energy </li></ul><ul><li>Promotes ‘energy aware’ habits </li></ul><ul><li>Feelgood factor </li></ul><ul><li>Display your ‘green credentials’ </li></ul>SOLAR
  39. 40. Nanosolar SOLAR Source: www.treehugger.com
  40. 41. Nanosolar <ul><li>Printable Solar Production Process </li></ul><ul><li>Copper-Indium-Gallium-Selenium on Polymer Substrate (thin film). </li></ul><ul><li>Cells estimated to cost 1/5 th to 1/10 th cost of traditional silicon cell. </li></ul><ul><li>New plant capacity of 430MW / year. </li></ul>SOLAR
  41. 42. Solar for Electricity <ul><li>Convert light to electricity </li></ul><ul><li>1kWp costs £4000 - £8000 depending on size of system </li></ul><ul><li>Around £42 of electricity per year for dwelling </li></ul><ul><li>Use as cladding or roof covering </li></ul>SOLAR
  42. 43. Solar for Electricity : Case Study <ul><li>Ormiston Wire </li></ul><ul><li>10.2kWp installed at a small manufacturing unit in West London </li></ul><ul><li>Total installed cost: £46,242 </li></ul>SOLAR
  43. 44. Solar for Thermal <ul><li>Evacuated Tubes </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Thermos Flask Principle’ </li></ul><ul><li>Each individual tube fits into a manifold. </li></ul>SOLAR
  44. 45. Selective Coatings <ul><li>Black Bodies Absorb Most Light </li></ul><ul><li>But… Also “Re emit” infrared radiation as they heat up. </li></ul><ul><li>Selective Coatings Absorb Lots and Re-emit Little. </li></ul>SOLAR
  45. 46. Solar Water Heating : Case Study <ul><li>Thamesmead, London </li></ul><ul><li>39 two to four bedroom homes </li></ul><ul><li>900 – 1300 kWh per annum, per unit </li></ul><ul><li>Dual coil, drain back type system </li></ul><ul><li>£2479 per house </li></ul>SOLAR
  46. 47. Biofuels
  47. 48. Biofuels BIOFUEL
  48. 49. Biofuels <ul><li>Biomass </li></ul><ul><li>Biogas </li></ul><ul><li>Waste as a Resource </li></ul><ul><li>Ethanol </li></ul><ul><li>Biodiesel </li></ul><ul><li>Wood </li></ul><ul><li>Algae </li></ul>BIOFUEL
  49. 50. Biomass BIOFUEL
  50. 51. Biomass <ul><li>Woodchips, </li></ul><ul><li>Wood Pellets </li></ul><ul><li>Straw Bales </li></ul><ul><li>Require local reliable supply of fuel </li></ul><ul><li>Burnt in boiler or CHP plant </li></ul><ul><li>Biomass CHP not well tested </li></ul><ul><li>Can be used to supply district heating networks </li></ul>BIOFUEL
  51. 52. Automatic Wood Heating <ul><li>Automatic Feed </li></ul><ul><li>Electric Ignition </li></ul><ul><li>Remote Monitoring </li></ul><ul><li>Efficiency 90%+ </li></ul>BIOFUEL
  52. 53. Advantages of Wood Heating <ul><li>Mature, reliable technology </li></ul><ul><li>25 years of development, hundreds of thousands of systems operational in mainland Europe </li></ul><ul><li>High Efficiency </li></ul><ul><li>85-90%+ efficiency means the biomass resource is used well </li></ul><ul><li>Appropriate Scale </li></ul><ul><li>Appropriate scale from domestic to industrial (up to 10MW), including steam </li></ul><ul><li>Biomass resource can be sourced locally, encourages local fuel supply </li></ul>BIOFUEL
  53. 54. Options for Heating with Wood (UK) <ul><li>Recycled wood – more than 1 million tonnes ODT </li></ul><ul><li>Arboricultural arisings – officially 0.5mt but >100,000 ODT in London alone </li></ul><ul><li>Forest Residues </li></ul><ul><li>Roundwood </li></ul><ul><li>Energy Crops – SRC willow, Miscanthus, SRF – birch, ash, eucalyptus </li></ul>BIOFUEL
  54. 55. Options for Heating with Wood (Import) <ul><li>Wood chips </li></ul><ul><li>Pellets </li></ul><ul><li>Olive cake and pits </li></ul><ul><li>Other non-wood sources – palm nuts etc </li></ul>BIOFUEL
  55. 56. Cost of Heating With Wood <ul><li>Wood chip £30/tonne (@25% mc) </li></ul><ul><li>Wood chip £50/tonne (@25% mc) </li></ul><ul><li>Wood Pellets £95/tonne </li></ul><ul><li>Heating Oil 25p/litre </li></ul><ul><li>LPG 28p/litre </li></ul><ul><li>Mains gas 1.6p/kWh </li></ul>BIOFUEL
  56. 57. Cost of Heating With Wood BIOFUEL
  57. 58. Combined Heat & Power BIOFUEL
  58. 59. Why Combined Heat & Power? <ul><li>When fuel is burnt to produce electricity, there is a by-product of excess waste heat. </li></ul><ul><li>This ‘low grade’ heat cannot be used to produce more electricity but is useful in Building Services to meet heating loads, provide cooling, de/humidification e.t.c. </li></ul>BIOFUEL
  59. 60. Case Study : Biomass CHP Boiler <ul><li>Bed ‘not-quite’ ZED </li></ul><ul><li>Problems with Biomass Boiler </li></ul><ul><li>Boiler Manufacturer in Financial Difficulty </li></ul><ul><li>Warranty / Service Agreement Not Honoured </li></ul>BIOFUEL
  60. 61. Case Study : Kingsmead Primary School, Cheshire <ul><li>50kW </li></ul><ul><li>Wood pellets are sourced locally through a supply contract with a local joint venture of 2 private companies. </li></ul><ul><li>Typically £30-35k for the type of boiler specified </li></ul>BIOFUEL
  61. 62. The Future? - Fuel Cell CHP <ul><li>Higher Efficiency </li></ul><ul><li>Run on Hydrogen – Water Emissions </li></ul><ul><li>Can reform Methane On-Site </li></ul><ul><li>Cost Barrier </li></ul><ul><li>Technological Barrier </li></ul>BIOFUEL
  62. 63. Wind Power
  63. 64. Horizontal vs. Vertical Axis Turbines WIND
  64. 65. Power Available From The Wind <ul><li>P = Power </li></ul><ul><li>ρ = Density of Air </li></ul><ul><li>π = pi – 3.14… </li></ul><ul><li>r = Radius of Turbine </li></ul><ul><li>v = Velocity </li></ul>WIND
  65. 66. Density of Air <ul><li>The Density of Air Changes with Altitude and atmospheric conditions… </li></ul><ul><li>As an baseline, on a cool 15°C day at sea level, air density is 1.225 kg m -3 </li></ul>WIND
  66. 67. What Does This Tell Us? WIND Energy available to the turbine increases as a ‘ cube’ of wind speed Economies of scale with scaling up turbines. Power increases as a square of the radius of the turbine.
  67. 68. Turbine Size WIND
  68. 69. Case Study: Swift Turbine <ul><li>Manufactured by Renewable Devices </li></ul><ul><li>Scottish & Southern Energy has 20% stake in the company. </li></ul><ul><li>Comes in package with/without immersion heater. </li></ul><ul><li>Turbine & Tower exceed </li></ul><ul><li>British Standards for strength. </li></ul>WIND
  69. 70. Case Study: Swift Turbine <ul><li>Innovative design reduces noise of turbine to under 35db. </li></ul><ul><li>Means no objection from planners on grounds of noise. </li></ul>WIND
  70. 71. Case Study : Windsave <ul><li>Sales agreement with B&Q </li></ul><ul><li>Installation agreement with British Gas </li></ul><ul><li>Noise: 33dB at 5ms-1, rising to 52dB at 7ms-1 </li></ul><ul><li>Planning guidelines suggest a night time maximum of 43dB, </li></ul><ul><li>Rural areas ok, urban areas?? </li></ul><ul><li>No British Standards Report </li></ul>WIND
  71. 72. Case Study Swift vs. Windsave <ul><li>Swift Windsave </li></ul><ul><li>Rated power (W) 1500 1000 </li></ul><ul><li>Cost (£/W) 1 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Diameter (m) 2 1.75 </li></ul><ul><li>Turbine mass (kg) 50 25 </li></ul><ul><li>Clear skies accredited Yes Undergoing accreditation </li></ul><ul><li>Headline payback time 8 years 5 years claimed* </li></ul><ul><li>Anticipated lifetime 20 years 10 years </li></ul><ul><li>Claimed annual yield 4,000kWh 1,125kWh </li></ul><ul><li>Estimated annual yield 1,753kWh N/A </li></ul><ul><li>Immersion heater system Standard No </li></ul><ul><li>Extreme wind level 65ms-1 52.5ms-1 </li></ul>WIND
  72. 73. Case Study Swift vs. Windsave <ul><li>Swift looks best option. </li></ul><ul><li>Windsave will look better when accredited for Clear Skies. </li></ul><ul><li>Both need to get close to their target price. </li></ul>WIND
  73. 74. Suggested Reading <ul><li>George Monbiot ( www.monbiot.com ) </li></ul><ul><li>New Scientist, 3rd October 2006 </li></ul><ul><li>“ Small is Useless” </li></ul><ul><li>Monbiot asserts… “Micro generation can’t solve climate change” </li></ul>WIND
  74. 75. Wind Energy Myths <ul><li>DTI Wind Power: 10 Myths Explained </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A single 1.8MW turbine provides power for 1,000 homes. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Existing wind capacity provides power for 500,000 homes. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The energy used to manufacture a wind turbine is recovered within 3-5 months. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Over the life of a turbine, the energy in manufacture will be repaid at least 50 times. </li></ul></ul>WIND
  75. 76. Wind Energy Myths <ul><li>BWEA </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Birds ocassionally collide with turbines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No more of a danger than: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cats </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Flying into Windows </li></ul></ul></ul>WIND
  76. 77. Wind Energy Myths <ul><li>BWEAMicro wind unlinkely to cause interference with: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Broadcasts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Telecommunications </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Information does not need to be submitted in this regard with an application. </li></ul>WIND
  77. 78. Financial Breakdown <ul><li>Cost (£) Annual Output (kWh)Payback time (yrs) </li></ul><ul><li>0.6kW (domestic) 2770 1315 23.3 </li></ul><ul><li>2.5kW (community) 3760 4383 9.5 </li></ul><ul><li>6.0kW (community) 7320 10520 7.7 </li></ul>WIND
  78. 79. Maintenance <ul><ul><li>Turbines designed for long life – 20 years + </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Should not require maintenance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>However, give consideration to access </li></ul></ul>WIND
  79. 80. What Windspeed Do I Need? <ul><li>Small turbines start to generate electricity in wind speeds of approximately 3-4 m/s </li></ul><ul><li>Most Turbines achieve their maximum, or rated output at a wind speed of 10-12 m/s </li></ul>WIND
  80. 81. UK National Windspeed Database <ul><li>Values stored averaged for 1km squares </li></ul>WIND
  81. 82. On-Site Assessment of Windspeed <ul><li>Carried out using anemometer datalogger </li></ul><ul><li>• www.windandsun.co.uk </li></ul><ul><li>• www.windsurvey.co.uk </li></ul><ul><li>• www.nexgen.com </li></ul>WIND
  82. 83. Other Small Turbines <ul><li>Manufacturer (kW) Website </li></ul><ul><li>Iskra 5 www.iskrawind.com </li></ul><ul><li>Gazelle 20 www.mkw.co.uk </li></ul><ul><li>Proven 0.6-15 www.provenenergy.co.uk </li></ul><ul><li>Swift 1.5 www.renewabledevices.com </li></ul><ul><li>Windsave 1 www.windsave.com </li></ul>WIND
  83. 84. Display Turbines WIND Source: www.ecogeek.org
  84. 85. Display Turbines <ul><li>Provides additional income stream at the expense of some energy. </li></ul><ul><li>Turbine ‘scans’ a row of LED’s across the onlooker’s field of view. </li></ul><ul><li>The LED’s are rapidly turned on and off by a microcontroller. </li></ul><ul><li>Persistence of vision allows the viewer to see the display as a complete image. </li></ul>WIND
  85. 86. Case Study : Ford UK Dagenham Plant <ul><li>2 x 1.8 MW Turbines </li></ul><ul><li>100% of site electricity requirement </li></ul><ul><li>No capital costs & reduced electricity bills – Merchant Wind </li></ul>WIND
  86. 87. Geothermal Energy
  87. 88. How Does Geothermal Power Work <ul><li>The Earth absorbs energy from the sun, and stores it underground in the form of heat. This means that below a certain level, the temperature of the earth is relatively stable. </li></ul><ul><li>In some areas, hot springs, heated by volcanic activity can be used to provide heat for buildings on the surface. </li></ul>GEOTHERMAL
  88. 89. How Does Geothermal Power Work <ul><li>Outside Air Temperature </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fluctuates with the seasons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hard to predict </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Underground Temperature </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Temperature is stable below 4-6 feet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reliable, Predictable, Constant </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Below the frost line temperature 13 ° C/55 ° F </li></ul></ul>GEOTHERMAL
  89. 90. Case Study: Reykjavik <ul><li>In Reykjavik, the capital of Iceland, 95% of the buildings are supplied by hot water at 86 °C from a geothermal hot spring. </li></ul>GEOTHERMAL
  90. 91. Heat Pumps <ul><li>‘ Transfers’ Heat – Does not ‘create’ heat </li></ul><ul><li>Proven Technology 500,000 units worldwide. </li></ul>GEOTHERMAL
  91. 92. What Can I Use GSHP’s For? <ul><li>Space Heating </li></ul><ul><li>Water Heating </li></ul><ul><li>Heat Recovery </li></ul><ul><li>Space Cooling </li></ul><ul><li>Dehumidification </li></ul>GEOTHERMAL
  92. 93. What Are The Components Of A Geothermal System? <ul><li>Heat Pump </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inside the building, takes heat from the ‘ground loop’ and concentrates in for the distribution system </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ground Loop </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Exchanges heat with the </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Distribution System </li></ul>GEOTHERMAL
  93. 94. Open / Closed Loop Systems <ul><li>Open Loop </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Water extracted from an aquifer, heat is added or removed by a heat pump, water is returned to the aquifer. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Closed Loop </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Water/Antifreeze flows through a sealed loop of pipes. No water enters or leaves the system. </li></ul></ul>GEOTHERMAL
  94. 95. Horizontal vs. Vertical Loop Systems GEOTHERMAL Image Source: www.redcar.cleveland.gov.uk
  95. 96. Horizontal Loop System <ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Requires no boring </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Only 6ft below the surface </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Requires large area of open land </li></ul></ul>GEOTHERMAL
  96. 97. Vertical Loop System <ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be installed on a small land area. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Requires expensive boring equipment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Boreholes Typically 150-200ft deep. </li></ul></ul>GEOTHERMAL
  97. 98. Pond Loop System <ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Water has superior heat transfer properties to earth. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Requires nearby expanse of water – not suitable for all locations. </li></ul></ul>GEOTHERMAL
  98. 99. How Big Are The Coils? <ul><li>50-100m for an ‘average’ house </li></ul><ul><li>Commercial Dwelling can entail 1000’s metres of piping. </li></ul>GEOTHERMAL
  99. 100. Heat Pump Efficiency <ul><li>As a rule of thumb, for every “1kWh” input to a heat pump system, it will provide around “3-4kWh” of heat energy. </li></ul>GEOTHERMAL
  100. 101. Case Study : IKEA Distribution Centre <ul><li>198 kW heating </li></ul><ul><li>232 kW cooling </li></ul>GEOTHERMAL
  101. 102. Case Study: GSHP & HE Boilers Compared <ul><li>Electricity Carbon Emissions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Take 0.422kg as the CO2 generated to deliver 1kWh of electricity. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Natural Gas Carbon Emissions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Take 0.194kg as the CO2 generated to make 1kWh heat from Natural Gas. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Source Kevin Hard, Faber Maunsell 2006 </li></ul></ul>GEOTHERMAL
  102. 103. Case Study: GSHP & HE Boilers Compared <ul><li>Ground Source Heat Pump </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A GSHP produces 4 times more heat than energy input. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>High Efficiency Boiler </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A High Efficiency boiler converts 90% of the energy input to useful heat. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Source Kevin Hard, Faber Maunsell 2006 </li></ul></ul>GEOTHERMAL
  103. 104. Case Study: GSHP & HE Boilers Compared <ul><li>Ground Source Heat Pump </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A GSHP produces 4 times more heat than energy input. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>High Efficiency Boiler </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A High Efficiency boiler converts 90% of the energy input to useful heat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Source Kevin Hard, Faber Maunsell 2006 </li></ul></ul>GEOTHERMAL
  104. 105. Case Study: GSHP & HE Boilers Compared <ul><li>Ground Source Heat Pump </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A GSHP produces 4 times more heat than energy input. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>High Efficiency Boiler </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A High Efficiency boiler converts 90% of the energy input to useful heat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Source Kevin Hard, Faber Maunsell 2006 </li></ul></ul>GEOTHERMAL
  105. 106. Case Study: GSHP & HE Boilers Compared <ul><li>To produce 1kWh heat output </li></ul><ul><li>GSHP = 0.422 / 4 = 0.106kg CO2 </li></ul><ul><li>HE Boiler = 0.194 / 0.9 = 0.213kg CO2 </li></ul>GEOTHERMAL
  106. 107. Recommended Reading <ul><li>http://www.nextenergysolutions.com/multimedia/HowGeothermalWorks.mov </li></ul>GEOTHERMAL
  107. 108. Buying Off-Site Renewable Electricity
  108. 109. Buying Renewable Energy From A Supplier <ul><li>No up-front investment </li></ul><ul><li>Easy </li></ul><ul><li>No On-Going Maintenance </li></ul><ul><li>Economies of Scale </li></ul><ul><li>Site May Not Be Appropriate / Poor Resource </li></ul><ul><li>Good For Public Relations / Image </li></ul>
  109. 110. <ul><li>Ecotricity </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.ecotricity.co.uk/ </li></ul><ul><li>Good Energy </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.good-energy.co.uk/ </li></ul><ul><li>nPower Juice </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.npower.com/at_home/juice-clean_and_green.html </li></ul><ul><li>Powergen GreenPlan </li></ul><ul><li>www.powergen.co.uk/Products/Products-Electricity-And-Gas/Products-GreenPlan.htm </li></ul><ul><li>Green Energy UK </li></ul><ul><li>www.greenenergy.uk.com/ </li></ul>
  110. 111. The Obligatory Book Plug SOLAR Solar Energy Projects for the Evil Genius Mc Graw Hill Professional ISBN-10: 0071477721 ISBN-13: 978-0071477727 Gavin D. J. Harper TREMENDOUS VALUE At the meagre sum of… £12.47 (www.amazon.co.uk) $16.47 (www.amazon.com)

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