Building Integrated Renewables PublicPresentation Transcript
About The Speaker
50 Awesome Auto Projects for the Evil Genius
Build Your Own Car PC
50 Model Rocket Projects for the Evil Genius
Domestic Solar Energy
Solar Energy Projects for the Evil Genius
Fuel Cell Projects for the Evil Genius
Diploma Design & Innovation
BSc. (Hons.) Technology (Open) 2(i)
MSc. Architecture: Advanced Environmental & Energy Studies
Worked on ‘Alternative Energy Strategy’ 2007
Building Integrated Renewables Gavin D. J. Harper
Predictable Shortage Of Fossil Fuels
Enduring Energy Security
Carbon Emissions / Climate Change
M. King Hubbert 1956
Presented to the
American Petroleum Institute in 1956
Hubbert’s Peak Theory
Production at first increases approximately exponentially, as more extraction commences and more efficient facilities are installed. At some point, a peak output is reached, and production begins declining until it approximates an exponential decline.
UK emissions reduction targets
The government has agreed a number of targets to reduce releases of greenhouse gases:
As part of the Kyoto Protocol, reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 12.5% below 1990 levels by 2012.
Reduce CO2 emissions by 20% from a 1990 baseline by the year 2010.
Reduce CO2 emissions 'by some 60% by about 2050'.
In March 2005 EU Heads of State agreed greenhouse gases must be reduced by 15-30% by 2020 from 1990 levels.
Produce 10% of energy from renewable sources by 2010 and 15% by 2015, with an aspiration of 20% by 2020.
DTI Energy White Paper
20% reduction in CO2 emissions below 1990 levels by 2010
Reduce CO2 emissions by 60% by about 2050 with real progress by 2020
10% generation from renewables by 2010
Average annual increase in UK temperature is expected to be around 2.5 to 3.5oC by 2080.
Increase of up to 50C in the south
Building Regulations : Part L
CO2 Emissions Performance Goal
Scrutinizes Energy Management
Consider Renewables Last- Not First
Remove unnecessary loads, design for efficiency and low energy.
Whatever loads you are left with control efficiently.
Then look at meeting this load with renewables.
Stage One – Remove Loads
Use Natural Light Where Possible
Remove Unnecessary Devices
Stage Two – Optimise Loads
High Efficiency Lighting
Variable Drives / Solid State Drives
Lighting Control Systems
Building Energy Managements Systems
Stage Three – Renewable Power
Hydro??? – If site suits.
Why Renewables for Electricity?
Digest of UK Energy Statistics - DTI
The Merton Rule
Mayor Ken Livingstone’s Energy Strategy, Proposal 13
Proposal 13 in the Mayor’s Energy Strategy reads:
“… generate at least 10% of a site’s demand for energy (electricity and heat) on site from renewable resources where feasible…”
The Merton Rule
The London Borough of Merton was the first to formalise the governments renewable energy targets in its adopted UDP, setting the target for the use of onsite renewable energy to reduce annual CO 2 emissions for all new major developments* in the borough by 10%.
The Merton Rule
Liverpool is considered to be ‘actively progressing’ towards a Merton Rule style directive.
Things to consider:
There should be reference to impact on landscape, townscape, natural, historical and cultural features and areas.
Is the development appropriate for the area (Avoid “NIMBYism”).
Things to consider:
Consideration should be given to the wider environmental, economic and social benefits of renewable energy developments.
What effect will the technology have on the area, who will benefit?
The Low Carbon Buildings Programme (LCBP)
For Business / Public / Not For Profit
Grants cover 40-50% of the total installation costs
some organisations may be able to seek match funding remainder
public funds or government aid.
All micro wind requires planning consent.
Decisions must be in accordance with PPS22, PAN45 or TAN8 – the national RE policies for England, Scotland and Wales.
Right to appeal if refused
Solar Energy Stats
164 W m -2 on average over the Earth’s surface over the course of 24 hours
The Earth Receives 84TW power
Seasonal Variation (Northern Hemisphere) SOLAR
Sunpath Diagrams SOLAR
Orient Solar Collectors To Maximise Power Output SOLAR
Angle of Incidence Affects Power Output
The same area of light coming at an angle is spread over a larger area.
Solar Photovoltaic Advantages
Minimal Visual Intrusion
Minimal / No maintenance
Can Be Integrated Into Building Structure
Types of Solar Cell
Cell Material Efficiency Area For 1 kW Peak
Monocrystalline Silicon 15-18% 7-9m 2
Polycrystalline Silicon 13-16% 8-11m 2
Thin Film (CIS) 7.5-9.5% 11-13m 2
Thin Film Cadmium Telluride 6-9% 14-18m 2
Amorphous Silicon 5-8% 16-20m 2
PV Terminology SOLAR
Pitch of between 20 and 50 degrees optimal
Raises awareness of renewable energy
Promotes ‘energy aware’ habits
Display your ‘green credentials’
Nanosolar SOLAR Source: www.treehugger.com
Printable Solar Production Process
Copper-Indium-Gallium-Selenium on Polymer Substrate (thin film).
Cells estimated to cost 1/5 th to 1/10 th cost of traditional silicon cell.
New plant capacity of 430MW / year.
Solar for Electricity
Convert light to electricity
1kWp costs £4000 - £8000 depending on size of system
Around £42 of electricity per year for dwelling
Use as cladding or roof covering
Solar for Electricity : Case Study
10.2kWp installed at a small manufacturing unit in West London
Total installed cost: £46,242
Solar for Thermal
‘ Thermos Flask Principle’
Each individual tube fits into a manifold.
Black Bodies Absorb Most Light
But… Also “Re emit” infrared radiation as they heat up.
Selective Coatings Absorb Lots and Re-emit Little.
Solar Water Heating : Case Study
39 two to four bedroom homes
900 – 1300 kWh per annum, per unit
Dual coil, drain back type system
£2479 per house
Waste as a Resource
Require local reliable supply of fuel
Burnt in boiler or CHP plant
Biomass CHP not well tested
Can be used to supply district heating networks
Automatic Wood Heating
Advantages of Wood Heating
Mature, reliable technology
25 years of development, hundreds of thousands of systems operational in mainland Europe
85-90%+ efficiency means the biomass resource is used well
Appropriate scale from domestic to industrial (up to 10MW), including steam
Biomass resource can be sourced locally, encourages local fuel supply
Options for Heating with Wood (UK)
Recycled wood – more than 1 million tonnes ODT
Arboricultural arisings – officially 0.5mt but >100,000 ODT in London alone
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