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  • The materials with which we build and furnish places for worship are not merely functional. They create an
    environment for liturgy that is either inspiring or insipid, sacramental to specious.
    Building Maintenance Merton
    This essay argues that the classic materials of church architecture and
    art?limestone, marble, slate, terra cotta, oak, gold leaf and others?serve the action of the liturgy
    better than plastics, polyesters and laminates.
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Building Integrated Renewables Public Building Integrated Renewables Public Presentation Transcript

  •  
  • About The Speaker
    • Author
      • 50 Awesome Auto Projects for the Evil Genius
      • Build Your Own Car PC
      • 50 Model Rocket Projects for the Evil Genius
      • Domestic Solar Energy
      • Solar Energy Projects for the Evil Genius
      • Fuel Cell Projects for the Evil Genius
    • Diploma Design & Innovation
    • BSc. (Hons.) Technology (Open) 2(i)
    • MSc. Architecture: Advanced Environmental & Energy Studies
    • Worked on ‘Alternative Energy Strategy’ 2007
  • Building Integrated Renewables Gavin D. J. Harper
  • Why Renewables?
    • Predictable Shortage Of Fossil Fuels
    • Enduring Energy Security
    • No ‘Wastes’
    • Carbon Emissions / Climate Change
  • Hubbert’s Peak
    • M. King Hubbert 1956
    • Presented to the
    • American Petroleum Institute in 1956
    • Peak Oil
    • Peak Coal
    • Peak Gas
    • Peak Uranium
  • Hubbert’s Peak Theory
    • Production at first increases approximately exponentially, as more extraction commences and more efficient facilities are installed. At some point, a peak output is reached, and production begins declining until it approximates an exponential decline.
  • Carbon Emissions
  • UK emissions reduction targets
    • The government has agreed a number of targets to reduce releases of greenhouse gases:
    • As part of the Kyoto Protocol, reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 12.5% below 1990 levels by 2012.
    • Reduce CO2 emissions by 20% from a 1990 baseline by the year 2010.
    • Reduce CO2 emissions 'by some 60% by about 2050'.
    • In March 2005 EU Heads of State agreed greenhouse gases must be reduced by 15-30% by 2020 from 1990 levels.
    • Produce 10% of energy from renewable sources by 2010 and 15% by 2015, with an aspiration of 20% by 2020.
  • DTI Energy White Paper
    • 20% reduction in CO2 emissions below 1990 levels by 2010
    • Reduce CO2 emissions by 60% by about 2050 with real progress by 2020
    • 10% generation from renewables by 2010
  • Climate Change
    • Average annual increase in UK temperature is expected to be around 2.5 to 3.5oC by 2080.
    • Increase of up to 50C in the south
  • Economic Drivers
  • Building Regulations : Part L
    • CO2 Emissions Performance Goal
    • Scrutinizes Energy Management
  • Consider Renewables Last- Not First
    • Stage One
      • Remove unnecessary loads, design for efficiency and low energy.
    • Stage Two
      • Whatever loads you are left with control efficiently.
    • Stage Three
      • Then look at meeting this load with renewables.
  • Stage One – Remove Loads
    • Ensure Airtightness
    • Low u-values
    • Efficient Structure
    • Solar Shading
    • Use Natural Light Where Possible
    • Remove Unnecessary Devices
  • Stage Two – Optimise Loads
    • High Efficiency Lighting
    • Heat Recovery
    • Variable Drives / Solid State Drives
    • Lighting Control Systems
    • Building Energy Managements Systems
  • Stage Three – Renewable Power
    • Solar
    • Wind
    • Biomass
    • Geothermal
    • Hydro??? – If site suits.
  • Why Renewables for Electricity?
  • Digest of UK Energy Statistics - DTI
  • Renewables Planning
    • The Merton Rule
    • Mayor Ken Livingstone’s Energy Strategy, Proposal 13
  • Mayor’s Directive
    • Proposal 13 in the Mayor’s Energy Strategy reads:
      • “… generate at least 10% of a site’s demand for energy (electricity and heat) on site from renewable resources where feasible…”
  • The Merton Rule
    • The London Borough of Merton was the first to formalise the governments renewable energy targets in its adopted UDP, setting the target for the use of onsite renewable energy to reduce annual CO 2 emissions for all new major developments* in the borough by 10%.
  • The Merton Rule
    • Liverpool is considered to be ‘actively progressing’ towards a Merton Rule style directive.
    • Source: www.themertonrule.org
  • Things to consider:
    • There should be reference to impact on landscape, townscape, natural, historical and cultural features and areas.
    • Is the development appropriate for the area (Avoid “NIMBYism”).
  • Things to consider:
    • Consideration should be given to the wider environmental, economic and social benefits of renewable energy developments.
    • What effect will the technology have on the area, who will benefit?
  • Funding
    • The Low Carbon Buildings Programme (LCBP)
      • For Business / Public / Not For Profit
      • Grants cover 40-50% of the total installation costs
      • some organisations may be able to seek match funding remainder
      • public funds or government aid.
      • www.lowcarbonbuildings.org.uk/home.
  • Planning Permission
    • All micro wind requires planning consent.
    • Decisions must be in accordance with PPS22, PAN45 or TAN8 – the national RE policies for England, Scotland and Wales.
    • Right to appeal if refused
  • Solar Energy
  • SOLAR
  • Solar Energy Stats
    • 164 W m -2 on average over the Earth’s surface over the course of 24 hours
    • The Earth Receives 84TW power
    SOLAR
  • Seasonal Variation (Northern Hemisphere) SOLAR
  • Sunpath Diagrams SOLAR
  • Orient Solar Collectors To Maximise Power Output SOLAR
  • Angle of Incidence Affects Power Output
    • The same area of light coming at an angle is spread over a larger area.
    SOLAR
  • Solar Photovoltaic Advantages
    • No Noise
    • No Emissions
    • Minimal Visual Intrusion
    • Minimal / No maintenance
    • Can Be Integrated Into Building Structure
    SOLAR
  • Types of Solar Cell
    • Cell Material Efficiency Area For 1 kW Peak
    • Monocrystalline Silicon 15-18% 7-9m 2
    • Polycrystalline Silicon 13-16% 8-11m 2
    • Thin Film (CIS) 7.5-9.5% 11-13m 2
    • Thin Film Cadmium Telluride 6-9% 14-18m 2
    • Amorphous Silicon 5-8% 16-20m 2
    SOLAR
  • PV Terminology SOLAR
  • Inverters SOLAR
  • Orientation
    • South facing
    • Pitch of between 20 and 50 degrees optimal
    SOLAR
  • Occupant Feedback
    • Raises awareness of renewable energy
    • Promotes ‘energy aware’ habits
    • Feelgood factor
    • Display your ‘green credentials’
    SOLAR
  • Nanosolar SOLAR Source: www.treehugger.com
  • Nanosolar
    • Printable Solar Production Process
    • Copper-Indium-Gallium-Selenium on Polymer Substrate (thin film).
    • Cells estimated to cost 1/5 th to 1/10 th cost of traditional silicon cell.
    • New plant capacity of 430MW / year.
    SOLAR
  • Solar for Electricity
    • Convert light to electricity
    • 1kWp costs £4000 - £8000 depending on size of system
    • Around £42 of electricity per year for dwelling
    • Use as cladding or roof covering
    SOLAR
  • Solar for Electricity : Case Study
    • Ormiston Wire
    • 10.2kWp installed at a small manufacturing unit in West London
    • Total installed cost: £46,242
    SOLAR
  • Solar for Thermal
    • Evacuated Tubes
    • ‘ Thermos Flask Principle’
    • Each individual tube fits into a manifold.
    SOLAR
  • Selective Coatings
    • Black Bodies Absorb Most Light
    • But… Also “Re emit” infrared radiation as they heat up.
    • Selective Coatings Absorb Lots and Re-emit Little.
    SOLAR
  • Solar Water Heating : Case Study
    • Thamesmead, London
    • 39 two to four bedroom homes
    • 900 – 1300 kWh per annum, per unit
    • Dual coil, drain back type system
    • £2479 per house
    SOLAR
  • Biofuels
  • Biofuels BIOFUEL
  • Biofuels
    • Biomass
    • Biogas
    • Waste as a Resource
    • Ethanol
    • Biodiesel
    • Wood
    • Algae
    BIOFUEL
  • Biomass BIOFUEL
  • Biomass
    • Woodchips,
    • Wood Pellets
    • Straw Bales
    • Require local reliable supply of fuel
    • Burnt in boiler or CHP plant
    • Biomass CHP not well tested
    • Can be used to supply district heating networks
    BIOFUEL
  • Automatic Wood Heating
    • Automatic Feed
    • Electric Ignition
    • Remote Monitoring
    • Efficiency 90%+
    BIOFUEL
  • Advantages of Wood Heating
    • Mature, reliable technology
    • 25 years of development, hundreds of thousands of systems operational in mainland Europe
    • High Efficiency
    • 85-90%+ efficiency means the biomass resource is used well
    • Appropriate Scale
    • Appropriate scale from domestic to industrial (up to 10MW), including steam
    • Biomass resource can be sourced locally, encourages local fuel supply
    BIOFUEL
  • Options for Heating with Wood (UK)
    • Recycled wood – more than 1 million tonnes ODT
    • Arboricultural arisings – officially 0.5mt but >100,000 ODT in London alone
    • Forest Residues
    • Roundwood
    • Energy Crops – SRC willow, Miscanthus, SRF – birch, ash, eucalyptus
    BIOFUEL
  • Options for Heating with Wood (Import)
    • Wood chips
    • Pellets
    • Olive cake and pits
    • Other non-wood sources – palm nuts etc
    BIOFUEL
  • Cost of Heating With Wood
    • Wood chip £30/tonne (@25% mc)
    • Wood chip £50/tonne (@25% mc)
    • Wood Pellets £95/tonne
    • Heating Oil 25p/litre
    • LPG 28p/litre
    • Mains gas 1.6p/kWh
    BIOFUEL
  • Cost of Heating With Wood BIOFUEL
  • Combined Heat & Power BIOFUEL
  • Why Combined Heat & Power?
    • When fuel is burnt to produce electricity, there is a by-product of excess waste heat.
    • This ‘low grade’ heat cannot be used to produce more electricity but is useful in Building Services to meet heating loads, provide cooling, de/humidification e.t.c.
    BIOFUEL
  • Case Study : Biomass CHP Boiler
    • Bed ‘not-quite’ ZED
    • Problems with Biomass Boiler
    • Boiler Manufacturer in Financial Difficulty
    • Warranty / Service Agreement Not Honoured
    BIOFUEL
  • Case Study : Kingsmead Primary School, Cheshire
    • 50kW
    • Wood pellets are sourced locally through a supply contract with a local joint venture of 2 private companies.
    • Typically £30-35k for the type of boiler specified
    BIOFUEL
  • The Future? - Fuel Cell CHP
    • Higher Efficiency
    • Run on Hydrogen – Water Emissions
    • Can reform Methane On-Site
    • Cost Barrier
    • Technological Barrier
    BIOFUEL
  • Wind Power
  • Horizontal vs. Vertical Axis Turbines WIND
  • Power Available From The Wind
    • P = Power
    • ρ = Density of Air
    • π = pi – 3.14…
    • r = Radius of Turbine
    • v = Velocity
    WIND
  • Density of Air
    • The Density of Air Changes with Altitude and atmospheric conditions…
    • As an baseline, on a cool 15°C day at sea level, air density is 1.225 kg m -3
    WIND
  • What Does This Tell Us? WIND Energy available to the turbine increases as a ‘ cube’ of wind speed Economies of scale with scaling up turbines. Power increases as a square of the radius of the turbine.
  • Turbine Size WIND
  • Case Study: Swift Turbine
    • Manufactured by Renewable Devices
    • Scottish & Southern Energy has 20% stake in the company.
    • Comes in package with/without immersion heater.
    • Turbine & Tower exceed
    • British Standards for strength.
    WIND
  • Case Study: Swift Turbine
    • Innovative design reduces noise of turbine to under 35db.
    • Means no objection from planners on grounds of noise.
    WIND
  • Case Study : Windsave
    • Sales agreement with B&Q
    • Installation agreement with British Gas
    • Noise: 33dB at 5ms-1, rising to 52dB at 7ms-1
    • Planning guidelines suggest a night time maximum of 43dB,
    • Rural areas ok, urban areas??
    • No British Standards Report
    WIND
  • Case Study Swift vs. Windsave
    • Swift Windsave
    • Rated power (W) 1500 1000
    • Cost (£/W) 1 1
    • Diameter (m) 2 1.75
    • Turbine mass (kg) 50 25
    • Clear skies accredited Yes Undergoing accreditation
    • Headline payback time 8 years 5 years claimed*
    • Anticipated lifetime 20 years 10 years
    • Claimed annual yield 4,000kWh 1,125kWh
    • Estimated annual yield 1,753kWh N/A
    • Immersion heater system Standard No
    • Extreme wind level 65ms-1 52.5ms-1
    WIND
  • Case Study Swift vs. Windsave
    • Swift looks best option.
    • Windsave will look better when accredited for Clear Skies.
    • Both need to get close to their target price.
    WIND
  • Suggested Reading
    • George Monbiot ( www.monbiot.com )
    • New Scientist, 3rd October 2006
    • “ Small is Useless”
    • Monbiot asserts… “Micro generation can’t solve climate change”
    WIND
  • Wind Energy Myths
    • DTI Wind Power: 10 Myths Explained
      • A single 1.8MW turbine provides power for 1,000 homes.
      • Existing wind capacity provides power for 500,000 homes.
      • The energy used to manufacture a wind turbine is recovered within 3-5 months.
      • Over the life of a turbine, the energy in manufacture will be repaid at least 50 times.
    WIND
  • Wind Energy Myths
    • BWEA
      • Birds ocassionally collide with turbines
      • No more of a danger than:
        • Cats
        • Flying into Windows
    WIND
  • Wind Energy Myths
    • BWEAMicro wind unlinkely to cause interference with:
      • Broadcasts
      • Telecommunications
    • Information does not need to be submitted in this regard with an application.
    WIND
  • Financial Breakdown
    • Cost (£) Annual Output (kWh)Payback time (yrs)
    • 0.6kW (domestic) 2770 1315 23.3
    • 2.5kW (community) 3760 4383 9.5
    • 6.0kW (community) 7320 10520 7.7
    WIND
  • Maintenance
      • Turbines designed for long life – 20 years +
      • Should not require maintenance
      • However, give consideration to access
    WIND
  • What Windspeed Do I Need?
    • Small turbines start to generate electricity in wind speeds of approximately 3-4 m/s
    • Most Turbines achieve their maximum, or rated output at a wind speed of 10-12 m/s
    WIND
  • UK National Windspeed Database
    • Values stored averaged for 1km squares
    WIND
  • On-Site Assessment of Windspeed
    • Carried out using anemometer datalogger
    • • www.windandsun.co.uk
    • • www.windsurvey.co.uk
    • • www.nexgen.com
    WIND
  • Other Small Turbines
    • Manufacturer (kW) Website
    • Iskra 5 www.iskrawind.com
    • Gazelle 20 www.mkw.co.uk
    • Proven 0.6-15 www.provenenergy.co.uk
    • Swift 1.5 www.renewabledevices.com
    • Windsave 1 www.windsave.com
    WIND
  • Display Turbines WIND Source: www.ecogeek.org
  • Display Turbines
    • Provides additional income stream at the expense of some energy.
    • Turbine ‘scans’ a row of LED’s across the onlooker’s field of view.
    • The LED’s are rapidly turned on and off by a microcontroller.
    • Persistence of vision allows the viewer to see the display as a complete image.
    WIND
  • Case Study : Ford UK Dagenham Plant
    • 2 x 1.8 MW Turbines
    • 100% of site electricity requirement
    • No capital costs & reduced electricity bills – Merchant Wind
    WIND
  • Geothermal Energy
  • How Does Geothermal Power Work
    • The Earth absorbs energy from the sun, and stores it underground in the form of heat. This means that below a certain level, the temperature of the earth is relatively stable.
    • In some areas, hot springs, heated by volcanic activity can be used to provide heat for buildings on the surface.
    GEOTHERMAL
  • How Does Geothermal Power Work
    • Outside Air Temperature
      • Fluctuates with the seasons
      • Hard to predict
    • Underground Temperature
      • Temperature is stable below 4-6 feet
      • Reliable, Predictable, Constant
      • Below the frost line temperature 13 ° C/55 ° F
    GEOTHERMAL
  • Case Study: Reykjavik
    • In Reykjavik, the capital of Iceland, 95% of the buildings are supplied by hot water at 86 °C from a geothermal hot spring.
    GEOTHERMAL
  • Heat Pumps
    • ‘ Transfers’ Heat – Does not ‘create’ heat
    • Proven Technology 500,000 units worldwide.
    GEOTHERMAL
  • What Can I Use GSHP’s For?
    • Space Heating
    • Water Heating
    • Heat Recovery
    • Space Cooling
    • Dehumidification
    GEOTHERMAL
  • What Are The Components Of A Geothermal System?
    • Heat Pump
      • Inside the building, takes heat from the ‘ground loop’ and concentrates in for the distribution system
    • Ground Loop
      • Exchanges heat with the
    • Distribution System
    GEOTHERMAL
  • Open / Closed Loop Systems
    • Open Loop
      • Water extracted from an aquifer, heat is added or removed by a heat pump, water is returned to the aquifer.
    • Closed Loop
      • Water/Antifreeze flows through a sealed loop of pipes. No water enters or leaves the system.
    GEOTHERMAL
  • Horizontal vs. Vertical Loop Systems GEOTHERMAL Image Source: www.redcar.cleveland.gov.uk
  • Horizontal Loop System
    • Advantages
      • Requires no boring
      • Only 6ft below the surface
    • Disadvantages
      • Requires large area of open land
    GEOTHERMAL
  • Vertical Loop System
    • Advantages
      • Can be installed on a small land area.
    • Disadvantages
      • Requires expensive boring equipment
      • Boreholes Typically 150-200ft deep.
    GEOTHERMAL
  • Pond Loop System
    • Advantages
      • Water has superior heat transfer properties to earth.
    • Disadvantages
      • Requires nearby expanse of water – not suitable for all locations.
    GEOTHERMAL
  • How Big Are The Coils?
    • 50-100m for an ‘average’ house
    • Commercial Dwelling can entail 1000’s metres of piping.
    GEOTHERMAL
  • Heat Pump Efficiency
    • As a rule of thumb, for every “1kWh” input to a heat pump system, it will provide around “3-4kWh” of heat energy.
    GEOTHERMAL
  • Case Study : IKEA Distribution Centre
    • 198 kW heating
    • 232 kW cooling
    GEOTHERMAL
  • Case Study: GSHP & HE Boilers Compared
    • Electricity Carbon Emissions
      • Take 0.422kg as the CO2 generated to deliver 1kWh of electricity.
    • Natural Gas Carbon Emissions
      • Take 0.194kg as the CO2 generated to make 1kWh heat from Natural Gas.
      • Source Kevin Hard, Faber Maunsell 2006
    GEOTHERMAL
  • Case Study: GSHP & HE Boilers Compared
    • Ground Source Heat Pump
      • A GSHP produces 4 times more heat than energy input.
    • High Efficiency Boiler
      • A High Efficiency boiler converts 90% of the energy input to useful heat.
      • Source Kevin Hard, Faber Maunsell 2006
    GEOTHERMAL
  • Case Study: GSHP & HE Boilers Compared
    • Ground Source Heat Pump
      • A GSHP produces 4 times more heat than energy input.
    • High Efficiency Boiler
      • A High Efficiency boiler converts 90% of the energy input to useful heat
      • Source Kevin Hard, Faber Maunsell 2006
    GEOTHERMAL
  • Case Study: GSHP & HE Boilers Compared
    • Ground Source Heat Pump
      • A GSHP produces 4 times more heat than energy input.
    • High Efficiency Boiler
      • A High Efficiency boiler converts 90% of the energy input to useful heat
      • Source Kevin Hard, Faber Maunsell 2006
    GEOTHERMAL
  • Case Study: GSHP & HE Boilers Compared
    • To produce 1kWh heat output
    • GSHP = 0.422 / 4 = 0.106kg CO2
    • HE Boiler = 0.194 / 0.9 = 0.213kg CO2
    GEOTHERMAL
  • Recommended Reading
    • http://www.nextenergysolutions.com/multimedia/HowGeothermalWorks.mov
    GEOTHERMAL
  • Buying Off-Site Renewable Electricity
  • Buying Renewable Energy From A Supplier
    • No up-front investment
    • Easy
    • No On-Going Maintenance
    • Economies of Scale
    • Site May Not Be Appropriate / Poor Resource
    • Good For Public Relations / Image
    • Ecotricity
    • http://www.ecotricity.co.uk/
    • Good Energy
    • http://www.good-energy.co.uk/
    • nPower Juice
    • http://www.npower.com/at_home/juice-clean_and_green.html
    • Powergen GreenPlan
    • www.powergen.co.uk/Products/Products-Electricity-And-Gas/Products-GreenPlan.htm
    • Green Energy UK
    • www.greenenergy.uk.com/
  • The Obligatory Book Plug SOLAR Solar Energy Projects for the Evil Genius Mc Graw Hill Professional ISBN-10: 0071477721 ISBN-13: 978-0071477727 Gavin D. J. Harper TREMENDOUS VALUE At the meagre sum of… £12.47 (www.amazon.co.uk) $16.47 (www.amazon.com)