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Battle Of The Brands
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Battle Of The Brands


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  • 1. Gavin D. J. Harper
  • 2.
    • Miller (1998) identify three stages in the development of consumption research:
      • Stage 1 60’s – 70’s
        • Consumption as an emerging field
      • Stage 2 70’s – 90’s
        • Study of consumption as it’s own sub-field
      • Stage 3 90’s – Today
        • Development and refinement of the field
  • 3.
    • Brands are the sum of a consumers experiences and perceptions of a group of products of services.
    • Sometimes, in the pursuit of market share, large companies use unethical / unsustainable practises to pursue consumers.
    • ‘ Anti-Brand’ sentiment can reach the point where a niche is created in the market for a product with ideals that are diametrically opposed to that of the brand.
    • Small companies are well placed to enter the market by exploiting this niche, created by the big firms, challenging the dominant discourse within that market sector and building a business based on consumer feedback.
  • 4.
    • Kumar (2006) cites five reasons for the growth of the anti-brand:
      • Increased Communication (Internet, Forums, e.t.c)
      • Growing Lack of Trust in ‘Big Business’
      • ‘ Individualistic’ Consumer Materialism
      • Environmental Consciousness
      • Ethical / Human Rights Consciousness
  • 5. “ When people go shopping, economists tell us that they will usually buy the best quality products that they can afford … Sometimes, however, people might boycott a particular brand or company … They might also chose a fair trade coffee label due to a concern for ‘developing countries … Ethical purchasers may, therefore, have political, religious, spiritual, environmental, social or other motives for choosing one product over another” (Harrison et al 2005, p2)
  • 6. “ The act of buying is a vote for an economic and social model, for a particular way of producing goods” (Ellwod 1984, p8) Ethical Consumerism
  • 7.
    • Sustainable Food – Innocent Smoothies
    • Sustainable Transport – Tesla Roadster
    • Sustainable Electronics – VIA Processor
    • Sustainable Cleaning Products - EcoVer
  • 8.
    • Full of Sugar
    • High ‘e-number’ content
    • Not particularly nutritious
    • Not particularly high content of ‘natural’ ingredients.
    • Sustainability not given a second thought in the production process.
  • 9.  
  • 10.
    • Natyrox - Heard in the news today that the makers of Ribena admitted today that their drink has absolutely no vitamin C when some scientists at a university in New Zealand tested the drink. They have been fined £100,000 pounds for misleading the public. They said they changed the formula to increase shelf- life, but reduced the amount of Vitamin C.
    • DEV1L - Harsh I think they got off easy they should have been fined millions. When I'm hungover I get Ribena for the vitamin C in it the b$%£&*s no wonder I don't feel any better I'm going back to sunny delight :mad: but I will probably find out that has no vitamins next :(
    • PyroZania - Sunny D used to/may still have carcinogens in it.
    • ALEXnkF1 - Why would you want Ribena when you can get Innocent fruit smoothies.
    • Source:
    • [Corrected for spelling / grammar]
  • 11.
    • ‘ Innocent Smoothies’ challenged the dominant brands by producing a product that is all natural fruit, pasteurised and bottled.
    • The product contains no additives of ‘nasties’.
    • The product aligns itself with values of sustainability and health and the production processes employed and business processes aim to be sustainable.
  • 12.
    • Thought has been given to making the packaging from 100% recycled material.
    • The business embraces themes of resource efficiency and sustainability within the core of their business model.
    • The company engage with social enterprise sharing some of their profit with good causes and projects.
  • 13.
    • Performance at any cost
    • High fuel consumption
    • High Carbon Emissions
    • Luxury at any price
    • No thought about sustainability
  • 14.  
  • 15.
    • An electric vehicle produces ‘zero emissions’ at the point of use.
    • Electric motors generate high-torque, this makes them suited to performance applications.
    • The limitation with competitors electric vehicles has been the battery storage technology.
  • 16.
    • The conventional automotive industry are wary of electric vehicles.
    • EV prototypes and low-production vehicles tended to use Lead Acid and NiCd / NiMh batteries – giving poor performance.
    • Traditional automotive clusters are centred around Detroit in the U.S. motor industry.
  • 17.
    • Tesla developed a radically different concept using Lithium Ion batteries, technology used in cell phones and consumer electronics.
    • The company developed this vehicle ‘off the radar’ of the conventional automotive industry, by basing themselves in ‘Silicon Valley’ home of the high tech.
    • No compromise was made on performance, positioning this vehicle in a radically different segment to it’s EV predecessors.
  • 18.  
  • 19.
    • Market leaders Intel & AMD focused on a policy of competing on performance at any cost.
    • Increasing chip speeds exponentially leads to high costs for Research and Development.
    • As speed increases so does power consumption – no thought given to energy use / sustainability.
  • 20.
    • VIA pursue an alternative strategy of ‘Performance per Watt’ – getting the most performance from each unit of energy.
    • This is in tandem with removing lead from their products.
    • This strategy has resulted in processors which do not generate a lot of heat – this means they have found more applications .
  • 21.
    • The following chart compares the number of trees that would be required to sequester the carbon generated from the energy consumption of three different processors over their lifetime.
  • 22.
  • 23.  
  • 24.  
  • 25.
    • Cleaning products typically use lots of ‘nasty’ chemicals.
    • Cleaning products are generally synthetic.
    • Little thought is given to the sustainability of the processes used to produce them.
    • The packaging of products is given little thought.
  • 26.  
  • 27.
    • ECOVER look at how to use ideas from nature to inspire cleaning products.
    • There is a focus on the sustainability of the processes used to produce their product.
    • Packaging is recyclable wherever possible.
    • Natural ingredients are used in the manufacture of their products.
    • Their business embraces concepts of energy efficiency in the manufacture of their products.
  • 28.
    • Small companies can often challenge the orthodoxy of large brands successfully.
    • The agile nature of the small-firm makes them well positioned to respond to the demands of the market with an innovative solution that defies ‘big brand’ logic.
    • Existing brands may have an unsustainable/unethical connotation which makes it hard to change consumer perception, but new startups have a ‘clean sheet’ on which to build their brand.
  • 29.
    • Do we view Anti-Brand sentiment as ‘consumer misbehaviour’ or do we accept that with increased flows of information, brands must respond to consumer feedback.
    • Behaviours are labelled ‘deviant’ (Denegri-Knott 2003), but should they instead be labelled ‘innovative’.
  • 30.
    • Denegri-Knott, J. (2003) ‘Consumers Behaving Badly: Deviation / Innovation’.
    • Kumar, A., (2006) ‘Brand Attack – Anti Branding’, ‘Business Cogniscence’, Jan. 2006. Vol. 2 Issue 8.