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Software Developers
   View of Hardware
        Electronic Circuits
What are circuits?
   Computers are electrical devices, so
    therefore all functions performed by a
    computer need t...
Logic Gates
   Are a hardware circuit that produces a 0 or 1,
    which is normally an electronic impulse.
   There are ...
BASIC GATES
1.       NOT Gate
         This is the simplest of all gates, it involves a
          single input and a sing...
NOT Gate



        A   X
    0           1
NOT Gate
NOT Gate
NOT Gate – Truth Table


                 IF A = 0 THEN
   A       X
                      X=1
   0       1     ELSE
     ...
BASIC GATES
1.       AND Gate
         This is involves two inputs to produce one
          output.
         Both inputs...
AND Gate



    A
           X
    B
AND Gate
AND Gate
AND Gate
AND Gate – Truth Table

 A    B     X    IF A=1 AND B=1THEN

 0    0     0        X=1

 0    1     0
                 ELSE...
BASIC GATES
1.       OR Gate
         This is involves two inputs to produce one
          output.
         If either in...
OR Gate



    A
          X
    B
OR Gate
OR Gate
OR Gate
OR Gate
OR Gate – Truth Table

 A    B     X    IF A=1 OR B=1THEN

 0    0     0           X=1

 0    1     1
                 ELS...
Activity 1
Complete the truth table for the following circuit.



     A
                          X
                     ...
Truth Table

       A      B   X   Y

       0      0

       0      1

       1      0

       1      1
EXTENDED GATES
1.       NAND Gate
         This is involves two inputs to produce one
          output.
         The out...
NAND Gate



    A
            X
    B
NAND Gate – Truth Table

 A    B     X   IF A=1 AND B=1THEN

 0    0     1       X=0

 0    1     1
                ELSE
 ...
EXTENDED GATES
1.       NOR Gate
         This is involves two inputs to produce one
          output.
         The outp...
NOR Gate



    A
           X
    B
NOR Gate – Truth Table

 A    B     X    IF A=1 AND B=1THEN

 0    0     1        X=0

 0    1     0
                 ELSE...
EXTENDED GATES
1.       XOR Gate
         This stands for exclusive OR.
         This gate is true if only one input is ...
XOR Gate



    A
           X
    B
XOR Gate – Truth Table

        A    B     X

        0    0     0

        0    1     1

        1    0     1

        1 ...
SPECIALITY CIRCUITS
       Designed to make use of our binary
        knowledge and our circuitry knowledge
       Examp...
DESIGNING SPECIALITY
CIRCUITS
   These circuits are written to provide a specific
    function:
       Adder (Binary Add...
DESIGNING SPECIALITY
CIRCUITS
       Follow these steps:
        Identify inputs and outputs
        Identify the compo...
Binary Half Adder
   This device is basically a calculator.
   Lets look at the half adder truth table first.
Binary Half Adders
                            INPUT         OUTPUT
   To create a
    Binary Adder,       A           B ...
Binary Half Adders
                                  INPUT         OUTPUT
       Carry output is
        created using a ...
Binary Half Adders
                              INPUT         OUTPUT
       Sum output is
        created using a   A   ...
Binary Half Adders

The circuit:
  A

                     Carry (C)
  B




                     Sum (S)
Half And Full Adders

   Half Adders only work to add two digits
   To add more than 2 binary digits we need a full
    ...
Full Adders

   A

   B

                     Carry
                     (C)


               Sum (S)
Carry in
Truth Tables
Construct a truth table for the full adder.
Truth Table
  A      B    CARRY   CARRY   SUM
                IN
  0      0       0      0      0
  0      0       1      ...
Circuit Design Steps
   Identify inputs and outputs.
    A+B+C=X
   Identify the components needed to obtain
    the des...
Activity 2
   Construct a truth table for the following
    circuit.

    A
                    Y
    B                  ...
A
    B               X



    C
A       B   C   Y       X
0       0   0   1       1
0       0   1   1       0
0       1  ...
Activity 3
Fault   Door   Switch   x   Light
  0      0       0            0
  0      0       1            0
  0      1       0      ...
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Electronic Circuits

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Transcript of "Electronic Circuits"

  1. 1. Software Developers View of Hardware Electronic Circuits
  2. 2. What are circuits?  Computers are electrical devices, so therefore all functions performed by a computer need to done via the use of circuits.  Circuits are designed via the use of Logic Gates which show the path and the way in which electronic signals are sent and received.
  3. 3. Logic Gates  Are a hardware circuit that produces a 0 or 1, which is normally an electronic impulse.  There are THREE basic logic gates and THREE extended gates that can be used to build integrated circuits.
  4. 4. BASIC GATES 1. NOT Gate  This is the simplest of all gates, it involves a single input and a single output.  The purpose of this gate is the flipping of a bit similar to what is performed in one’s complement.
  5. 5. NOT Gate A X 0 1
  6. 6. NOT Gate
  7. 7. NOT Gate
  8. 8. NOT Gate – Truth Table IF A = 0 THEN A X X=1 0 1 ELSE X=0 1 0 ENDIF
  9. 9. BASIC GATES 1. AND Gate  This is involves two inputs to produce one output.  Both inputs must be true for the output to be true.
  10. 10. AND Gate A X B
  11. 11. AND Gate
  12. 12. AND Gate
  13. 13. AND Gate
  14. 14. AND Gate – Truth Table A B X IF A=1 AND B=1THEN 0 0 0 X=1 0 1 0 ELSE X=0 1 0 0 ENDIF 1 1 1
  15. 15. BASIC GATES 1. OR Gate  This is involves two inputs to produce one output.  If either inputs are true then the output will be true.
  16. 16. OR Gate A X B
  17. 17. OR Gate
  18. 18. OR Gate
  19. 19. OR Gate
  20. 20. OR Gate
  21. 21. OR Gate – Truth Table A B X IF A=1 OR B=1THEN 0 0 0 X=1 0 1 1 ELSE X=0 1 0 1 ENDIF 1 1 1
  22. 22. Activity 1 Complete the truth table for the following circuit. A X Y B
  23. 23. Truth Table A B X Y 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 1
  24. 24. EXTENDED GATES 1. NAND Gate  This is involves two inputs to produce one output.  The output is the opposite of an AND gate.  Is a combination of an AND and NOT gate.
  25. 25. NAND Gate A X B
  26. 26. NAND Gate – Truth Table A B X IF A=1 AND B=1THEN 0 0 1 X=0 0 1 1 ELSE X=1 1 0 1 ENDIF 1 1 0
  27. 27. EXTENDED GATES 1. NOR Gate  This is involves two inputs to produce one output.  The output is the opposite of an OR gate.  It is a combination of an OR and NOT.
  28. 28. NOR Gate A X B
  29. 29. NOR Gate – Truth Table A B X IF A=1 AND B=1THEN 0 0 1 X=0 0 1 0 ELSE X=1 1 0 0 ENDIF 1 1 0
  30. 30. EXTENDED GATES 1. XOR Gate  This stands for exclusive OR.  This gate is true if only one input is true.
  31. 31. XOR Gate A X B
  32. 32. XOR Gate – Truth Table A B X 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 0
  33. 33. SPECIALITY CIRCUITS  Designed to make use of our binary knowledge and our circuitry knowledge  Examples include:  Adders  Flip Flops  Shifts
  34. 34. DESIGNING SPECIALITY CIRCUITS  These circuits are written to provide a specific function:  Adder (Binary Addition)  Flip Flop (Binary Storage)
  35. 35. DESIGNING SPECIALITY CIRCUITS  Follow these steps:  Identify inputs and outputs  Identify the components required to produce the output (AND, OR, NOT, NAND, NOR, XOR)  Construct the solution with logic gates  Check the solution for validity (with a truth table)  Evaluate the circuit design (could you make this circuit better by chaining different logic gates)
  36. 36. Binary Half Adder  This device is basically a calculator.  Lets look at the half adder truth table first.
  37. 37. Binary Half Adders INPUT OUTPUT  To create a Binary Adder, A B Carry Sum we need to find a logic gate that give us the 0 0 0 0 Carry output and a logic gate 0 1 0 1 the Sum output 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 0
  38. 38. Binary Half Adders INPUT OUTPUT  Carry output is created using a A B Carry Sum AND logic gate 0 0 0 0 A X B 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 0
  39. 39. Binary Half Adders INPUT OUTPUT  Sum output is created using a A B Carry Sum XOR logic gate 0 0 0 0 A X B 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 0
  40. 40. Binary Half Adders The circuit: A Carry (C) B Sum (S)
  41. 41. Half And Full Adders  Half Adders only work to add two digits  To add more than 2 binary digits we need a full adder  A full adder allows us to add the “carry” value to an binary addition
  42. 42. Full Adders A B Carry (C) Sum (S) Carry in
  43. 43. Truth Tables Construct a truth table for the full adder.
  44. 44. Truth Table A B CARRY CARRY SUM IN 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 1
  45. 45. Circuit Design Steps  Identify inputs and outputs. A+B+C=X  Identify the components needed to obtain the desired output. AND/OR/NOT/XOR/NAND/NOR  Construct a truth table to test.
  46. 46. Activity 2  Construct a truth table for the following circuit. A Y B X C
  47. 47. A B X C A B C Y X 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 1
  48. 48. Activity 3
  49. 49. Fault Door Switch x Light 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 0
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