Electronic  Circuits
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Electronic Circuits

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Electronic  Circuits Electronic Circuits Presentation Transcript

  • Software Developers View of Hardware Electronic Circuits
  • What are circuits?  Computers are electrical devices, so therefore all functions performed by a computer need to done via the use of circuits.  Circuits are designed via the use of Logic Gates which show the path and the way in which electronic signals are sent and received.
  • Logic Gates  Are a hardware circuit that produces a 0 or 1, which is normally an electronic impulse.  There are THREE basic logic gates and THREE extended gates that can be used to build integrated circuits.
  • BASIC GATES 1. NOT Gate  This is the simplest of all gates, it involves a single input and a single output.  The purpose of this gate is the flipping of a bit similar to what is performed in one’s complement.
  • NOT Gate A X 0 1
  • NOT Gate
  • NOT Gate
  • NOT Gate – Truth Table IF A = 0 THEN A X X=1 0 1 ELSE X=0 1 0 ENDIF
  • BASIC GATES 1. AND Gate  This is involves two inputs to produce one output.  Both inputs must be true for the output to be true.
  • AND Gate A X B
  • AND Gate
  • AND Gate
  • AND Gate
  • AND Gate – Truth Table A B X IF A=1 AND B=1THEN 0 0 0 X=1 0 1 0 ELSE X=0 1 0 0 ENDIF 1 1 1
  • BASIC GATES 1. OR Gate  This is involves two inputs to produce one output.  If either inputs are true then the output will be true.
  • OR Gate A X B
  • OR Gate
  • OR Gate
  • OR Gate
  • OR Gate
  • OR Gate – Truth Table A B X IF A=1 OR B=1THEN 0 0 0 X=1 0 1 1 ELSE X=0 1 0 1 ENDIF 1 1 1
  • Activity 1 Complete the truth table for the following circuit. A X Y B
  • Truth Table A B X Y 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 1
  • EXTENDED GATES 1. NAND Gate  This is involves two inputs to produce one output.  The output is the opposite of an AND gate.  Is a combination of an AND and NOT gate.
  • NAND Gate A X B
  • NAND Gate – Truth Table A B X IF A=1 AND B=1THEN 0 0 1 X=0 0 1 1 ELSE X=1 1 0 1 ENDIF 1 1 0
  • EXTENDED GATES 1. NOR Gate  This is involves two inputs to produce one output.  The output is the opposite of an OR gate.  It is a combination of an OR and NOT.
  • NOR Gate A X B
  • NOR Gate – Truth Table A B X IF A=1 AND B=1THEN 0 0 1 X=0 0 1 0 ELSE X=1 1 0 0 ENDIF 1 1 0
  • EXTENDED GATES 1. XOR Gate  This stands for exclusive OR.  This gate is true if only one input is true.
  • XOR Gate A X B
  • XOR Gate – Truth Table A B X 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 0
  • SPECIALITY CIRCUITS  Designed to make use of our binary knowledge and our circuitry knowledge  Examples include:  Adders  Flip Flops  Shifts
  • DESIGNING SPECIALITY CIRCUITS  These circuits are written to provide a specific function:  Adder (Binary Addition)  Flip Flop (Binary Storage)
  • DESIGNING SPECIALITY CIRCUITS  Follow these steps:  Identify inputs and outputs  Identify the components required to produce the output (AND, OR, NOT, NAND, NOR, XOR)  Construct the solution with logic gates  Check the solution for validity (with a truth table)  Evaluate the circuit design (could you make this circuit better by chaining different logic gates)
  • Binary Half Adder  This device is basically a calculator.  Lets look at the half adder truth table first.
  • Binary Half Adders INPUT OUTPUT  To create a Binary Adder, A B Carry Sum we need to find a logic gate that give us the 0 0 0 0 Carry output and a logic gate 0 1 0 1 the Sum output 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 0
  • Binary Half Adders INPUT OUTPUT  Carry output is created using a A B Carry Sum AND logic gate 0 0 0 0 A X B 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 0
  • Binary Half Adders INPUT OUTPUT  Sum output is created using a A B Carry Sum XOR logic gate 0 0 0 0 A X B 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 0
  • Binary Half Adders The circuit: A Carry (C) B Sum (S)
  • Half And Full Adders  Half Adders only work to add two digits  To add more than 2 binary digits we need a full adder  A full adder allows us to add the “carry” value to an binary addition
  • Full Adders A B Carry (C) Sum (S) Carry in
  • Truth Tables Construct a truth table for the full adder.
  • Truth Table A B CARRY CARRY SUM IN 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 1
  • Circuit Design Steps  Identify inputs and outputs. A+B+C=X  Identify the components needed to obtain the desired output. AND/OR/NOT/XOR/NAND/NOR  Construct a truth table to test.
  • Activity 2  Construct a truth table for the following circuit. A Y B X C
  • A B X C A B C Y X 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 1
  • Activity 3
  • Fault Door Switch x Light 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 0