Metal-based Nano particles
• AuNPs acting as heat producer featured high conversion efficiency of
NIR light to heat.
• Used mainly in cancer therapy
• Disadvantage: Toxicity
Lipid based Nanoparticles
• A liposome is an artificially-prepared spherical vesicle
composed of a lipid bilayer
• Advantage: Biodegradable
• Carries drug through forming drug-polymer complex
• Dentrimers : Carries drugs through covalent conjugation
Carriers of DNA in gene therapy, proteins, peptides and
Optimal design of nanoparticles
• Rapid clearance during systemic delivery
• Opsonization - nonspecific protein adsorption
• Rapid clearance by Mononuclear Phagocyte system (MPS) in
the liver and by spleen filtration
Nanoparticles smaller than 10 nm can be rapidly cleared by the
kidneys or through extravasation, while larger nanoparticles may
have higher tendency to be cleared by cells of the MPS
• Surface charge
Neutrally charged particles have demonstrated much lower
opsonization rates than charged particles
A PEG shell on the nanoparticle surface shields charged
particles from attachment by blood proteins leading to
prolonged circulation half-life.
• Targeting Ligands
Size and charge of the ligand molecule, and their ease of
modification and conjugation to the nanoparticles.
• Designing nanoparticles to be taken orally.
• Introduction and improvement of controlled release
properties and targeting ligands is expected to enable the
development of safer and more effective therapeutic
• The development of particles that are nano scaled has
created great opportunities in the of improved drug delivery
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