History of GIS.
What is GIS?
Applications of GIS.
Future Scope of GIS.
• A Geographic Information System (GIS) is a system
capture, store, manipulate, analyze, manage, and
present all types of Geographical Data.
• It makes use of the technologies of
Analysis, and Database technology.
• GIS in simple terms can be described as an application
that contains information of various places of a specific
town or an area pertaining to a kind in the form of
History of GIS
When we come across a topic called
civilizations, we get to know that the people
then were equally good at planning things
, they used to make road maps and paintings
or any other type of artwork that consisted at
least a small information based on the
geography . It can be granaries, entertainment
spots or any other place, we can just say GIS is
as old as history……!
GIS : A Definition
A Basic definition of GIS;
A system for
capturing, storing, checking, integrating, manipulating, anal
yzing and displaying data which are spatially referenced to
the Earth. This is normally considered to involve a spatially
referenced computer database and appropriate
What makes GIS so special?
• GIS handles SPATIAL information
– Information referenced by its location in space.
• GIS makes connections between activities
based on spatial proximity.
An Evidence to show GIS is quite
As per their mapping the
red spots were the
infected spots and places
of death , the dots
indicate the water wells.
Background for modern GIS
This technology has developed from:
•Digital cartography and CAD
•Data Base Management Systems
Cross-disciplinary nature of GIS
Types of GIS’s
• Four-dimensional GIS : Four-dimensional GIS are
designed for three dimensions of space and one of
• Multimedia/Hypermedia GIS :
Multimedia/Hypermedia GIS allow the user to access
a wide range of geo referenced multimedia data
(e.g., simulations, sounds and videos) by selecting
resources from a geo referenced image map base.
Types of GIS’s contd
• Web GIS : Widespread access to the Internet, the
ubiquity of browsers and the explosion of
commoditized geographic information has made it
possible to develop new forms of multimedia georepresentations on the Web.
• Virtual Reality GIS : Virtual Reality GIS have been
developed to allow the creation, manipulation and
exploration of geo-referenced virtual
environments, e.g., using VRML modeling(Virtual
Reality Modeling Language) and various other soft
What makes data spatial?
Latitude / Longitude
Distance & bearing
Spatial Data: examples
• Socio-economic data
– Regional health data
– Consumer / lifestyle profiles
• Environmental data
– Topographic data
– Thematic data, soils, geology
Techniques that are used
• Data Accumulation : Accumulating the data
regarding the geography is the main technique
or a function to be more precise .
• Data Modeling : The processing of the data
that is accumulated into the order of its
existence and the location
Marketing and Retailing
and many more . . .
The benefits of GIS include:
• Better information management
• Higher quality analysis
• Ability to carry out “what if?” scenarios
• Improve project efficiency
Future Scope of GIS
• An active GIS market has resulted in lower costs
and continual improvements in the hardware and
software components of GIS.
• It is quite likely that the future GIS systems will
include the additional dimension of time, giving
researchers the ability to examine the variations
in Earth processes over days, months and years.
• The GIS of the future will also be more user
friendly and accessible to the common man.
GIS has proved to be a really useful
application, its evolution with the changing
times has been totally progressive . With the
changes in the latest hardware's and the
software's GIS will be used for the best of its
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