Geographical information system


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Geographical information system

  1. 1. Geographical Information System By; Gautham.K Soundarya.R Nitesh.B.M
  2. 2. Contents • • • • • • Introduction. History of GIS. What is GIS? Applications of GIS. Technologies used. Future Scope of GIS.
  3. 3. Introduction • A Geographic Information System (GIS) is a system designed to capture, store, manipulate, analyze, manage, and present all types of Geographical Data. • It makes use of the technologies of Cartography, Statistical Analysis, and Database technology. • GIS in simple terms can be described as an application that contains information of various places of a specific town or an area pertaining to a kind in the form of information handling.
  4. 4. History of GIS When we come across a topic called civilizations, we get to know that the people then were equally good at planning things , they used to make road maps and paintings or any other type of artwork that consisted at least a small information based on the geography . It can be granaries, entertainment spots or any other place, we can just say GIS is as old as history……!
  5. 5. GIS : A Definition A Basic definition of GIS; A system for capturing, storing, checking, integrating, manipulating, anal yzing and displaying data which are spatially referenced to the Earth. This is normally considered to involve a spatially referenced computer database and appropriate applications software.
  6. 6. What makes GIS so special? • GIS handles SPATIAL information – Information referenced by its location in space. • GIS makes connections between activities based on spatial proximity.
  7. 7. An Evidence to show GIS is quite old London cholera epidemic 1854 As per their mapping the red spots were the infected spots and places of death , the dots indicate the water wells.
  8. 8. Background for modern GIS This technology has developed from: •Digital cartography and CAD •Data Base Management Systems
  9. 9. Digital Mapping Computer Aided Design Photogrammetry GIS Databases Surveying Remote Sensing Cross-disciplinary nature of GIS
  10. 10. Types of GIS’s • Four-dimensional GIS : Four-dimensional GIS are designed for three dimensions of space and one of time. • Multimedia/Hypermedia GIS : Multimedia/Hypermedia GIS allow the user to access a wide range of geo referenced multimedia data (e.g., simulations, sounds and videos) by selecting resources from a geo referenced image map base.
  11. 11. Types of GIS’s contd • Web GIS : Widespread access to the Internet, the ubiquity of browsers and the explosion of commoditized geographic information has made it possible to develop new forms of multimedia georepresentations on the Web. • Virtual Reality GIS : Virtual Reality GIS have been developed to allow the creation, manipulation and exploration of geo-referenced virtual environments, e.g., using VRML modeling(Virtual Reality Modeling Language) and various other soft wares.
  12. 12. What makes data spatial? Grid co-ordinate Place name Latitude / Longitude Postcode Description Distance & bearing 12
  13. 13. Spatial Data: examples • Socio-economic data – Regional health data – Consumer / lifestyle profiles – Geodemographics • Environmental data – Topographic data – Thematic data, soils, geology 13
  14. 14. Techniques that are used • Data Accumulation : Accumulating the data regarding the geography is the main technique or a function to be more precise . • Data Modeling : The processing of the data that is accumulated into the order of its existence and the location
  15. 15. GIS Applications • • • • • • Facilities Management Marketing and Retailing Environmental Transport/Vehicle Routing Health Insurance and many more . . . 15
  16. 16. The benefits of GIS include: • Better information management • Higher quality analysis • Ability to carry out “what if?” scenarios • Improve project efficiency 16
  17. 17. Future Scope of GIS • An active GIS market has resulted in lower costs and continual improvements in the hardware and software components of GIS. • It is quite likely that the future GIS systems will include the additional dimension of time, giving researchers the ability to examine the variations in Earth processes over days, months and years. • The GIS of the future will also be more user friendly and accessible to the common man.
  18. 18. Conclusion GIS has proved to be a really useful application, its evolution with the changing times has been totally progressive . With the changes in the latest hardware's and the software's GIS will be used for the best of its purposes…!
  19. 19. Thank You for spending time on our Presentation…!!