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    Life sync paper   hcc 8310 - helium knights Life sync paper hcc 8310 - helium knights Document Transcript

    • HCC 831- Fundamentals of Human-Centered Computing Fall 2013 PROJECT: LifeSync TEAM: Helium Knights TEAM MEMBERS: Brian Gaines Praveen Lobo Goutham Pacha Ravi Sagar Puro Tiffanie Smith
    • Team Member Responsibilities Brian Gaines Responsible for initial planning concept, survey design, data collection, usability testing, visual design, user experience, and aesthetics, literature review, research guide, insight statements, how might we statements, brainstorming, idea selection, storyboarding, lo-fi prototyping, project proposal, cognitive walkthrough presentation, experimental research, creation of final presentation, creation of final paper, IRB expedited approval Praveen Lobo Process site maintenance, creating google form for the interviews, literature review, research guide, insight statements, how might we statements, brainstorming, idea selection, storyboarding, lo-fi prototyping, project proposal, cognitive walkthrough presentation, experimental research, creation of final presentation, creation of final paper, IRB expedited approval. User interface design and database design of the high fidelity prototype. Log in, Sign out, Registration, Home Page, Socialize and Events features of the high fidelity prototype Goutham Pacha Ravi Sagar Puro Tiffanie Smith Interviewing professionals associated with Graduate School experience at Clemson University. Process site maintenance, Designing Interaction elements and flow for low-fidelity prototype of the application. Developing Events and Calendar functionalities for the high-fidelity prototype, literature review, research guide, insight statements, how might we statements, brainstorming, idea selection, storyboarding, lo-fi prototyping, project proposal, cognitive walkthrough presentation, experimental research, creation of final presentation, creation of final paper, IRB expedited approval Heuristic Evaluation, Design of usable interactive system, User interviews, Literature review, research guide, insight statements, how might we statements, brainstorming, idea selection, storyboarding, Concept design, lo-fi prototyping, project proposal, , cognitive walkthrough presentation, experimental research, creation of final presentation, creation of final paper, IRB expedited approval Literature review, research guide, insight statements, how might we statements, brainstorming, idea selection, storyboarding, lo-fi prototyping, project proposal, cognitive walkthrough presentation, experimental research, creation of final presentation, creation of final paper, IRB expedited approval
    • LifeSync: Relieving Stress and Fostering Collaboration Tiffanie Smith Human-Centered Computing, School of Computing Clemson University Tiffan3@g.clemson.edu Brian Gaines Usability Testing Facility, Department of English Clemson University blgaine@g.clemson.edu Praveen Lobo Computer Science Division, School of Computing Clemson University plobo@g.clemson.edu ABSTRACT The pressures and stress of obtaining a graduate degree can often result in isolation amongst the students. We have found that students closely rely on their friends for support during these stressful times. Students may incline to addiction if they do not find the motivation or support that they expect from their peers. While there are in-house resources available to students, they first must be comfortable with reaching out for help. This may lead to the students losing interest in studying or even dropping out. We have designed a calendar-centered website that will allow students to manage their time and schedules as well as schedule academic and leisure events with their peers. The website will allow graduate students to collaborate. The user can join groups of different interests, they are free to discuss academic related or any other issues with peers and friends or with those encountering the same problems. They can step out of solitude and meet up with friends to unwind from the struggles of graduate school life. Author Keywords Design, Graduate Students, Stress, Usability, Web-based Applications, Article, Stress, Human Factors. ACM Classification Keywords H.5.m. Information interfaces and presentation (e.g., HCI): Miscellaneous. INTRODUCTION Graduate students spend a large amount of time in isolation on their multi-year journey to their degree. Graduate education also involves many interpersonal stressors such as the pressure to give the impression of an expert in front of peers and professors, competition among peers, and competition for research publications and scholarly presentations. These social struggles often lead to loneliness, anxiety, role confusion, and alienation (Katz & Hartnett, 1976; Mallinckrodt, Leong, & Fretz, 1985; Stecker, 2004). As a result of the stressors that graduate students face, they may become less effective students, and their personal and professional lives may suffer. A recent Permission to make digital or hard copies of all or part of this work for personal or classroom use is granted without fee provided that copies are not made or distributed for profit or commercial advantage and that copies bear this notice and the full citation on the first page. To copy otherwise, or republish, to post on servers or to redistribute to lists, requires prior specific permission and/or a fee. CHI 2014, April 26–May 1, 2014, Toronto, Canada. Copyright © 2014 ACM 978-1-4503-18990/13/04...$15.00. Sagar Puro Department of Industrial Engineering, Clemson University plobo@g.clemson.edu Goutham Pacha Ravi Computer Science Division, School of Computing Clemson University plobo@g.clemson.edu study conducted by the Berkeley Graduate Student Mental Health Survey, investigated the well being of both American and international students. The study revealed that about 45 percent experienced “an emotional or stressrelated problem that significantly affected their well-being and/or academic performance” and 10 percent “seriously considered suicide”. International students face an even greater set of stressors. In addition to the typical stressors and pressures of graduate studies, these students have to adjust to a new language and culture; deal with financial worries; navigate a foreign education system; and grapple with feelings of loneliness and being homesick (Hyun, Quinn, Madon & Lustig, 2007). Research has shown that female students are more stressed out than their male counterparts (Nelson, et. al, 2010; Dahlin, et.al 2005). In terms of coping with stress, it was found that domestic and international students both rely on friends as support group after dealing with the issues via emotional and problem oriented approaches, respectively (Sapranaviciute, et al 2012). When a person is lonely, it often leads to more psychological distress and creates health issues (Mahon et al., 1993) Research indicates that loneliness is associated with relatively poor physical health and depression among students. (Lin, Shu-Hui, and Yun-Chen Huang. (2012)). Loneliness is defined as the unpleasant experience that occurs when a person’s network of social relationships is deficient in some important way, including a lack of group participation, a lack of belonging, not relating to others, and feeling a lack of connection (Perlman & Peplau, 1981). Loneliness is not just limited to social isolation; it is possible that an individual can still feel lonely among groups (Pinquart and Sorensen, 2001). Overall, we found that most graduate students can relate to the same stressors. The academic stress of meeting deadlines and performing research acceptable to the advisor’s standards was common amongst all levels of surveyed students. Familial separation or lack of family support was a common non-academic stressor. OBJECTIVES The goal of this project is to design a new system that aims to neutralize the effects of isolation and provide support in
    • reaching the academic goals of graduate students. The constraints of the project design implies a system that would allow students to get organized in order to accomplish their goals as well as help offset isolation by supporting collaboration. In order to design a system that was easily accessible to all the students at any point of time, a website was developed which students can access even on their mobile devices. A web-based application can assist graduate students in organizing their schedule and allow them to collaborate with friends and colleagues through a shared calendar feature. Moreover, a shared calendar feature would reduce the chances of isolation by allowing users to organize time for social events with their friends. Initial brainstorming sessions with the team gave some very promising ideas. These ideas were funneled considering what was practically possible to develop. We decided to divide ourselves into subgroups of two members each and design pages for our website. The concepts were combined and the design was standardized for consistency. The initial idea was to develop an application for a mobile that the users can use whenever required. This concept was quickly scrapped because of the lack of expertise of the team in app development. We decided that creating a website would be a better option as the user can login through his phone and access it anywhere he wants. In order to facilitate collaboration, the system should include a feature that would allow intuitive sharing of information and allows the users to not only record their goals, but also to clearly identify when the goal has been accomplished. The completion of goals should also be easily identifiable and verifiable by a particular user’s peer group within the framework of the application. Features The following features were developed for implementation within the design of the web-based application:  Profile and linked interests  Allowing users to have friends and add them to custom or prepopulated groups based on Interests  A calendar of events  Sharing calendars among friends, allowing public events to be viewed while hiding private events.  Allowing users to share interesting information or academic information through groups  Allowing users to ‘cheer up’ by providing them with links to popular humor, music websites. PROTOTYPE A paper prototype was devised to demonstrate the login, profile, calendar, and calendar comparison features of the interface. Figure 1. Low Fidelity Paper Prototype Figure 2. Low Fidelity Paper Prototype Home Page Initial ideas also included features like interactive alarm clocks, a timeline to set goals, gamification of the concept to help develop interest in the application, providing the users with a health guide that would help them eat better and reduce stress and to create an extensive forum that would help in collaboration. Other ideas, such as utilizing a mobile device’s accelerometer and incorporating music to be played after a certain distance walked were proposed during the brainstorming sessions. Although some of these ideas indicated positive benefits to the user and would have increased the use and functionality of the product tremendously, the team realized that it would be difficult to implement those features in the allotted timeframe. Instead, the design team decided to pursue the features that focused upon collaboration, in order to streamline the design process and to meet the early December deadline. The team decided that users would log in to their profile using the Clemson University (g.clemson) user identifications. This identification will log them into their Google account and import their calendar and other events. This would be beneficial as it would not only provide security and authorization to the users but also allow them to sync their calendar and events with Google calendar.
    • Further, the ethos of the Google brand can serve to ensure trust among users of the interface. and the friend’s calendar side by side for easy and quick comparison. The homepage (Figure 2) was the main design challenge that the team struggled with. What information to provide in the home page and how user friendly and understandable it will be to the users were the two main issues. We decided to have a minimalistic approach, where the user will be greeted with the question asking him about the state of his mind. The user can choose if he is sad, lonely or happy. Depending upon his choice the website will provide the user with a set of activities that will help him/her cope with the situation and prevent it from getting worse. The homepage will have three other tabs that were linked to each other to help provide all the functionality of the website. The user can create events, he can access his calendar and can choose to socialize with his friends if he desires. These three menu items form the backbone of the website. These pages acted as the guidelines for further iterations. Figure 3. Low Fidelity Paper Prototype Friend’s Calendar View. The events tab would help them create an event by selecting the date and time and send invitations to other inviting them to the event. The user can choose to keep the event private or chose to make it public for others to view. Events can also be created though the calendar option by comparing one’s calendar to someone else’s. Other users in a person’s friend’s list will have the option of sharing certain events from their calendar with other users or not share their calendar with some users. The user can request someone in his/her list to share his or her calendar. Once the calendar is shared the user can check the availability of the other person and invite him/her for an event. An email notification would be sent to the user on invitation. The compare calendar feature would place the user’s calendar Prototype Testing The team went through multiple iterations of every page on testing it with the users and obtaining feedbacks. The team wanted to be certain that the features were intuitive to the users as well and that they found the interface easy to use. The team decided to administer a group of volunteers with three tasks varying in the level of difficulty: Low- Creating a user profile. Medium- Locating a specified calendar date for a user profile. High- Comparing calendars in order to create events. The usability testing participants, comprised of staff members of Clemson University’s Multimedia Authoring Teaching And Research Facility (MATRF), were asked to perform a series of tasks and to utilize a think-aloud protocol in order to obtain extensive feedback (Redish and Dumas, 1999). Prior to the actual testing, the participants were given the task of assembling a ballpoint pen to demonstrate the think-aloud protocol and to develop a rapport prior to testing (Redish and Dumas, 1999). The think-aloud protocol was recorded via digital video, and notes were taken on the responses of each participant. At the conclusion of the test, a Standard Usability Scale (SUS) survey was administered to the participants. The SUS was chosen as it has been determined to be an effective tool for measuring usability (Bangor, et. al., 2009). The results of the SUS surveys were compared to the videos and the notes to identify potential usability issues and to inform future iterations of the interface. Results The prototypes received an overall positive response. The results of the SUS were calculated using the method of scoring a range of 0-4 in a Likert-type scale over 10 questions. For questions 1,3,5,7, and 9, the score contribution is 1 minus the scale position. For items 2,4,6,8, and 10, the score is five minus the scale position. The mean score of the SUS among the participants was 76, which can be described as being “above average”. Additionally, comments from the usability test participants during the think-aloud protocol indicated positive interactions with the interface prototype. Anecdotal data from the think-aloud protocol provided a wealth of potential usability issues, and provided a framework to inform future iterations of the interface
    • design. Approximately 40% of the participants failed to notice the Compare feature in regards to comparing two or more calendars. A majority of the participants were either opposed to push notifications, or were not familiar with the concept in those terms. Other usability concerns derived from the anecdotal data included an automatic time and date fill on the Calendar feature, the positioning of certain buttons, such as “Home” and “Share”, and the lack of an intuitive and discernable way to view the “Week at a Glance” feature. Most users felt the need for “Exit”, “Back”, “Cancel”, and “Done” buttons for the interface. three most important features, i.e., Calendar, New Event and Socialize in an interactive button. Design changes were made to the prototype implementing the feedback obtained from the users. The users are suggested a list of activities they can perform, if they specify that they are happy/sad/lonely by clicking on the emoticons which indicate the mood.  All pages have a weather widget and a clock to keep the user informed  Most of the users had positive reactions to such features as the iTunes-like scrolling of the friend’s profiles in Calendar View mode, stating it was intuitive, made the interface “fun to use”, and increased their understanding of the interface based on the correlation to existing applications.  The New Event feature lets users create an event with the description, time, etc., and once the event is created it is added to the user’s list of events.  The Event table is color coded, i.e., events that the user marks as urgent will be displayed in a reddish hue, events that are marked as regular will have a greenish hue, etc.  The Calendar feature lets the users view their own calendars, their event list and their friend’s events.  The Socialize, one of the most striking features of our application, as it has two components to it, i.e., Friends and Groups. by Discounted usability testing techniques such as heuristic evaluation was carried out on the entire system to ensure that no usability principles were being violated. Consistency and standardization were given utmost importance. Error messages were provided at every point to avoid confusion. The system over all did quite well in heuristic evaluation where no major violations found during testing. FINAL DESIGN LifeSync, a web-based application where a user can collaborate with friends and colleagues, as well as manage their personal and professional obligations is the result of the final design. Features Friends LifeSync enables the user to have friends, i.e., other users of the interface that may belong to a social, academic, or professional group.  The user can view a list of friends and visit each of their respective profiles.  A friend’s profile displays the friend’s information, group affiliations, and any events that the friend is scheduled to attend.  The user is also able to add friends from the pool of all the registered users. LifeSync contains a number of features to enhance the user experience:  Any user that wants to use this application should be either registered or logged in if already registered. This prevents unauthorized access to our application.  While registering with an account, users can upload their own profile pictures onto a server, and they can also add the groups they like.  We have incorporated personalization specifically when the user is in the home page; they are greeted by their names.  Groups LifeSync contains groups, where users may interact with others who share mutual interests, such as social, academic, or professional.  LifeSync contains pages that are interactive. For example, if the user hovers on any images, it will grow in size. Also, the homepage displays the Users can view the list of groups they have added and also visit the group’s page  The group page is designed to let the users interact with other users in a similar fashion as that of a forum.
    •  A user can post links to areas of interest, such as an academic or news article, comment upon it, and share within the group. meaning derived by the aesthetic sense of the user. (Heath and Heath, 2008; Sturken and Cartwright, 2009). Experimental Design Design Aesthetics LifeSync features several design aesthetics, which greatly enhance the user’s experience, as well as establishes concreteness to the user through the allowance of visualization. The LifeSync logo (Figure 4), which features a depiction of the sync icon in blue, surrounds the words “life” and “sync” rendered in orange with a gray drop shadow. The words are positioned in such a way that creates a downward arrow within the negative space created by the letters. These visual cues establish credibility with the user, by creating a visualization of some of the applications more salient features. Moreover, the use of a complimentary color palette evokes a level of connoisseurship that seeks to be indicative of, and resonates with the intended audience, graduate students, for the application (Sturken and Cartwright, 2009). Additionally, the unified image and its interpellations substantiate a deeper meaning and understanding for the viewer (Althusser, 1971; Sturken and Cartwright, 2009). In order to determine the effectiveness of the web application, understanding the target audience and testing them with definitive techniques is essential. Target Audience: Demographic Survey suggested that the demographic best suited for this system would be both male and female graduate students from Clemson University, aged between 18 and 29. Since this design challenge was specifically designed for university graduate students. Some of the common problems that this demographic faces according to our findings are: 1. Family aloofness: A very high percentage (74%) of the candidates we interviewed mentioned that they do not reside near their families and will most likely use our application to ease their loneliness. 2. Time management: Users who have a hard time managing their day to day events can utilize our application to prioritize their tasks. Testing will be done with Graduate students who would be differentiated by the program they are enrolled in: Master’s, Master’s (Thesis) or PhD. Students would be given three tasks varying in the degree of difficulty. Task 1: Sign up and register in the website. Task 2: Create events and check the updated list of events. Figure 4. LifeSync Logo. (Note the sync icon and arrow formed in the negative space of the letters “I”, “f”, and “Y”.) Through visualization of features such as user profiles and calendars, meaning is derived. The profile avatars, acting as a de facto “representative” of the user, establishes credibility and seeks to create appeals to both logos (intellect) and pathos (emotion) (Ulmer, 2012). The calendars, which provide a visualization to the abstract concept of time, allows for the user to make informed decisions concerning time management, as well as informs the user of the value of time allotted for work and leisure. By employing a simple layout for the user, the interface retains an elegance and intuitiveness that is neither contrastive to the functionality of the interface nor the Task 3: Post on a forum of their Academic group. Procedures and Evaluation Methodology: The users will be encouraged to voice their opinions using the Think Aloud Protocol as they complete each task. Each session will end with a short survey for the participant to complete. notes were taken on the responses of each participant. At the conclusion of each test, a Standard Usability Scale (SUS) survey will be administered to the participants. The results of the SUS will be scored on a range of 0-4 in a Likert-type scale over the questions. A smaller subset of these users would perform a more extensive Cognitive Walkthrough.
    • The survey would contain questions associated to the features of the website, areas needing improvement, features that they like etc. The collected information could be used to determine if the website needs any further improvement and if it would prove useful in solving the original purpose it was intended for. DISCUSSION Our team’s desire to include assistance for all stressors in the life of a graduate student was an impediment in our design process. Our scope was entirely too broad to attempt to complete in a semester’s time. Whittling down our scope was difficult, as we wanted to incorporate as many features as we could, but still fit within our time constraint and listed requirements. We decided to focus on the time management and social support that we found was needed as a result of our surveys. Before focusing on the calendar-based website, we wanted to include an alarm clock feature, a financial management aspect, as well as a music player. The focus of building this application using particular technologies was always keeping in mind the possibility of extensions in the future. We wish to scale the existing functionality that we have provided and provide similar and related stress relief solutions to the user. We chose to use web technologies such as HTML5, CSS3, PHP, JavaScript to leverage the existing services provided free by third parties. We intend to extend this application to create, if unavailable, and maintain Google Accounts in order to use some of Google’s services. The application currently supports the use of Client ID authorization where we have permanent access to the user’s Google services since his username and password authentication is performed locally and these parameters are shared with Google’s authentication server to access the user’s specific assets, such as calendar, message queue and contact details. In the future, we expect to establish a session specific authentication, where the user authorization for access to his/her Google assets is controlled and performed by Google’s Authentication system. This resolves the issues of aging or changed passwords and enhances user security and privacy by letting the user authenticate himself on the server and allowing the user to see what all Google assets can be accessible by this application and in what way. Hence, we intend to port this application to Google’s Cloud Console for production. In this high level prototype showcasing essential functionality, we have not used Google’s Client-ID or OAuth features, instead we created a custom authentication at the application level. Hence, we do not have access to the user’s Google Assets. We created the closed universe around the user to show the Social interaction that the application was capable of providing. We represented the user’s events in our own calendar implementation. In its full implementation, we expect to be able to compare Calendars of friends. We did not implement a message queue so users could send and receive messages from other users of the system. This would be added to enhance the “Social” aspect, the goal being to deal with isolation and promote socialization. There are areas we would like to improve on our existing design. We wanted to complete a “Compare Calendar” feature where one user could view a friend’s shared calendar. This feature was conceived to assist in reducing isolation and increasing socialization. The user could see the friend’s availability and possibly propose a social event. We also hope to increase the amount of socialization offered by the website. Originally, we wished to include a chat feature for members of the same group. Currently, members can communicate via a simple forum. In the future, we want to incorporate reminders via email, SMS (Short Message Service) or by pop-up notifications. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS We would like to extend special gratitude to: The Multimedia Authoring Teaching and Research Facility (MATRF), Clemson University; The Usability Testing Facility and Tharon W. Howard, Ph.D., Clemson University; Kathy Mabry, Clemson Area International Friendship; Neil Burton, Center for Career and Professional Development; and a very special thanks to Shaundra Daily, Ph.D., for her guidance and patience throughout the semester. REFERENCES 1.Bangor, A., Kortum, P., & Miller, J. (2009). Determining what individual SUS scores mean: Adding an adjective rating scale. Journal of usability studies, 4(3), 114-123. 2.Byars, J. L. (2005). Stress, anxiety, depression, and loneliness of graduate counseling students: the effectiveness of group counseling and exercise (Doctoral dissertation, Texas Tech University). 3.Dumas, J. S. (1999). A practical guide to usability testing. Intellect Books, 278-286. 4.Heath, C., & Heath, D. (2007). Made to stick: Why some ideas survive and others die. Random House Digital, Inc., 25-62. 5.Lin, S. H., & Huang, Y. C. (2012). Investigating the relationships between loneliness and learning burnout. Active Learning in Higher Education, 13(3), 231-243. 6.Sapranaviciute, L., Perminas, A., & Pauziene, N. (2012). Stress coping and psychological adaptation in the international students. Central European Journal of Medicine, 7(3), 335-343.
    • 7.Sturken, M., Cartwright, L., & Sturken, M. (2001). Practices of looking: An introduction to visual Culture Oxford: Oxford University Press, 50-51, 56-69. 8. Ulmer, G. L. (2012). Avatar emergency. Parlor Press
    • Expedited / Full Board Review Application Clemson University (CU) Institutional Review Board (IRB) (Version 9.7.2012) Clemson University IRB Website Office use only Approved Protocol Number: Expedited Full Board Expiration date: ___________________________ ______________________________________ ________________________________________ Signature of IRB Chair / Designee Date Level of Review (Questions 13 & 14 determine if the protocol can be expedited): Expedited Full Board 1. Developmental Approval: If you already have developmental approval for this research study (you should know if you do), please give the IRB protocol number assigned to the study. More information available here. 2. Research Title: LifeSync If different, title used on consent document(s) If class project, include HCC 831: Fundamentals of Human Centered Computing course number and title 3. Principal Investigator (PI): The PI must be a member of the Clemson faculty or staff. You cannot be the PI if this is your thesis or dissertation. The PI must have completed IRB-approved human research protections training. Training will be verified by IRB staff before approval is granted. Training instructions available here. CITI training site available here. Name: Shaundra Daily Faculty Staff Department: Human Centered Computing E-mail: sdaily@clemson.edu Campus address: Phone: 864.656.5778 McAdams 214 Fax:
    • 4. Co-Investigator(s): Co-Investigators must have completed IRB-approved human research protections training. Training will be verified by IRB staff before approval is granted. Training instructions available here. CITI training site available here. Name: Brian Gaines E-mail: blgaine@g.clemson.edu Department: Phone: 619-240-6322 Faculty Graduate student Staff Undergraduate student Other. Please specify. Name: Praveen Lobo E-mail: plobo@clemson.edu Department: Computer Science Phone: 864-376-6790 Faculty Staff 5. Graduate student Undergraduate student Other. Please specify. Additional Research Team Members: All research team members must have completed IRB-approved human research protections training. Training will be verified by IRB staff before approval is granted. Training instructions available here. CITI training site available here. List of additional research team members included. Form available here. 6. Research Team Roles: Describe the role of each member of the research team (everyone included in Items 3, 4 and 5); indicating which research activities will be carried out by each particular member. Team members may be grouped into categories. Description: Brian: Responsible for usability testing to assure user friendliness, a positive user experience, and the look and feel of the interface Praveen: Responsible for implementation of features and functionality through code for the high-fidelity prototype Goutham: Responsible for conceptualizing interaction flow and implementing part of the functionalities for the high-fidelity prototype and assist with user testing. Sagar: Responsible for designing a user friendly interface and assure smooth integration of all components Tiffanie: Responsible for assisting with system design and collecting viable data from usability testing
    • 7. Email Communications: If you would like one or two of your team members (in addition to the PI) to be copied on all email communications, please list these individuals in the box below. Name: Brian Gaines E-mail: blgaine@g.clemson.edu Name: Praveen Lobo E-mail: plobo@clemson.edu 8. Study Purpose: Provide a brief description of the purpose of the study. Use lay language and avoid technical terms. IRB members not familiar with the area of research must understand the nature of the research. Upon conclusion of the study, how will you share your results (e.g., academic publication, evaluation report to funder, conference presentation)? Description: The study is designed to evaluate the final protoype of the LifeSync website. The study will have participants step through the website to evaluate its user-friendliness as well as its ability to meet the requirements for the class' final project. The results will be shared in the final report for the class as well as in the final presentation. 9. Anticipated Dates of Research: Anticipated start date (may not be prior to IRB approval; may be “upon IRB approval”): January 12, 2014 Anticipated completion date (Please include time needed for analysis of individually identifiable data): January 26, 2014 10. Funding Source: Please check all that apply. Submitted for internal funding Internally funded Submitted for external funding Funding source, if applicable (Do not use initials): Proposal number (PPN) for the Office of Sponsored Programs: Name of PI on Funding Proposal: Externally funded Funding source, if applicable (Do not use initials): Proposal number (PPN) for the Office of Sponsored Programs: Name of PI on Funding Proposal:
    • Intend to seek funding from whom? Not funded 11. Support provided by Creative Inquiry Initiative: Yes No If yes, all Creative Inquiry students will be members of the research team, please see item # 5. 12. Other IRB Approvals: Has this research study been presented to any other IRB? Where? Yes No When? If yes, what was their decision? Approved Disapproved Pending Please attach a copy of any submissions, approvals, or disapprovals from other IRBs. 13. Level of Risk: Does this project include any procedures that present more than minimal risk to the participants? (A project is considered to present minimal risk if the probability and magnitude of harm or discomfort anticipated in the research are not greater than those ordinarily encountered in daily life or during the performance of routine physical or psychological examinations.) Yes No If your study presents no more than minimal risk to participants, your study may be eligible for expedited review. 14. Expedited Review Categories: The Code of Federal Regulations [45 CFR 46.110] permits research activities in the following seven categories to undergo expedited review. Please check the relevant expedited category / categories. The Federal Office of Human Research Protections has made Decision Charts available here to help in determining whether a particular study may be reviewed using Expedited Review Procedures.
    • Categories of Research that May Be Reviewed by the Institutional Review Board (IRB) through an Expedited Review Procedure 1. Clinical studies of drugs and medical devices only when condition (a) or (b) is met: a. Research on drugs for which an investigational new drug application is not required. (Note: Research on marketed drugs that significantly increase the risks or decrease the acceptability of the risks associated with the use of the product is not eligible for expedited review.) b. Research on medical devices for which 1) an investigational device exemption application is not required or 2) the medical device is cleared or approved for marketing and the medical device is being used in accordance with its cleared/approved labeling. 2. Collection of blood samples by finger stick, heel stick, ear stick, or venipuncture as follows: a. From healthy, non-pregnant adults, who weigh at least 110 pounds. For these subjects, the amounts drawn may not exceed 550 ml. in an eight week period and collection may not occur more than two times per week; OR b. From other adults and children, considering the age, weight, and health of the subjects, the collection procedure, the amount of blood to be collected, and the frequency with which it will be collected. For these subjects, the amount may not exceed the lesser of 50 ml. or 3 ml. per kg. in an eight-week period, and collection may not occur more than two times per week. 3. Prospective collection of biological specimens for research purposes by non-invasive means. Examples: a. hair and nail clippings in a non-disfiguring manner; b. c. d. e. deciduous teeth at time of exfoliation or if routine patient care indicates need for extraction; permanent teeth if routine patient care indicates need for extraction; excreta and external secretions (including sweat); uncannulated saliva collected either in an unstimulated fashion or stimulated by chewing gum base or wax or by applying a dilute citric solution to the tongue; f. placenta removed at delivery; g. amniotic fluid obtained at the time of rupture of the membrane prior to or during labor; h. supra- and subgingival dental plaque and calculus, provided the collection procedure is not more invasive than routine scaling of the teeth and the process is accomplished in accordance with accepted prophylactic techniques; i. mucosal and skin cells collected by buccal scraping or swab, skin swab, or mouth washings; j. sputum collected after saline mist nebulization.
    • 4. Collection of data through non-invasive procedures (not involving general anesthesia or sedation) routinely employed in clinical practice, excluding procedures involving x-rays or microwaves. Where medical devices are employed, they must be cleared/approved for marketing. (Studies intended to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of the medical device are not generally eligible for expedited review, including studies of cleared medical devices for new indications.) Examples: a. physical sensors that are applied either to the surface of the body or at a distance and do not involve input of significant amounts of energy into the subject or an invasion of the subject’s privacy; b. weighing or testing sensory acuity; c. magnetic resonance imaging; d. electrocardiography, electroencephalography, thermography, detection of naturally occurring radioactivity, electroretinography, ultrasound, diagnostic infrared imaging, Doppler blood flow and echocardiography, e. moderate exercise, muscular strength testing, body composition assessment, and flexibility testing when appropriate given the age, weight, and health of the individual. 5. Research involving materials (data, documents, records, or specimens) that have been collected or will be collected solely for non-research purposes (such as medical treatment or diagnoses). 6. Collection of data from voice, video, digital, or image recordings made for research purposes. 7. Research on individual or group characteristics, behavior (including, but not limited to, research on perception, cognition, motivation, identity, language, communication, cultural beliefs or practices, and social behavior), or research employing survey, interview, oral history, focus group, program evaluation, human factors evaluation, or quality assurance methodologies. 15. Study Sample: (Groups specifically targeted for study) Describe the participants you plan to recruit and the criteria used in the selection process. Indicate if there are any special inclusion or exclusion criteria. Description: Graduate Students at Clemson University Age range of participants: 20-28 Projected number of participants: 15
    • Employees Students Minors (under 18 in SC, may differ elsewhere) 1, 2 Pregnant women 1 Fetuses / neonates 1, 2 Educationally / economically disadvantaged 1 Minors who are wards of the state, or any other agency, institution, or entity 1, 2 Individuals who are incarcerated 1, 3 Persons incompetent to give valid consent 1 Other–specify: military personnel 1 State necessity for using this type of participant: 2 Please note that research involving children (minors) requires submission of a Child Research Addendum. Further information about this addendum is given at the end of this application. 3 Please note that research involving prisoners (incarcerated individuals) requires submission of a Prisoner Research Addendum. Further information about this addendum is given at the end of this application. 16. Study Locations: Clemson University Other University / College School System / Individual Schools Other – specify You may need to obtain permission if participants will be recruited or data will be obtained through schools, employers, or community organizations. Are you required to obtain permission to gain access to people or to access data that are not publicly available? If yes, provide a research site letter from a person authorized to give you access to the participants or to the data. Guidance regarding Research Site Letters is available here. Research Site Letter(s) not required. Research Site Letter(s) attached. Research Site Letter(s) pending and will be provided when obtained. 17. Recruitment Method: Describe how research participants will be recruited in the study. How will you identify potential participants? How will you contact them? Attach a copy of any material you will use to recruit participants (e.g., advertisements, flyers, telephone scripts, verbal recruitment, cover letters, or followup reminders).
    • Description: Research participants will be recruited verbally and through email. Any graduate student of Clemson University will qualify as a potential participant. They will be contacted through email. 18. Participant Incentives: a. Will you pay participants? Amount: $ Yes No When will money be paid?: b. Will you give participants incentives / gifts / reimbursements? Yes No Describe incentives / gifts / reimbursements: Value of incentives / gifts / reimbursements: $ When will incentives / gifts / reimbursements be given?: c. Will participants receive course credit? Yes No d. Will participants receive extra credit? Yes No If YES, an equivalent alternative to research participation must be provided and described in your informed consent document(s). 19. Informed Consent: If all of your participants will be children, please skip this question (19) and complete the Child Research Addendum (available here). If you will have both children and adults as participants in your study, please complete this question (for the adult participants) AND the Child Research Addendum (for the child participants). a. Will you use concealment or deception in this study? Yes No If YES, please see guidance regarding Research Involving Deception or Concealment here, submit a copy of the Additional Pertinent Information / Permission for Use of Data Collected in a Research Study form you will use, and request a waiver of some elements of consent below [see 19(e)]. b. Do you plan to obtain informed consent from all your adult research participants (and / or legally authorized representatives for adult participants with diminished capacity)? 1) Yes No N/A If YES, please skip to question 19(c).
    • Please submit all applicable Informed Consent documents with application (e.g., adult consent forms, informational letters, verbal consent scripts). Consent Document Templates If NO, please proceed with questions 19(b)(2)-19(b)(4) to request a waiver of informed consent. If N/A, please explain and skip to question 20. 2) For what groups will you need this waiver of informed consent? for all participants for some participants (describe for which participants): 3) Please explain the need for the waiver. 4) As provided in 45 CFR 46.116(d), an IRB may waive the requirement for the investigator to obtain informed consent from research participants if it finds that all of the following criteria are met. Please explain how your study meets each of the criteria below: Criteria for Waiver of Consent How is this criterion met within this study? The research involves no more than minimal risk to subjects. The waiver will not adversely affect the rights and welfare of the subjects. The research could not be practicably without the waiver. carried out Whenever appropriate, the subjects will be provided with additional pertinent information after they have participated in the study. If you completed questions 19(b)(2)-19(b)(4) for all adult research participants, please skip to question 20. c. Who will obtain the participants’ consent? Check all that apply: Principal Investigator Co-Investigator Other Research Team Members Contracted / Hired Data Collection Firm: Other: d. Will you collect participants’ signatures on all consent documents? 1) Yes No If YES, please skip to question 19(e).
    • If NO, please proceed with questions 19(d)(2)-19(d)(3) to request a waiver of documentation (signature). 2) For what groups will you need this waiver of documentation? for all participants for some participants (describe for which participants): 3) As provided in 45 CFR 46.117(c), an IRB may waive the requirement for the investigator to obtain a signed consent form for some or all participants if it finds that one of the following sets of criteria is met. Please check ONE box below to indicate which set of criteria is met by this study: That the research presents no more than minimal risk of harm to subjects and involves no procedure for which written consent is normally required outside of the research context. That the only record linking the subject and the research would be the consent document and the principal risk would be potential harm resulting from a breach of confidentiality. If the subject wants documentation linking the subject with the research, the subject’s wishes will govern. e. Do you plan to use all of the consent elements in all your consent documents or procedures (see list below)? 1) Yes No If YES, please skip to question 20. If NO, please proceed with questions 19(e)(2)-19(e)(5) to request a waiver of some elements of consent. 2) For what groups will you need this waiver of some consent elements? for all participants for some participants (describe for which participants): 3) Please explain the need for the waiver request. 4) A list of consent elements is given below. Please indicate which of these elements you would like to have waived. (In the case of a study involving deception or concealment, the IRB must waive the requirement to use all elements that are not truthfully presented in the initial consent document.)
    • List of Elements of Informed Consent participation involves research maintenance of confidentiality purposes of the research for more than minimal risk research, compensation / treatment available in case of injury duration of participation procedures to be followed identification procedures of experimental foreseeable risks / discomforts benefits to subjects or others appropriate alternatives advantageous to subject voluntariness of participation no penalty for refusal to participate may discontinue participation without penalty disposition of data already collected, withdrawal of participant upon contact for questions about research contact for questions about participants’ rights 5) As provided in 45 CFR 46.116(d), an IRB may waive the requirement for the investigator to present all consent elements to participants if it finds that all of the following criteria are met. Please explain how your study meets each of the criteria below: Criteria for Waiver of Elements of Consent How is this criterion met within this study? The research involves no more than minimal risk to subjects. The waiver will not adversely affect the rights and welfare of the subjects. The research could not be carried out practicably without the waiver. Whenever appropriate, the subjects will be provided with additional pertinent information after they have participated in the study. Please make sure to submit all Informed Consent documents (i.e., adult consent forms, informational letters, and / or verbal consent scripts) for which elements of consent are being waived. 20. Procedures: a. What data will you collect? We will collect the users' responses on the user-friendliness of the website. b. Please describe in detail the process each participant will experience and how you will obtain the data. Each participant will attempt to complete three tasks with different difficulty levels on the LifeSync website. They will first attempt to make a profile for the site. Then they will create an event for their own calendar. Lastly, they will attempt to view a friend's calendar to see if they are free to plan an event together. The users will be encouraged to voice their opinions as they are complete each task. Each
    • session will end with a short survey for the participant to complete. c. How many participation sessions and how much time will be required for each participant, including follow-up sessions? 1 Session for each participant, with a fifteen minute slot for each participant. d. How will you collect data? in-person contact telephone snail mail email website other, describe Please include copies of surveys, interview questions, data collection tools and debriefing statements. If survey or interview questions have not been fully developed, provide information on the types of questions to be asked, or a description of the parameters of the survey / interview. Please note: finalized survey or interview instruments will need to be reviewed and approved by amendment, before implementation. e. Will you audio record participants? Yes No f. Will you video record participants? Yes No g. Will you photograph participants? Yes No If you will audio or video record or take identifiable photographs of participants, please consult the IRB’s Guidance on the Use of Audio / Video Recording and Photography here. Please include all the information addressed by this guidance document in the application and, where appropriate, in the consent document(s). 21. Protection of Confidentiality: Describe the security measures you will take to protect the confidentiality of the information obtained. Will participants be identifiable either by name or through demographic data? If yes, how will you protect the identity of the participants and their responses? Where will the data be stored and how will it be secured? Who will have access to the data? How will identifiers be maintained or destroyed after the study is completed? Description: The participants will not be indentifiable by name or demographic. They will only be stored by number. 22. Risk / Benefit Analysis: a. Describe all potential risks (before protective measures are put into place) and benefits for this study. Risks can include physical, psychological, social, legal or other risks connected with the proposed procedures. Benefits can include benefits to the participant or to society in general.
    • Description: There are no risks associated with this study. The participants may benefit by actually wanting to use the site in their everyday life. b. Describe the procedures to be used to protect against or minimize potential risks. Assess the likely effectiveness of these procedures. Description: 23. Agreement, Statement of Assurance, and Conflict of Interest Statement by the PI: I have reviewed this research protocol and the consent form, if applicable. I have also evaluated the scientific merit and potential value of the proposed research study, as well as the plan for protecting human participants. I have read the Terms of Assurance held by Clemson University and commit to abiding by the provisions of the Assurance and the determinations of the IRB. I request approval of this research study by the IRB of Clemson University. I understand that failure to adhere to any of these guidelines may result in immediate termination of the research. I also understand that approval of this research study is contingent upon my agreement to: 1. Report to the IRB any adverse events, research-related injuries or unexpected problems affecting the rights or safety of research participants (All such occurrences must be reported to the IRB within three (3) working days.); 2. Submit in writing for IRB approval any proposed revisions or amendments to this research study; 3. Submit timely continuing review reports of this research as requested by the IRB; and 4. Notify the IRB upon completion of this research study. Conflict of Interest Statement: Could the results of the study provide an actual or potential financial gain to you, a member of your family, or any of the co-investigators, or give the appearance of a potential conflict of interest? No. Yes. I agree to disclose any actual or potential conflict of interest prior to IRB action on this study. Financial Conflict of Interest Policy for PHS / NIH Supported Research Financial Disclosure Policy for All Other Sponsored Programs Disclosure Statement for All Other Sponsored Programs
    • _____________________________________________ ________________________ Signature of Principal Investigator Date 24. Statement of Assurance by Department Chair (or supervisor if PI is Department Chair): I have reviewed this research protocol and the consent form, if applicable. I verify this proposed research study has received approval in accordance with department procedures. I have evaluated the plan for protecting human participants. I have read the Terms of Assurance held by Clemson University and commit to abiding by the provisions of the Assurance and the determinations of the IRB. I request approval of this research study by the IRB of Clemson University. Department Chair or supervisor if PI is Department Chair (Printed Name) _____________________________________________ ________________________ Signature of Department Chair Date Submission Instructions: Expedited applications are processed as received. There is no deadline for submitting expedited applications for review. Please allow three weeks for processing. Full Board applications are accepted according to the schedule given here. Researchers are encouraged to attend the meeting at which their protocol will be reviewed, in order to be available to answer any questions IRB members might have about the protocol. Please submit this application and all associated documents electronically to the IRB staff. In addition, please submit a signed, hard-copy of the application via mail or delivery to the Office of Research Compliance, 223 Brackett Hall, Clemson, SC 29634-5704. Alternatively, you may fax the signed copy to 864-656-4475 or scan and email to irb@clemson.edu.
    • Child (Minor) Research Addendum: If your study involves children / minors as participants, click here to complete the Child Research Addendum. Once completed, please submit the Addendum with your Expedited / Full Board Review Application. Prisoner (Incarcerated Individuals) Research Addendum: If your study involves individuals who are incarcerated as participants, click here to complete the Prisoner Research Addendum. Once completed, please submit the Addendum with your Expedited / Full Board Review Application.
    • Additional Research Team Members Clemson University Institutional Review Board (IRB) (Version 5.13.2009) Clemson University IRB Website All research team members must have completed IRB-approved human research protections training. Use this sheet as many times as necessary. Name: Tiffanie Smith E-mail: tiffan3@g.clemson.edu Department: Human-Centered Computing Phone: 804-502-8853 Faculty Graduate student Staff Undergraduate student Other. Please specify. Name: Sagr Puro E-mail: spuro@g.clemson.edu Department: Industrial Engineering Phone: 864-367-2615 Faculty Graduate student Staff Undergraduate student Other. Please specify. Name: Goutham Pacha Ravi E-mail: gpachar@g.clemson.edu Department: Computer Science Phone: : 864-357-8568 Faculty Graduate student Staff Undergraduate student Other. Please specify. Name: E-mail: Department: Phone: Faculty Graduate student Staff Undergraduate student Other. Please specify. Name: E-mail: Department: Phone: Faculty Graduate student Staff Undergraduate student Name: Other. Please specify. E-mail:
    • Department: Phone: Faculty Graduate student Staff Undergraduate student Other. Please specify. Name: E-mail: Department: Phone: Faculty Graduate student Staff Undergraduate student Other. Please specify.