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Ability & Learning By Me
 

Ability & Learning By Me

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    Ability & Learning By Me Ability & Learning By Me Presentation Transcript

    • ABILITY & LEARNING
      Presented By:-
      Gautam Singh
    • ABILITY : An individual’s capacity to perform various tasks in a job
    • Dimensions of Intellectual Ability
    • ADVANTAGES
      Can identify physically able people without harming their wellbeing and the job
      Decreases cost related to disability, medical insurance, and other financial compensation
      Decreases absenteeism
      DISADVANTAGE
      Costly to administer
      Requirements should be confirmed through job analysis
      May contain age related bias
      ABILITY
    • Components of learning
      LEARNING - Any relatively permanent change in behavior that occurs as a result of experience
    • Classical conditioning theory
      Operant conditioning theory
      Cognitive learning theory
      Social learning theory
      Theories of Learning
    • Classical conditioning is a reflexive or automatic type of learning in which a stimulus acquires the capacity to evoke a response that was originally evoked by another stimulus
      First described by Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936), Russian physiologist, in 1903, and studied in infants by John B. Watson (1878-1958)
      Classical conditioning
    • Key Concepts:
      Unconditioned stimulus (Food)
      A naturally occurring phenomenon
      Unconditioned response (Salivation)
      The naturally occurring response to a natural stimulus
      Conditioned stimulus (Bell)
      An artificial stimulus introduced into the situation
      Conditioned response (Salivation with bell)
      The response to the artificial stimulus
      Classical Conditioning
    • Reflex – Involuntary response to a stimulus
      Conditioned reflex- learned reflex
      Unconditioned reflex – spontaneous reflexes (Tears, sweating etc)
      Acquisition - Formation of a learned response to a conditioned stimulus through pairing with an unconditioned stimulus
      Extinction – Elimination of cond response by removal of Ucs
      Spontaneous recovery - Re-emergence of an extinguished conditioned response after a rest period
      Elements and processes of classical conditioning
    • Generalization - The tendency to respond to a stimulus that is similar to the conditioned stimulus
      Discrimination - The ability to distinguish between different stimuli, tendency for a response to be elicited by one stimulus and not another (sometimes similar) stimulus
      Elements and processes of classical conditioning
    • Greater number of pairing of Ucsans Cs
      Consistent pairing
      Strength of Ucs
      Lesser gap between Ucs and Cs
      Factors influencing classical conditioning
    • Human beings are more complex than dogs
      Human brain can override simple conditioning
      Organizational set up is too complex is utilize the concepts of classical conditioning
      LIMITATIONS
    • Operant conditioning investigates the influence of consequences on subsequent behavior.
      Operant conditioning investigates the learning of voluntary responses
      B.F Skinner introduced the concepts of operant conditioning
      Operant Conditioning
    • It is the consequence that follows the response that influences whether the response is likely or unlikely to occur again
      The three-term model of operant conditioning (S--> R -->S) incorporates the concept that responses cannot occur without an environmental event (e.g., an antecedent stimulus) preceding it
      There are two types of consequences, positive and negative
      Basic Concepts of Operant Conditioning
    • Shaping - Systematically reinforcing each successive step that moves an individual closer to the desired response
      Key Concepts
      • Reinforcement is required to change behavior
      • Some rewards are more effective than others
      • The timing of reinforcement affects learning speed and permanence
      OPERANT CONDITIONING
    • Positive reinforcement
      Providing a reward for a desired behavior (Promotion)
      Negative reinforcement
      Removing an unpleasant consequence when the desired behavior occurs (Removing extra work load)
      Punishment
      Applying an undesirable condition to eliminate an undesirable behavior ( Warning letter)
      Extinction
      Withholding reinforcement of a behavior to cause its cessation (Holding increments)
      Types of Reinforcement
    • Continuous Reinforcement - A desired behavior is reinforced each time it is demonstrated
      Intermittent Reinforcement - A desired behavior is reinforced often enough to make the behavior worth repeating but not every time it is demonstrated
      Fixed-Interval Schedule - Rewards are spaced at uniform time intervals
      Variable Interval – Rewards given at different time
      Fixed Ratio - Rewards are initiated after a fixed or constant number of responses
      Variable Ratio – Rewards given at variable amount of output
      Schedules of Reinforcement
    • Learning is an active process of filtering, selecting, organizing, and integrating information (Mayer)
      Learning takes place when new associations are formed and they are added to the existing information base
      Learning may not be manifested through behaviour
      Cognitive theories of learning
    • Bandura’s Social Learning Theory posits that people learn from one another, via observation, imitation, and modeling
      It explains human behavior in terms of continuous reciprocal interaction between cognitive, behavioral, and environmental influences
      Social theories of learning
    • Attention – The model should be attended
      Retention – Remembering the model when she / he is not available
      Reproduction — Reproducing the image and practicing the newly learned behaviour
      Self-efficacy - Learner has to identify his or her ability to perform
      Motivation - Having a good reason to imitate, presence of positive consequences is important
      Necessary conditions for effective modeling
    • Effective video clippings during training program can bring desired behaviour in the employees
      Team leader can act as a role model and influence the members
      Desired behaviours might be reinforced to delay extinction
      Application of social cognitive theory in organization
    • Even the wisest mind has something yet to learn