Ability & Learning By Me


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Ability & Learning By Me

  1. 1. ABILITY & LEARNING<br />Presented By:-<br />Gautam Singh<br />
  2. 2. ABILITY : An individual’s capacity to perform various tasks in a job<br />
  3. 3. Dimensions of Intellectual Ability<br />
  4. 4. ADVANTAGES<br />Can identify physically able people without harming their wellbeing and the job<br />Decreases cost related to disability, medical insurance, and other financial compensation<br />Decreases absenteeism<br />DISADVANTAGE<br /> Costly to administer<br />Requirements should be confirmed through job analysis<br />May contain age related bias<br />ABILITY<br />
  5. 5. Components of learning<br />LEARNING - Any relatively permanent change in behavior that occurs as a result of experience<br />
  6. 6. Classical conditioning theory<br />Operant conditioning theory<br />Cognitive learning theory<br />Social learning theory<br />Theories of Learning<br />
  7. 7. Classical conditioning is a reflexive or automatic type of learning in which a stimulus acquires the capacity to evoke a response that was originally evoked by another stimulus<br />First described by Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936), Russian physiologist, in 1903, and studied in infants by John B. Watson (1878-1958)<br />Classical conditioning<br />
  8. 8. Key Concepts:<br />Unconditioned stimulus (Food)<br />A naturally occurring phenomenon<br />Unconditioned response (Salivation)<br />The naturally occurring response to a natural stimulus<br />Conditioned stimulus (Bell)<br />An artificial stimulus introduced into the situation<br />Conditioned response (Salivation with bell)<br />The response to the artificial stimulus<br />Classical Conditioning<br />
  9. 9. Reflex – Involuntary response to a stimulus<br />Conditioned reflex- learned reflex<br />Unconditioned reflex – spontaneous reflexes (Tears, sweating etc)<br />Acquisition - Formation of a learned response to a conditioned stimulus through pairing with an unconditioned stimulus<br />Extinction – Elimination of cond response by removal of Ucs<br />Spontaneous recovery - Re-emergence of an extinguished conditioned response after a rest period<br />Elements and processes of classical conditioning<br />
  10. 10. Generalization - The tendency to respond to a stimulus that is similar to the conditioned stimulus<br />Discrimination - The ability to distinguish between different stimuli, tendency for a response to be elicited by one stimulus and not another (sometimes similar) stimulus<br />Elements and processes of classical conditioning<br />
  11. 11. Greater number of pairing of Ucsans Cs<br />Consistent pairing<br />Strength of Ucs<br />Lesser gap between Ucs and Cs<br />Factors influencing classical conditioning<br />
  12. 12. Human beings are more complex than dogs<br />Human brain can override simple conditioning<br />Organizational set up is too complex is utilize the concepts of classical conditioning<br />LIMITATIONS<br />
  13. 13. Operant conditioning investigates the influence of consequences on subsequent behavior.<br />Operant conditioning investigates the learning of voluntary responses<br />B.F Skinner introduced the concepts of operant conditioning<br />Operant Conditioning<br />
  14. 14. It is the consequence that follows the response that influences whether the response is likely or unlikely to occur again<br />The three-term model of operant conditioning (S--> R -->S) incorporates the concept that responses cannot occur without an environmental event (e.g., an antecedent stimulus) preceding it<br />There are two types of consequences, positive and negative<br />Basic Concepts of Operant Conditioning<br />
  15. 15. Shaping - Systematically reinforcing each successive step that moves an individual closer to the desired response<br />Key Concepts<br /><ul><li>Reinforcement is required to change behavior
  16. 16. Some rewards are more effective than others
  17. 17. The timing of reinforcement affects learning speed and permanence</li></ul>OPERANT CONDITIONING<br />
  18. 18. Positive reinforcement<br />Providing a reward for a desired behavior (Promotion)<br />Negative reinforcement<br />Removing an unpleasant consequence when the desired behavior occurs (Removing extra work load)<br />Punishment<br />Applying an undesirable condition to eliminate an undesirable behavior ( Warning letter)<br />Extinction<br />Withholding reinforcement of a behavior to cause its cessation (Holding increments)<br />Types of Reinforcement<br />
  19. 19. Continuous Reinforcement - A desired behavior is reinforced each time it is demonstrated<br />Intermittent Reinforcement - A desired behavior is reinforced often enough to make the behavior worth repeating but not every time it is demonstrated<br />Fixed-Interval Schedule - Rewards are spaced at uniform time intervals <br />Variable Interval – Rewards given at different time<br />Fixed Ratio - Rewards are initiated after a fixed or constant number of responses <br />Variable Ratio – Rewards given at variable amount of output<br />Schedules of Reinforcement<br />
  20. 20. Learning is an active process of filtering, selecting, organizing, and integrating information (Mayer)<br />Learning takes place when new associations are formed and they are added to the existing information base<br />Learning may not be manifested through behaviour<br />Cognitive theories of learning<br />
  21. 21. Bandura’s Social Learning Theory posits that people learn from one another, via observation, imitation, and modeling<br />It explains human behavior in terms of continuous reciprocal interaction between cognitive, behavioral, and environmental influences<br />Social theories of learning<br />
  22. 22. Attention – The model should be attended<br />Retention – Remembering the model when she / he is not available<br />Reproduction — Reproducing the image and practicing the newly learned behaviour<br />Self-efficacy - Learner has to identify his or her ability to perform<br />Motivation - Having a good reason to imitate, presence of positive consequences is important<br />Necessary conditions for effective modeling<br />
  23. 23. Effective video clippings during training program can bring desired behaviour in the employees<br />Team leader can act as a role model and influence the members<br />Desired behaviours might be reinforced to delay extinction <br />Application of social cognitive theory in organization<br />
  24. 24. Even the wisest mind has something yet to learn<br />