Chapter9 International Finance ManagementDocument Transcript
CHAPTER 9 MANAGEMENT OF ECONOMIC EXPOSURE SUGGESTED ANSWERS AND SOLUTIONS TO END-OF-CHAPTER QUESTIONS AND PROBLEMSQUESTIONS1. How would you define economic exposure to exchange risk?Answer: Economic exposure can be defined as the possibility that the firm’s cash flows and thus itsmarket value may be affected by the unexpected exchange rate changes.2. Explain the following statement: “Exposure is the regression coefficient.”Answer: Exposure to currency risk can be appropriately measured by the sensitivity of the firm’s futurecash flows and the market value to random changes in exchange rates. Statistically, this sensitivity can beestimated by the regression coefficient. Thus, exposure can be said to be the regression coefficient.3. Suppose that your company has an equity position in a French firm. Discuss the condition under whichthe dollar/franc exchange rate uncertainty does not constitute exchange exposure for your company.Answer: Mere changes in exchange rates do not necessarily constitute currency exposure. If the Frenchfranc value of the equity moves in the opposite direction as much as the dollar value of the franc changes,then the dollar value of the equity position will be insensitive to exchange rate movements. As a result,your company will not be exposed to currency risk.4. Explain the competitive and conversion effects of exchange rate changes on the firm’s operating cashflow.
Answer: The competitive effect: exchange rate changes may affect operating cash flows by altering thefirm’s competitive position.The conversion effect: A given operating cash flows in terms of a foreign currency will be converted intohigher or lower dollar (home currency)amounts as the exchange rate changes.5. Discuss the determinants of operating exposure.Answer: The main determinants of a firm’s operating exposure are (1) the structure of the markets inwhich the firm sources its inputs, such as labor and materials, and sells its products, and (2) the firm’sability to mitigate the effect of exchange rate changes by adjusting its markets, product mix, and sourcing.6. Discuss the implications of purchasing power parity for operating exposure.Answer: If the exchange rate changes are matched by the inflation rate differential between countries,firms’ competitive positions will not be altered by exchange rate changes. Firms are not subject tooperating exposure.7. General Motors exports cars to Spain but the strong dollar against the peseta hurts sales of GM cars inSpain. In the Spanish market, GM faces competition from the Italian and French car makers, such as Fiatand Renault, whose currencies remain stable relative to the peseta. What kind of measures would yourecommend so that GM can maintain its market share in Spain.Answer: Possible measures that GM can take include: (1) diversify the market; try to market the cars notjust in Spain and other European countries but also in, say, Asia; (2) locate production facilities in Spainand source inputs locally; (3) locate production facilities, say, in Mexico where production costs are lowand export to Spain from Mexico.8. What are the advantages and disadvantages of financial hedging of the firm’s operating exposure vis-à-vis operational hedges (such as relocating manufacturing site)?
Answer: Financial hedging can be implemented quickly with relatively low costs, but it is difficult tohedge against long-term, real exposure with financial contracts. On the other hand, operational hedges arecostly, time-consuming, and not easily reversible.9. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of maintaining multiple manufacturing sites as a hedgeagainst exchange rate exposure.Answer: To establish multiple manufacturing sites can be effective in managing exchange risk exposure,but it can be costly because the firm may not be able to take advantage of the economy of scale.10. Evaluate the following statement: “A firm can reduce its currency exposure by diversifying acrossdifferent business lines.”Answer: Conglomerate expansion may be too costly as a means of hedging exchange risk exposure.Investment in a different line of business must be made based on its own merit.11. The exchange rate uncertainty may not necessarily mean that firms face exchange risk exposure.Explain why this may be the case.Answer: A firm can have a natural hedging position due to, for example, diversified markets, flexiblesourcing capabilities, etc. In addition, to the extent that the PPP holds, nominal exchange rate changes donot influence firms’ competitive positions. Under these circumstances, firms do not need to worry aboutexchange risk exposure.
PROBLEMS1. Suppose that you hold a piece of land in the City of London that you may want to sell in one year. As aU.S. resident, you are concerned with the dollar value of the land. Assume that, if the British economybooms in the future, the land will be worth £2,000 and one British pound will be worth $1.40. If theBritish economy slows down, on the other hand, the land will be worth less, i.e., £1,500, but the poundwill be stronger, i.e., $1.50/£. You feel that the British economy will experience a boom with a 60%probability and a slow-down with a 40% probability.(a) Estimate your exposure b to the exchange risk.(b) Compute the variance of the dollar value of your property that is attributable to the exchange rateuncertainty.(c) Discuss how you can hedge your exchange risk exposure and also examine the consequences ofhedging.Solution: (a) Let us compute the necessary parameter values: E(P) = (.6)($2800)+(.4)($2250) = $1680+$900 = $2,580E(S) = (.6)(1.40)+(.4)(1.5) = 0.84+0.60 = $1.44Var(S) = (.6)(1.40-1.44)2 + (.4)(1.50-1.44)2 = .00096+.00144 = .0024.Cov(P,S) = (.6)(2800-2580)(1.4-1.44)+(.4)(2250-2580)(1.5-1.44) = -5.28-7.92 = -13.20 b = Cov(P,S)/Var(S) = -13.20/.0024 = -£5,500. You have a negative exposure! As the pound gets stronger (weaker) against the dollar, the dollar valueof your British holding goes down (up).(b) b2Var(S) = (-5500)2(.0024) =72,600($)2(c) Buy £5,500 forward. By doing so, you can eliminate the volatility of the dollar value of your Britishasset that is due to the exchange rate volatility.
2. A U.S. firm holds an asset in France and faces the following scenario: State 1 State 2 State 3 State 4 Probability 25% 25% 25% 25% Spot rate $1.20/€ $1.10/€ $1.00/€ $0.90/€ P* €1500 €1400 €1300 €1200 P $1,800 $1,540 $1,300 $1,080In the above table, P* is the euro price of the asset held by the U.S. firm and P is the dollar price of theasset.(a) Compute the exchange exposure faced by the U.S. firm.(b) What is the variance of the dollar price of this asset if the U.S. firm remains unhedged against this exposure?(c) If the U.S. firm hedges against this exposure using the forward contract, what is the variance of the dollar value of the hedged position?Solution: (a) E(S) = .25(1.20 +1.10+1.00+0.90) = $1.05/€ E(P) = .25(1,800+1,540+1,300 +1,080) = $1,430 Var(S) = .25[(1.20-1.05)2 +(1.10-1.05)2+(1.00-1.05)2+(0.90-1.05)2] = .0125 Cov(P,S) = .25[(1,800-1,430)(1.20-1.05) + (1,540-1,430)(1.10-1.05) (1,300-1,430)(1.00-1.05) + (1,080-1,430)(0.90-1.05)] = 30 b = Cov(P,S)/Var(S) = 30/0.0125 = €2,400.(b) Var(P) = .25[(1,800-1,430)2+(1,540-1,430)2+(1,300-1,430)2+(1,080-1,430)2] = 72,100($)2.(c) Var(P) - b2Var(S) = 72,100 - (2,400)2(0.0125) = 100($)2.
This means that most of the volatility of the dollar value of the French asset can be removed by hedgingexchange risk. The hedging can be achieved by selling €2,400 forward.3. Suppose you are a British venture capitalist holding a major stake in an e-commerce start-up in SiliconValley. As a British resident, you are concerned with the pound value of your U.S. equity position.Assume that if the American economy booms in the future, your equity stake will be worth $1,000,000,and the exchange rate will be $1.40/£. If the American economy experiences a recession, on the otherhand, your American equity stake will be worth $500,000, and the exchange rate will be $1.60/£. Youassess that the American economy will experience a boom with a 70 percent probability and a recessionwith a 30 percent probability.(a) Estimate your exposure to the exchange risk.(b) Compute the variance of the pound value of your American equity position that is attributable to the exchange rate uncertainty.(c) How would you hedge this exposure? If you hedge, what is the variance of the pound value of the hedged position?Solution: Prob = 0.70 P* = $1,000,000 S = $1.40 P = £714,300 Prob = 0.30 P* = $500,000 S = $1.60 P = £312,500 E(S) = (0.70)/(1.40) + (0.30)/(1.60) = £0.688/$ E(P) = (0.70)*(714,300) + (0.30)*(312,500) = £593,760/$ Var(S) = 0.00167 Cov(P,S) = 7,535(a) b = Cov(P,S)/Var(S) = 7,535/0.00167 = 4,511,976 ($)(b) b2Var(S) = (4,511,976)2*(0.00167) = 33,997,738,800(c) Var(e) = Var(P) - b2Var(S) = 33,903,080,400 - 33,997,738,800 ≈ 0 You can hedge this exposure by selling $4,511,976 forward.
MINI CASE: ECONOMIC EXPOSURE OF ALBION COMPUTERS PLC Consider Case 3 of Albion Computers PLC discussed in the chapter. Now, assume that the poundis expected to depreciate to $1.50 from the current level of $1.60 per pound. This implies that the poundcost of the imported part, i.e., Intel’s microprocessors, is £341 (=$512/$1.50). Other variables, such as theunit sales volume and the U.K. inflation rate, remain the same as in Case 3.(a) Compute the projected annual cash flow in dollars.(b) Compute the projected operating gains/losses over the four-year horizon as the discounted presentvalue of change in cash flows, which is due to the pound depreciation, from the benchmark case presentedin Exhibit 12.4.(c) What actions, if any, can Albion take to mitigate the projected operating losses due to the pounddepreciation?
Suggested Solution to Economic Exposure of Albion Computers PLCa) The projected annual cash flow can be computed as follows: ______________________________________________________ Sales (40,000 units at £1,080/unit) £43,200,000 Variable costs (40,000 units at £697/unit) £27,880,000 Fixed overhead costs 4,000,000 Depreciation allowances 1,000,000 Net profit before tax £15,315,000 Income tax (50%) 7,657,500 Profit after tax 7,657,500 Add back depreciation 1,000,000 Operating cash flow in pounds £8,657,500 Operating cash flow in dollars $12,986,250 ______________________________________________________b) ______________________________________________________ Benchmark Current Variables Case Case ______________________________________________________ Exchange rate ($/£) 1.60 1.50 Unit variable cost (£) 650 697 Unit sales price (£) 1,000 1,080 Sales volume (units) 50,000 40,000 Annual cash flow (£) 7,250,000 8,657,500 Annual cash flow ($) 11,600,000 12,986,250 Four-year present value ($) 33,118,000 37,076,946 Operating gains/losses ($) 3,958,946 ______________________________________________________
c) In this case, Albion actually can expect to realize exchange gains, rather than losses. This is mainlydue to the fact that while the selling price appreciates by 8% in the U.K. market, the variable cost ofimported input increased by about 6.25%. Albion may choose not to do anything.