Towards a harmonization of metadata application profiles for agricultural learning repositories
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Towards a harmonization of metadata application profiles for agricultural learning repositories

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Metadata interoperability allows the exchange and preservation of crucial learning and teaching information, as well as its future reuse among a large number of different systems and repositories. ...

Metadata interoperability allows the exchange and preservation of crucial learning and teaching information, as well as its future reuse among a large number of different systems and repositories. This paper introduces work around metadata interoperability that has taken place in the context of the Agricultural Learning Repositories Task Force (AgLR-TF), an international community of the stakeholders that are involved in agricultural learning repositories. It particularly focuses on a review and assessment of metadata application profiles that are currently implemented in agricultural learning repositories. The results of this study can be found useful by who are designing, implementing and operating agricultural learning repositories, facilitating thus metadata interoperability in this application field.

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Towards a harmonization of metadata application profiles for agricultural learning repositories Towards a harmonization of metadata application profiles for agricultural learning repositories Presentation Transcript

  • Towards a harmonization of metadata application profiles for agricultural learning repositories Nikos Manouselis, Gauri Salokhe, Johannes Keizer and Stephen Rudgard
  • Introduction
    • metadata interoperability has been judged as an essential issue in education and training context
      • exchange and preservation of crucial learning and teaching information and its reuse among a large number of different systems and repositories.
    • currently used standards include: IEEE Learning Object Metadata (IEEE LOM), Dublin Core and ISO Metadata for Learning Resources
  • Context of Agriculture
    • learning technology (LT) specifications and standards have not been yet widely adopted
    • few implementations exist – primarily IEE LOM, DC or combination of the two
    • efforts have been distributed and dispersed, leaving space to approaches with significant differences between them
  • Agricultural Learning Repositories Task Force (AgLR-TF)
    • AIM: to create a network of organizations which will promote the development of a global infrastructure that will facilitate sharing and reusing of learning resources
  • Activities of the Task Force
    • Building a community
    • inventory of agricultural learning repositories
    • Organize an e-conference
    • Produce an initial set of best practice recommendations, concerning implementing interoperable metadata in agricultural learning repositories;
    • Deploying a pilot demonstrator of federating learning repositories on a global scale.
  • Community building
    • Website – http://aglr.aua.gr/
    • Discussion Forum - http://www.dgroups.org/groups/fao/AgLR-TF/index.cfm
      • 20 partners (CGIAR, GFAR, Intut, COL, etc.)
      • > 120 registered participants to the list from over 26 countries
  • Inventory of repositories
  • Inventory of repositories – Repository Description Form
  • e-Conference
    • AgLR 2008, April 24 – June 15, 2008
      • http://aglr.aua.gr/econf.php
    • dialogue around agricultural learning resources
    • held as an electronically facilitated discussion
    • Follow up event : Workshop on Learning Technology Standards for Agriculture and Rural Development ( AgroLT), September 19, 2008
      • http://infolab-dev.aua.gr/agrolt/2008/
  • Best practices and recommendations
    • survey of metadata schemas carried out in cooperation with the European Standardization Committee CEN/ISSS (WS-LT)
      • http://www.cen.eu/isss/workshop/lt/
    • Report on “ Guidelines and recommendations for building metadata application profiles for agricultural learning resources ”. The report provides:
      • overview of the way metadata application profiles are implemented
      • detailed summary and comparative analysis of approaches followed
      • guidelines and recommendations to existing or new developers of agricultural repositories
  • Demo application
    • In collaboration with Organic.Edunet and ARIADNE Foundation
    • Demonstrate the exchange of learning resources related to organic agriculture using Open Access Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting (OAI-PMH)
      • http://ariadne.cs.kuleuven.be/silo2006/NewFederatedQuery.do
  • Evaluation of Application Profiles
    • closer collaboration was established between European Committee for Standardization and AgLR-TF
    • joint team to analyze and provide recommendations
    • analysis, based on CWA15555 conformance aspects:
      • documentation
      • scope & purpose
      • selection of elements
      • allowed vs. non-allowed modifications of base schema (conformance)
      • mapping of elements to base schema(s)
    CWA 15555 (2006). Guidelines and support for building application profiles in e-learning http://www.cen-isss-wslt.din.de/sixcms_upload/media/3050/CWA15555.pdf
  • Process
    • review & analysis of existing APs ( March’08 )
    • mappings to relevant standards/schemas ( April’08 )
    • comparative study ( May’08 )
    • initial report with list of suggestions/recommendations to AP developers (June ‘08)
  • Evaluated APs
    • Rural-eGov IEEE LOM AP ( ReGovLOM )
    • FAO Agricultural Learning Resources AP ( FAO Ag-LR )
    • CGIAR LOM Core AP ( CG LOM Core )
    • BIOAGRO LOM AP
    • Biosci Education Network ( BEN ) AP
    • Sustainable Agriculture and Natural Resource Management Collaborative Research Support Program ( SANREM CRSP ) AP
    • TrAgLor LOM AP
    • Intute: Health and Life Sciences AP ( Intute AP)
    • EcoLearnIT LOM AP
  • Mappings
  • General observations (1/3)
    • Most common generic elements
      • Title ; Language ; Description ; Keyword (free text or restricted); and Coverage (geographical/spatial or temporal).
    • life cycle of the resource
      • Role of the entities that have contributed to the resource; Information about these entities; Date of contribution/production/publication.
  • General observations (2/3)
    • Technical characteristics
      • format ; l ocation (such as URL); Size ; Some technical requirements for its viewing/execution.
    • educational characteristics
      • t ype of the learning resource ; Intended end user role ; Educational context/level .
  • General observations (3/3)
    • copyrights
      • Cost ; Copyrights and restrictions in use .
    • formal classification
      • type of classification; classification system used (very often AGROVOC or some other agricultural knowledge organization scheme); Terms used from the selected classification system.
  • suggestions to developers (1/2)
    • Always provide supportive documentation describing the AP
    • Document supportive use cases that help clarify its scope, purpose and users
    • Document reference to the technical implementation of the AP and provide any relevant technical bindings
    • Use the latest and most stable version of the base schema available
    • When using ad-hoc or extended value spaces make them available in a public namespace
  • suggestions to developers (2/2)
    • Instead of substituting the ‘Langstring’ datatype with the simpler ‘Characterstring’, it is suggested that simplicity is sought though appropriate interface design
    • The non-allowed modification rules of CWA 15555 should be respected to ensure no problems when trying to export/exchange metadata
    • The elements most often occurring as mandatory in the existing APs should be considered for use also in other APs
  • Conclusion
    • established community of partners
    • cross-searching/sharing of data now possible through the mappings
    • guidelines to support and give feedback to organizations that are designing, implementing and operating agricultural learning repositories to ensure improved coherence!
  • References
    • CWA 15555 (2006). Guidelines and support for building application profiles in e-learning [Online]. Available at: http://www.cen-isss-wslt.din.de/sixcms_upload/media/3050/ CWA15555.pdf (verified 20 June 2008). European Committee for Standardization (CEN).
    • DC (2004). Dublin Core Metadata Element Set, Version 1.1: Reference Description. Dublin Core Org.
    • IEEE LOM (2002). Draft Standard for Learning Object Metadata, IEEE Learning Technology Standards Committee, IEEE 1484.12.1-2002.
    • ISO/IEC MLR (2005). Working Draft for ISO/IEC 19788-2 – Metadata for Learning Resources – Part 2: Data Elements, ISO/IEC JTC1 SC36.
    • Manouselis, N., Kastradas, K., Salokhe, G., Najjar, J., Stracke, C.M. and Duval, E. (2008). Results from a Study of the Implementation of Metadata Application Profiles in Agricultural Learning Repositories. in Proceedings of the Workshop on Learning Technology Standards for Agriculture and Rural Development (AgroLT 2008), 4 th International Conference on Information and Communication Technologies in Bio and Earth Sciences (HAICTA 2008), Athens, Greece, September 19, 2008.
    • Najjar, J., Ternier, S. and Duval, E. (2004). Interoperability of Learning Object Repositories: Complications and Guidelines [Online]. Available at: http://www.cs.kuleuven.ac.be/~najjar/papers/IadiswwwJournal.pdf (verified 20 June 2008). IADIS International Journal of WWW/Internet.
    • Stuempel, H., Salokhe, G., Aubert, A., Keizer, J., Nadeau, A., Katz, S. and Rudgard, S. (2007). Metadata Application Profile for Agricultural Learning Resources. in Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Metadata and Semantics Research (MTSR' 07), Corfu, Greece, October 2007.
  • Thank you! Gauri Salokhe ( [email_address] )