Egyptian Civiliazation

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Egyptian Civilization - Indus Valley Civilization

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  • TRADE WITH COUNTRIESDuring three millennia of pharaonic history Egyptians traded goods with other countries, while the Egyptian government tried to control this trade and profit from it. The trade took place with Nubia, Sinai Dessert, Retenu (Canaan And Syria ), Libya and during the late period it took place with Phoenicians and Greeks.Nubia :Egypt invaded Nubia and increased economic power by bringing the rich Nubian gold mines and the overland routes to Kush(Namibia) and Punt(Somalia) under Egyptian authority.  The Sinai desert: It was important for its copper and gem stone mines, and its trade routes through Arabia to the Horn of Africa, and later to Persia and India. Retenu (Canaan and Syria):It prevented against Asiatic attacks and was a crossroads of trading routes with royal trade and exchange in the form of Egyptian style clay cylinder seal impressions and serekh signs.  The Egyptian attempts at ruling Libya were influenced by the profits to be made from the European trade with Africa. During the Late Period much of Egyptian trade was in the hands of Phoenicians and Greeks.Egypt had only partial success in controlling the flow of goods from Africa to Europe and the Near East. The cheapest and fastest way of transporting merchandise was by ship.RESOURCES PRESENT IN EGYPT:The resources present in Egypt were plenty which fulfilled most of their needs. Grain ,wheat, Beer, Wine were cultivated in Egypt meeting peoples needs. Bricks for building houses and palaces, rocks for tombs and temples were utilised from the Nile. Natron for embalming and salt were mined locally; flax and hemp grown for making clothes and ropes. Oil for lighting was pressed from the kikki seeds and later from olives. Papyrus grew abundantly in the Delta and was made into a kind of paper.
  • RESOURCES IMPORTED:Wood was available in plenty but was insufficient to build the houses, ships , furniture, etc. Cedar wood was imported from Byblos on the Lebanese coast. Different varieties of hardwood, among them ebony, and fragrant wood were imported from Africa.Egypt lacked in metal, but it had quite a few gold deposits, only a little silver, iron, lead and some copper. The conquests of Nubia and the Sinai increased their gold and copper mines. Significant amounts of gold were traded with Asiatic kings.Tin for the production of bronze, Asiatic copper which was a natural bronze alloy, and, from the New Kingdom onwards, small amounts of iron were imported.Slaves were captured or bought from the Levant, from Nubia and further south. This trade in humans was apparently of insignificant proportions.Ivory from elephants (the Egyptians had local ivory from hippopotami), ostrich feathers and eggs, leopard and lion skins came from the west and south. Horses & Hyksos, a horned breed of cattle was brought from the south.A new variety of sheep was imported, chickens from IndiaRESOURCES EXPORTED:Agricultural produce was plenty in Egypt which led to export of grain, to the Lebanese coast, and to Rome. Fruit, such as dates, were also sold abroad.In addition to agricultural produce and raw materials like gold and precious stones Egypt exported artefacts. At Byblos sarcophagi and statues have been found, at Malta amulets, rings, scarabs and beads made from faience, statues and torch holders. In Punt weapons, jewelry, mirrors and the like were exchanged for exotic woods, ivory and frankincense.
  • The economy of pharaonic Egypt has been called an ancient command economy, wherein there was a specialized bureaucracy which monitored or controlled much of its activity, one of the hallmarks of planned economies.The wealth of the economy mainly consisted of the natural resources(available in abundance).Agriculture in egypt included the farming of grain, vegetables & fruit. In addition to it rearing of cattle, goats, pigs and fowl were grown, and fish from the Nile were caught. The raw materials were partly consumed and the remaining were manufactured and sold in the market. Also there was tax levied on the goods which led to the increase in income.The abundant resources led to the mining of gold, bronze and copper and the tools(copper, gold, stone and wooden)were used by the workers in their occupationThe main source of energy is muscle power provided by humans but the domestic animals were used to a great extent in farming, transportation and other works. The other source of energy used by the egyptians were wind, fire and sun.The other source of income included the military invasions to the other foreign countries which led to addition of resources in Egypt
  • RaceEgyptstraddles two regions, Africa and the Middle East.Thus it was something of a "melting pot,“ of races.The ancient Egyptians were neither "black" nor "white" (as such terms are usually applied today).The ancient Egyptians did not make racial distinctions themselves, but rather ethnic distinctions based on nationality.Tomb painting of the later dynasties indicate that the Egyptians were in contact with people of various races and nations.
  • ReligionThe Egyptian Religion developed from pagan religions of the settling populations.Thus it has many anamorphic gods as well as nature spirits.The Egyptian religion developed a vast pantheon of gods and goddesses. Well over 700 gods were worshiped from domestic and local gods to state gods which were patronized by the pharaoh.Each trade had its out deity.Ra the sun god was considered as their supreme deity.
  • One of the very strong traditions was that of Divine Kingship. Divine Kingship is the belief that the Pharaoh was not only the King (political ruler) but also a god. The Pharaoh was associated with Horus, son of Re the sun god. Due to their beliefs, the Pharaoh held an immense amount of power.Egyptians believed that a new, eternal life awaited peopleafter death. This belief stemmed from the story of Ra the sun god who fights darkness every sunset and is resurrected at dawn every day. This belief in a hereafter led to the development of an elaborate mortuary cult and extensive funerary architecture.Egyptians called this the Book of Coming Forth by Day. The negative confession was an important part of the book.The book contained hymns to gods and gave passwords needed for different parts of the journey. Many Egyptians bought ready-copied Books of the Dead. Pictures and names were added as required. Their quality depended on what the buyer wanted and could afford.
  • Egyptian society was largely divided into 3 classes the upper class consisting of the royal family , priests and the vizier,the middle class had scribes, doctors nobles men and traders and the lower class were workers and slaves.
  • Egypt treated its women better than any of the other major civilizations of the ancient world.They could not only rule the country, but also had many of the same basic human rights as men.One of the first women to hold the rank of pharaoh was HATSHEPSUTbuilt temples to the gods as well as other public buildings. A woman's role as mother and wife still came first in Egyptian society. Egyptian women could have their own businesses, own and sell property, and serve as witnesses in court cases.the goddess of motherhood and fertility, Isis wasthe mother of all gods and was worshipped throughout Egypt
  • granite Aswan (pink)Will excavation at Aswan an unfinished carved obelisk was found given us clues how it might have been built
  • 100,000 tons minimum stones was required People of those times did not think in terms of machineryThey thought in terms of man labour
  • they were raised from the earth to the first step of the staircase; there they were laid on another scaffold, by means of which they were raised to the second step. 
  • It is hypothesized that three types of ramps might have been erectedStraight ramp built on one side of the pyramidIt assumed that there was spiral ramp wrapped around the pyramid3rd theory was a combination of the straight and the spiral ramp
  • Monolithic square stone pillars ending in a point, obelisks were erected in honour of the sun god Re, the oldest on a natural hill north of Heliopolis. During the 5th Dynasty the obelisk became the centre of the sun temple, later they are to be found standing in pairs by temple entrances. Their tips had the form of pyramidions and seem to have been covered by gilded copper sheets or the like. A granite base might have been installed to take the load of the obeliskThen an enclosure mud wall is built which is the filled up with sandOn two sides of the wall brick ramps are constructedThe obelisk was pulled up with ropes and a series of slabs underneath it The sand is then dug away gradually until it reaches the base
  • A granite base might have been installed to take the load of the obeliskThen an enclosure mud wall is built which is the filled up with sandOn two sides of the wall brick ramps are constructedThe obelisk was pulled up with ropes and a series of slabs underneath it The sand is then dug away gradually until it reaches the base
  • Ancient Egypt never developed any major cities. The reason was that the Nile valley constituted a continuous inhabitable area, in which few places had any advantages over others, whether in terms of communication or non-agricultural products.However, the cities of ancient Egypt, including their locations, functions and organization, were related to various dynamics that shaped the course of Egyptian civilization based on both internal and external forces. There were many specialized cities such as those based on trade. Others, for example, were made up of artisans, craftsmen and workers related to various royal projects.
  • The cities that did emerge were wither the result of the need for effective administration, or the clustering of facilities around an important religious center. Planned cities were created as tributes by the Pharaoh to the Gods or as monuments to their greatness
  • In the period of the Old Kingdom Memphis was either founded and/or became the capital of Egypt.Memphis survived as an important city until the Arab conquest in the 7th century, when Cairo came to be constructed Thebes-The city became important during the 11th Dynasty (21st century BCE) The necropolis has many funerary temples, among them the one of Tutankhamon.
  • by the command of Akhenaten, and centred around the new monotheistic cult of Aten. The location was of importance as it was part of securing the new capital- its independence from the elites and priesthoods of the old centers.Akhetaten was built on the east bank of the Nile, 400 km north of the former capital, Thebes, and 260 km south of Memphis. The layout of Akhetaten is believed to deviate from the standard Egyptian towns, being divided into. At Akhetaten, nobles' villas only one floor, usually with a central living room.
  • The ancient Egyptians believed that temples were the homes of the gods and goddesses.Every temple was dedicated to a god or goddess. The large temple buildings were made of stone. Their walls were carved and painted with scenes from Egyptian mythologyDecorations :: The scene on the outer walls of the temple, and the walls of the outer courtyard, show the battle of the forces of light, represented by the Pharaoh, subduing the forces of darkness, represented by the foreign enemies.The scenes in sanctuaries and hypostyle halls show sacred offerings to gods.
  • A - The entrance pylon, statues, and Obelisks were dedicated by Ramesses II. Scenes of the Battle of Kadesh are carved on the front.B - Columned court with shrine for the barques of the gods. "B" marks the spot where the Abu'l Haggag Mosque is built into the wall.C - A Processional colonnade begun by Amenhotep III and completed by Tutankhamun with reliefs of the Opet festival.D - The Temple proper.E - Barque ShrineF - Offering Hall with side "Birth" room showing the divine conception and birth of Amenhotep IIIG - The "Opet" or private sanctuary containing the holy of holies in a smaller central shrine room. The larger room has cosmological features with twelve column (one for each hour of the day) and at each opposite end the day and the night barques of the sun.
  • Egypt's first true, or straight-sided, pyramid.Started as a stepped pyramid.Near completion the steps were packed with stone and the whole structure was cased in finest limestone.Heavy outer layers eventually slid downwards (around 1550 BC)leaving a square, three-stepped core standing in a mountain of sand and rubble and the ruins of the pyramid complex.The first Egyptian pyramid with an aboveground burial chamber (just above the first step level)
  • 54 degrees inclination changed to 43 degrees.The reduced angle brought increased stability, but led to the pyramid's modern name, the Bent Pyramid.
  • Commissioned by Pharaoh KhufuSlope of 51 degrees 50‘.Its sides vary by less than 1.9ft (58cm) and are orientated almost exactly true north. Its base is almost completely level.
  • Around the time of the New Kingdom ((1550–1070 B.C.E.) the Pharaohs stopped constructing monumental pyramids as their burial placesas the pyramids drained the imperial treasury and were raided by tomb robbers.The Valley of the Kings is located on the western shore of THEBES. The area is a dried river valley that is dominated by a high peak, naturally shaped as a pyramid.Elaborate underground burial tombs were made in the Valley of the Kings which contains the tombs of the most celebrated pharaohs of Egypt.
  • Around the time of the New Kingdom ((1550–1070 B.C.E.) the Pharaohs stopped constructing monumental pyramids as their burial placesas the pyramids drained the imperial treasury and were raided by tomb robbers.The Valley of the Kings is located on the western shore of THEBES. The area is a dried river valley that is dominated by a high peak, naturally shaped as a pyramid.Elaborate underground burial tombs were made in the Valley of the Kings which contains the tombs of the most celebrated pharaohs of Egypt.
  • Constructed near each pyramid was a mortuary temple, which was linked via a sloping causeway to a valley temple on the edge of the Nile floodplain. Also nearby were subsidiary pyramids used for the burials of other members of the royal family. To the south of the Great Pyramid near Khafre's valley temple lies the Great Sphinx. Carved out of limestone, the Sphinx has the facial features of a man but the body of a recumbent lion; it is approximately 240 feet (73 metres) long and 66 feet (20 metres) high. (See sphinx.)(read the plan).Surrounding the three pyramids are extensive fields of flat-topped funerary structures called mastabas; arranged in a grid pattern, the mastabas were used for the burials of relatives or officials of the kings. In the late 1980s and '90s, excavations in the environs of the pyramids revealed labourers' districts that included bakeries, storage areas, workshops, and the small tombs of workers and artisans. These tombs range from simple mud-brick domes to elaborate stone monuments that appear to emulate, in miniature, the mausoleums of kings.
  • The designations of the pyramids—Khufu, Khafre, and Menkaure—correspond to the kings for whom they were built. The northernmost and oldest pyramid of the group was built for Khufu (Greek: Cheops), the second king of the 4th dynasty. Called the Great Pyramid, it is the largest of the three, the length of each side at the base averaging 7553/4 feet (230 metres) and its original height being 4812/5 feet (147 metres). The middle pyramid was built for Khafre (Greek: Chephren), the fourth of the eight kings of the 4th dynasty; the structure measures 7073/4 feet (216 metres) on each side and was originally 471 feet (143 metres) high. The southernmost and last pyramid to be built was that of Menkaure (Greek: Mykerinus), the fifth king of the 4th dynasty. Each side measures 3561/2 feet (109 metres), and the structure's completed height was 218 feet (66 metres). All three pyramids were plundered both internally and externally in ancient times. Thus, most of the grave goods originally deposited in the burial chambers are missing, and the pyramids no longer reach their original heights because they have been almost entirely stripped of their outer casings of smooth white limestone; the Great Pyramid, for example, is now only 4512/5 feet (138 metres) high. Khafre retains the outer limestone casing only at its topmost portion.
  • Drawing2-The entrance to the Great Pyramid is on the north side, about 59 feet (18 metres) above ground level. A sloping corridor descends from it through the pyramid's interior masonry, penetrates the rocky soil on which the structure rests, and ends in an unfinished underground chamber. From the descending corridor branches an ascending passageway that leads to a room known as the Queen's Chamber and to a great slanting gallery that is 151 feet (46 metres) long. At the upper end of this gallery a long and narrow passage gives access to the burial room proper, usually termed the King's Chamber. This room is entirely lined and roofed with granite. From the chamber two narrow shafts run obliquely through the masonry to the exterior of the pyramid; it is not known whether they were designed for a religious purpose or were meant for ventilation. Above the King's Chamber are five compartments separated by massive horizontal granite slabs; the likely purpose of these slabs was to shield the ceiling of the burial chamber by diverting the immense thrust exerted by the overlying masses of masonry.(drawing text) 
  • In 1257 BCE, Pharaoh Ramses II (1279-13 BCE) had two temples carved out of solid rock at a site on the west bank of the Nile south of Aswan in the land of Nubia and known today as Abu Simbel. The temple built by Ramses, however, was dedicated to the sun gods Amon-Re and Re-Horakhte.The sacred area, marked out as a forecourt and bounded on the north and south sides by brick walls, occupied a place between the sandstone cliffs and the river.
  • Ramses' temple was cut into the face of the cliff, before which is a rock-cut terrace. The temple is approached across this terrace up a flight of steps with an inclined plane in the middle, and enclosed on either side by a balustrade behind which stood a row of hawks and statues of Ramses in various forms.It consists of a series of halls and rooms extending back a total of 56.4metres(185 feet) from the entrance.
  • The rock-cut façade of Ramses' temple represents the front of a pylon in front of which are four colossal seated figures of Ramses. This facade is one 119 feet wide, and 100 feet high, while the colossal statues are 67 feet in height.Above the doorway in a niche stands the sun god, a falcon headed representation of Ramesses, holding a war-sceptre.At the top of the pylon, above the cornice, is a row of baboons, who, as Watchers of the Dawn, are shown with their hands raised in adoration of the (rising) sun.
  • The long first hall is 16.5metres(54 feet) wide and 17.7m(58 feet) deep and has two rows of Osirid statues of Ramses each 9m(30 feet)high. Those on the north side are shown wearing the White Crown of Upper Egypt, while those on the south wear wearing the Double Crown of Lower Egypt. At the west end of the main hall are three doors, the side ones leading into lateral chambers, and the central one opening into a room with four square pillars. Most suggest that these rooms were for storage (treasure rooms) but elsewhere it is suggested that they were used for festivals related to the Kings Jubilee.
  • From this room a doorway leads to the vestibule, and beyond that is located the innermost shrine with seated statues of the gods Ptah, Amun-Ra, the deified Ramses II, and Re-Horakhte. The temple's orientation is arranged in such a way that twice every year on 22 February and 22 October the earliest sun-rays shine on the back wall of the innermost chamber, thus illuminating the statues of the four gods seated there.Precisely this same effect was apparently also fundamental to the design of the artificial cave of Newgrange in Ireland.
  • On either side of the entrance to the temple are a deified statue of Nefretari with statues of Ramesses II on either side of her. The statues of Nefretari are the same height as those of Ramesses, which is unusual i.e. 10.5-metre.Like at Ramesses II's temple, there are children depicted around their feet. There are cobras protecting the Temple door.It has only one hypostyle hall and the sanctuary.
  • In the mid-20th century, when the reservoir that was created by the construction of the nearby Aswan High Dam threatened to submerge Abu Simbel, UNESCO and the Egyptian government sponsored a project to save the site. An informational and fund-raising campaign was initiated by UNESCO in 1959. Between 1963 and 1968 a workforce and an international team of engineers and scientists, supported by funds from more than 50 countries, dug away the top of the cliff and completely disassembled both temples, reconstructing them on high ground more than 200 feet (60 metres) above their previous site. In all, some 16,000 blocks were moved. In 1979 Abu Simbel, Philae, and other nearby monuments were collectively designated a UNESCO World Heritage site.
  • The word means literally “under pillars,” and the design allows for the construction of large spaces—as in temples, palaces, or public buildings—without the need for arches. Although the multiple, usually large, pillars naturally consumed much of the floor space of such halls, this drawback was turned to advantage when the columns were carved with heroic or religious motifs.
  • The Great Hypostyle Hall of Karnak, located within the Karnak temple complex, is one of the most visited monuments of Ancient Egypt.The hall covers an area of 54,000 sq ft (5,000 m2). The hallwas builtby Seti I and Decoration of the southern wing was completed by Ramesses II. A series of later pharaohs added inscriptions to the walls and the columns.
  • Hypostyle halls are noted for the density of their columns. This was the only way that the engineers of this time knew how to create large roofed spaces. The art of building arches and domes, which allow far larger roof spans, had not yet been discovered.The roof, now fallen, was supported by 134 columns in 16 rows; the 2 middle rows are higher than the others.The central 12 columns are 21m high and 3.6m in diameter while the other 122 columns are 13m high and 2.7m in diameter.The outer walls depict scenes of battle, Seti I on the north and Ramesses II on the south.
  • 1stpic:To construct the Hypostyle Hall, the builders laid down the foundations and then the bases of all the columns and the lowest course of blocks for the walls.  Next, they buried the whole area with earth.The next course of stones for all the columns and walls were then laid down and they too were buried.mud brick rams were added to allow the builders to drag the next layer of stone.The process was completed until the highest part of the roof was finished.  The Hypostyle Hall was structurally complete, but there was still much work to do. 2ndpic.-The next stage of construction was to remove the earth fill and ramps.During this "one-way ride" to the ground, the masons carefully smoothed the walls down.  Some blocks were too rough and had to be patched with plaster or cut back so that patch stones could be placed over them.On the left, rough blocks are set in place and an earth embankment is raised.  On the right, the embankment is being removed and the masons are smoothing down the walls.
  • For many years, Egyptologists assumed that the sculptors were carving the scenes immediately after the masons smoothed the walls as the earth embankments and ramps were removed.  Recent research has shown that in the Hypostyle Hall and in other temples, the walls were not decorated until the last of the construction embankments were removed and the walls entirely smooth. If the old theory was true, then Seti's inscriptions should be found on the upper half of all the walls and columns, with Ramesses II's being on the lower half. This is not what we see.Each king's reliefs are found from the base of the walls and columns to the top.  The only way to explain this is if they used scaffolds. 
  • Every wall and column inside is covered with inscriptions, displaying virtually a cross-section of what took place here.All the columns in the hall represent papyrus stalks, and the 12 great ones have open capitals imitating the feathery blossoms of flowering papyrus. The diameters of these giant bell-shaped capitals are 5.4 meters (18 ft), wide enough to support 100 men. Papyrus stalks are not cylindrical but have three sides with ridges along each edge. The columns are round, but a slight ridge runs up each column like a vertical seam in imitation of the plant. The smaller columns have closed-bud papyrus capitals imitating stalks which have not bloomed. As one part of the temple as a whole, the Hypostyle Hall functioned as the "public room" of the god's house. The main source of light was a series of large windows screened by giant stone grilles. The difference in height between the smaller columns and the twelve great ones along the central axis leaves an open space for these windows.
  • Medicine was produced from natural substances, plant and animal parts like garlic ,mustard seeds etc to provide remedies for a multitude of diseases and ailments like throat infection, headaches. The Egyptian used their expertise in embalming to dress wounds and heal cuts and gashes.The Egyptians used cosmetics in their daily life a special black eye make up called kohl, was made from finely ground mineral oil was used daily by women. They also had ointments, facial rouge and creams for wrinkles made from bees wax and other natural substances.Wigs were popular among both sexes in Egypt also were perfumes and scents.
  • The Egyptian paintedegyptologypage.tripod.com
  • Shoulders in front view.Legs and hands in profile.Eyes without exception were always in front view.Representation is flat and avoids perspective.Composition and movement were underdeveloped.Limited palette of colors in flat tints.Paints applied usually in tempera, pigments being mostly mineral-based.Scenes were treated as units covering all walls.Individual figures were lively and graceful.Clinging costumes and pleated loincloths contribute to linear effect.Scenes were treated as units covering all walls.
  • By 18th dynasty youth and age were differentiated in portraits of individuals and were no longer concealed in chambers, but placed in the open.TEMPLE AT ABU SIMBEL-The temples were cut from the rock.The Great Temple is dedicated to Ramesses II and a statue of him is seated with three other gods within the innermost part of the rock-cut temple (the sanctuary). The temple's facade is dominated by four enormous seated statues of the Pharaoh (each over 20 metres or 67 feet high), although one has been damaged since ancient times.
  • In the tomb of Tutankhamen most of the pottery vessels were simple wine jars in the form of amphorae. Early in the eighteenth dynasty, canopic decoration changed once more, focusing on the image of the four goddesses and their genii. Now, the genii are usually identifiable from the jar tops, shaped as heads. Imsety has a human appearanceHapy takes the form of a baboonDuamutef that of a jackal Kebehsenuef that of a hawk. At the same time, the chests became more elaborate. Now, rather then simple boxes with flat or vaulted lids, they began to imitate the naos shrines, usually mounted on a sledge. Very often, canopic equipment was made from calcite (Egyptian alabaster).Faienze-Many pieces display a high standard of modeling and perfection of glazing. POTTERY-The images on this vessel represent important social or religious events, the precise significance of which is not perfectly understood. Two male and two female figures stand aboard a boat, which is depicted with oars and two cabins. In the areas surrounding the boat are mountains, birds that may represent flamingos, plants, and water.Faience is a glazed non-clay ceramic material. It is composed mainly of crushed quartz or sand, with small amounts of lime and either natron or plant ash. This body is coated with a soda-lime-silica glaze that is generally a bright blue-green colour due the presence of copper (Nicholson 1998: 50).The term faience is used for objects made entirely from the glazed material, as distinct fromglazed stone or glazed ware i.e. objects with a coating of glaze.
  • Glass was certainly a material of luxury.  The use of glass for inlay is notably demonstrated in Tutankhamen's goldenthrone,in his solid gold mask, and in much of his jewelry.WOOD-TUTANKHAMUN TOMB.IVORY-KING KHUFUWOOD-Excelled in the field of cabinetmaking that the ancient woodworker excelled. Techniques of inlay, veneering, and marquetry are completely mastered. JEWELLERY-; it was used for settings, cloisonné work, chains, and beads, both solid and hollow.
  • The range of uses is best exemplified in the objects from the tomb of Tutankhamen., but the (lost-wax process), using closed molds, was not employed until the Middle Kingdom.The casting of large-scale bronze figures achieved its highest point in the late New Kingdom down to the 25th dynasty. The outstanding example from this period is the figure of Karomama (LouvreStatue of Karomama, the Divine Adoratrice of AmunKaromama is depicted in a walking pose, shaking sistrums (now missing). She was a Divine Adoratrice, a virgin and earthly spouse of the god Amun, who was worshiped at Karnak. She held the status of a queen, and is portrayed in a robe encircled by vulture wings. A tall crown once fitted into the round headdress adorned with a uraeus. Champollion was responsible for purchasing this exceptional bronze object with multiple inlays. Description A closer lookKaromama is barefoot, walking forward on the base, her arms outstretched to shake the sistrums. She is clad in a close-fitting, pleated dress with wide sleeves. It reaches to mid-calf and is encircled by the feathered wings of a vulture, which wrap around her thighs. A short wig frame her face. The coiled uraeus emerges from the modius, a small cap that originally held a crown. A lavish, jeweled collar extends from the top of her shoulders to her bust.The slender proportions of the figure embody a charming femininity. The face, however, has a severe expression, with inlaid eyes, aquiline noise, and small, delicately shaped mouth. This work represents Karomama in her role as Divine Adoratrice.
  • Egyptian Civiliazation

    1. 1. EGYPTIAN CIVILIZATION (3000 B.C.—395 A.D.)
    2. 2. 3100-2750 B.C. : EARLY DYNASTIC PERIOD(Dynasties I and II)  King Narmer united Egypt.  Recorded his deeds on Narmer palette. 2750-2250 B.C. : OLD KINGDOM  First step pyramid at Saqqara.  The Pyramids at Giza are built. 2250-2025 B.C. : FIRST IMTERMEDIATE PERIOD(Dynasties VII - X)  Civilization progressed leading to introduction of Gods.  Period of unrest and famines.  Pyramids Robbed 2025-1627 B.C. : MIDDLE KINGDOM  (Dynasties XI - XIII)  Capital of Egypt moved to Thebes.  Hyskos invade.  Pharos stop building pyramids.  Kings are buried in rock-cut tombs. 1648 – 1539 B.C. : SECOND INTERMEDIATE PERIOD (Dynasties XIV - XVII)  Nilometer for keeping track of height of river for farming. EGYPTIAN CIVILISATION
    3. 3. 1539 – 1070 B.C. : NEW KINGDOM (Dynasties XVIII - XX) Idea of one God(sun God) was proposed by Amenhotep. Temples built at Luxor. Tutankhamen rules. Old Gods return. Temples built at Abu Simbel. 1070 - 653 B.C. : THIRD INTERMEDIATE PERIOD (Dynasties XXI - XXV) Amen-Ra becomes king of the Gods. King David unites people. 664 – 332 B.C. : LATE PERIOD (Dynasties XXVI - XXXI) Libyan and Nubian pharos rule. 332 – 30 B.C. : PTOLEMAIC PERIOD Alexander the Great conquered Egypt and founded city of Alexandria. 30 B.C. – 395 A.D. : ROMAN PERIOD The Roman Emperor Octavian conquered and ruled Egypt.
    4. 4. GEOGRAPHY • Ancient Egypt was a civilization in Northeastern Africa concentrated along the middle to lower reaches of the Nile River, reaching its greatest extent in the second millennium BC, during the New Kingdom. • It stretched from the Nile Delta in the north as far south as Jebel Barkal at the Fourth Cataract of the Nile. • The geographic range of ancient Egyptian civilization included, at different times, areas of the southern Levant, the Eastern Desert and the Red Sea coastline, the Sinai Peninsula, and the oases of the Western desert.
    5. 5. •The NILE RIVER , the longest river in the world (6,650 kilometers), flows north from the heart of Africa to the Mediterranean Sea. •Its flood plain was a magnet for life -- human, plant and animal. •Humans were drawn there because they could grow crops and settle into permanent villages.
    6. 6. •For centuries, THE NILE RIVER FLOODED THE VALLEY, enriching the land with a thick layer of alluvial soil. • Flooding occurred from July to September as the result of the tropical rains in the Ethiopian tableland. •The river attained its highest level in October, then began to recede to its lowest point sometime between April and June.
    7. 7. TRANSPORTATION: •The Nile River was the highway that joined the upper Egypt and lower Egypt. Until the nineteenth century, travel by land was virtually unknown.
    8. 8. THE ANCIENT EGYPTIAN ECONOMY
    9. 9. RESOURCES PRESENT IN EGYPT: • Grain, Wheat, Beer, Wine, flax and hemp, papyrus were cultivated. • Bricks, oil were manufactured. • Rocks, metals, salt were mined locally in Egypt. TRADE WITH COUNTRIES: The trade took place with • Nubia(to the south) • Kush(south-west)(Namibia) • and Punt(south-east)(Somalia) • Across the Sinai desert(north east) • Arabia to the Horn of Africa • Persia and India. • Retenu (north east)(Canaan and Syria) • Transport with the help of ships TRADE
    10. 10. RESOURCES IMPORTED: • Wood: Cedar wood, different varieties of hardwood, i.e. ebony, and fragrant wood. • Mines: invasion with other countries increased copper and gold mines. • Metal: Tin, Asiatic copper and bronze alloy. • Animal products: Ivory, ostrich feathers and eggs, leopard and lion skins. • Animal: Horses & Hyksos, a horned breed of cattle, sheep, chickens. RESOURCES EXPORTED: • Agricultural produce: grain, dates. • Raw materials like gold and precious stones artifacts. • Sarcophagi and statues, amulets, rings, scarabs, beads, torch holders. • Weapons, jewelry, mirrors.
    11. 11. • The economy of pharaonic Egypt : specialized bureaucracy. • The wealth of the economy: natural resources. • Agriculture: Grain, vegetables & fruit. • Rearing of cattle, goats, pigs and fowl, in addition to fishing. • Mining of gold, bronze and copper. • Manufacturing of stone and wood. • Human power and animal energy were used. • Wind, fire and sun were additional sources of energy. • The raw materials consumed and sold. • Tax levied on the goods increased the income. • Military invasions. ECONOMY
    12. 12. RELIGION • Egypt straddles two regions, Africa and the Middle East. • “Melting Pot,“ of races. • Egyptians were neither "black" nor "white“ • Egyptians did not make racial distinctions but rather ethnic distinctions based on nationality. • Egyptians were in contact with people of various races and nations. FOUR PEOPLE OF THE WORLD: SYRIAN, NUBIAN, LIBYAN, AND EGYPTIAN.
    13. 13. • Religion developed from pagan religions of the settlers. • Polytheistic religion-anamorphic gods and nature spirits. • Vast pantheon-over 700 gods. AMUN –RA: GODS AMUN AND RA COMBINED
    14. 14. DIVINE KINGSHIP • Divine Kingship-Pharaoh was not only the King (political ruler) but also a god. • The Pharaoh was associated with Horus. • Due to their beliefs, the Pharaoh held an immense power. LIFE AFTER DEATH • Egyptians believed that a new, eternal life awaited people after death. • Belief stemmed from the story of Ra the sun god’s rebirth everyday. • Belief led to the development of elaborate mortuary cult and extensive funerary architecture. THE BOOK OF THE DEATH • Book of Coming Forth by Day • Negative confession . • It contained hymns to gods. • Quality depended on buyer’s wants and capacity to afford
    15. 15. The social arrangement was in the form pyramid:- PHARAOH AND ROYAL FAMILY SITS AT THE TOP VIZIERS AND PRIESTS SCRIBES AND NOBLEMEN CRAFTSMEN AND DANCERS LABORERS AND PRISONERS OF WAR (LARGEST GROUP)
    16. 16. • A woman's role in Egyptian society was of a mother and wife. • Egyptian women could have their own businesses, property. • They could rule the country. • HATSHEPSUT -First women to hold the rank of pharaoh. • Egypt treated its women better than any of the other major civilizations of the ancient world • Goddess Isis –one of the important deities of the ancient world (worshipped throughout Egypt). WOMEN OF ANCIENT EGYPT
    17. 17. BUILDING MATERIALS MUD BRICKS • Mixture of mud, straws and stones • Poured in wooden frames or shaped into bricks • left to harden in the sun LIMESTONE • Grades of limestone from the core to the exterior • Later the limestone was cut in small blocks deducing the time of transportation and labour. BASALT • Used for flooring GRANITE • Used for monolithic obelisk • used on inner walls
    18. 18. Large labour workforce Believed in human power over machinery TOOLS TO CUT THE BLOCKS Ropes, copper pickaxes and chisels, granite hammers, dolerite and other hard stone tools.
    19. 19. • Construction of ramps may depend on the room available. • General design of ramp systems may have varied simply due to necessity. LIFTING DEVICES Ramp on pyramid Stone block on sled Pouring water to Rocking a lubricate block into position WOODEN CRANE THEORY Wooden crane with a counterweight on one end may have been used to lift the blocks from one level to the next. THE PULLEY AND FULCRUM THEORY Involves the use of pulleys to hoist the blocks up the ramps and fulcrums to manipulate the blocks into place. OTHER THEORIES OF CONSTRUCTION SHORT WOODEN SCAFFOLD RAMPS
    20. 20. OBELISK • Erected in honour of the sun god Re • Earlier as the centre of the sun temple • Later found standing in pairs by temple entrances MATERIALS USED •Monolithic square stone pillars ending in a point •Tips covered with gilded copper sheets Base plate of the obelisk with a groove TOOLS USED • Shaped and carved with the help of dolerite hammer stones.
    21. 21. TOWN PLANNING • Ancient Egypt never developed any major cities. • Nile valley constituted a continuous inhabitable area. • Few places had any advantages over others. • The cities that did emerge were wither the result of the need for effective administration, or the clustering of facilities around an important religious center. • There were many specialized cities such as those based on trade. • Others, for example, were made up of artisans, craftsmen and workers related to various royal projects.
    22. 22. SETTLEMENT PATTERNS • Most cities grew organically around administration, the clustering of facilities, an important religious center or construction site. • Only few of the cities were planed and organized. • Planned cities were created as tributes by the Pharaoh to the Gods or as monuments to their greatness IMPORTANT CITIES  Amarna (Akhetaten)  Maadi,  MEMPHIS  Thebes
    23. 23. . THEBES  Capital of ancient Egypt,  Thebes lied on the east side of the Nile, in the centre of today's Egypt, 700 km south of modern Cairo,Luxor and Karnak now lies where Thebes once was.  Thebes has some of the best preserved monuments of Ancient Egypt, even if the old settlement is now covered by modern houses. • The Temple of Amen-Karnak. • Colossi of Memnon, • The Ramesseum of Ramses 2, • The temple of Ramses 3, and the temple of Queen Hatshepsut • The necropolis. MEMPHIS City of ancient Egypt, situated on the west bank of the Nile, 25 km south of today's Cairo. Memphis was strategically located at the apex of the Nile Delta and is counted for being the first imperial city in world history.  The necropolises further north of Memphis are the most impressive remains from this period, involving the Pyramids at Giza and at Saqqara
    24. 24. AMARNA(AKHETATEN) •Capital of Ancient Egypt 1348-1336 BC. •Akhetaten, as it was called, was built on virgin soil • Estimated Population-20,000 to 50,000 •The layout -divided into 3 areas, with: -the main temple and -the royal palace in the middle. -three city quarters laid out for development.
    25. 25. ZONING OF CITIES THE CENTRAL CITY The central city houses -The Royal Palace -The Great Temple (The Per-Aten), -Various official buildings (police, taxes, etc.) •Layout radiates from the royal tomb like sun rays emitting from the sun. •Illuminated a certain spot on the desert at sunrise.
    26. 26. •Residential areas away from the Royal Tomb •Compared to the central city suburban settlements was made organic •Orientation of the houses parallel to the River Nile •remarkably uniform residences The residential areas consist of -the North City or Suburb, -the Main or South City, -the worker's village. peasants would have lived in simple mud-brick homes GROWTH OF THE RESIDENTIAL AREAS • Spaces between the earliest large houses was gradually filled up with smaller clusters of homes craftworkers lived in one- or two-storey flat-roofed dwellings made of mud bricks.
    27. 27. SERVED AREA SERVICE AREA PLAN OF A VILLA IN AMARNA
    28. 28. A villa from the city of Amarna
    29. 29. TEMPLES
    30. 30. LAYOUT :complex plan - courts, halls and chambers with the sanctuary deep inside the temple. ROOF: Flat stone roof - columns closely packed to support roof. FACADE :All columns are concealed inside the external walls. SECTION : Raised flooring and lowered roofs deeper inside the temple, with the sanctuary having the highest ground level and the lowest roof. LANDSCAPE : The external wall resembled a fortress isolating the temple from its surroundings which symbolically, represented the forces of chaos and evil WORSHIP :An Egyptian temple was not a place of public worship.
    31. 31. 1- PYLONS: Large gates of the temple, carved and painted with scenes of the Pharaoh, gods and goddesses. 2- OUTER COURT: Large open Hall, with decorated walls. It was for transitional purpose, serving as an interface between the outside world and the sanctified regions deeper within the temple. 3- Hypostyle Hall: Large colonnaded hall entirely roofed except for the central aisle which was lit by windows. the capital of the massive column often in the shape of the papyrus Flower. FIVE COMPONENTS OF EGYPTIAN TEMPLES
    32. 32. 4- SANCTUARY: The sanctuary was the most special and important part of the temple. It was a very dark and relatively small room. In the middle of the sanctuary stood the shrine with the statue of the god. 5- Sacred Lake: Most temple precincts included a sacred lake. FIVE COMPONENTS OF EGYPTIAN TEMPLES
    33. 33. •The temple of Luxor is close to the Nile and parallel with the riverbank. King Amenhotep III who reigned 1390-53 BC built this beautiful temple •The court of Amenhotep III lead into the Hypostyle Hall, which has 32 papyrus columns, arranged in four rows of eight columns. It was also known as the hall of appearance. •During the Christian era the temple's hypostyle hall was converted into a Christian church, and the remains of another Coptic church can be seen to the west.
    34. 34. . TEMPLE OF ABU SIMBEL, EGYPT LOCATION: 180 miles south of Nubia, near the border of Egypt with Sudan ,West bank of Nile LOCAL DEITY: Amun, Ra and Ptah MONUMENTS: A masterpiece of Egyptian architecture, Abu Simbel is a set of two temples hewn out of rock cliffs and constructed for Ramses II and his wife Nefertari.
    35. 35. GRAVE PITS MASTABA STEPPED PYRAMID MAIDUM PYRAMID GREAT PYRAMID BENT PYRAMID 4000 BC 3200 BC 2630 BC 2600 BC 2575 BC 2550 BC EVOLUTION OF BURIAL TECHNIQUE
    36. 36. PREHISTORIC PIT GRAVE •Belief in life after death. •Buried in oval pit graves in desert cemeteries •Underwent a natural mummification. •Wooden and clay coffins. •Wooden roofs and plaster or mud-brick linings and they became rectangular, sand-free tombs. •Superstructure was a pile of stones or a low mound, marked the position of the grave. 4000 BC
    37. 37. •Burial chambers were gradually cut deeper until they passed into the bedrock. •Lined with wood, their ceilings were topped with a low mound and then surrounded by a low, rectangular mud- brick building. MASTABA ( LOW BENCH) 3200 BC GIZA SAQQARA DAHSHUR MAIDUM Cairo
    38. 38. •Superstructures had space for a small offering chapel equipped with a false door to which priests and family members brought food and other offerings for the soul of the deceased. •Superstructure was being reduced in favour of extensive subterranean storage, reached by a stairway. •Eventually, mastaba became a solid, rubble-filled block. Cross section revealing the shaft (A) and the burial chamber (B)
    39. 39. STEP PYRAMID OF DJOSER Egypt's first pyramid Built by: Pharaoh Djoser Date: circa 2630 B.C. Location: Saqqara Height: 204 feet (62meters) GIZA SAQQARA DAHSHUR MAIDUM Cairo 2630BC
    40. 40. • Extension of the mound found in mastaba tombs. Built in stages- Started as an unusual square, solid mastaba. • Developed into Six-stepped pyramid with a rectangular ground-plan.
    41. 41. • Below ground, a warren of tunnels, galleries and rooms surrounded Djoser's burial chamber. • Around the pyramid, his mortuary complex included courts and buildings, each with its own particular function.
    42. 42. GIZA SAQQARA DAHSHUR MAIDUM Cairo 2600 BC MAIDUM PYRAMID Steps Ahead Built by: Pharaoh Snefru Date: circa 2600 B.C. Location: Maidum Height: 306 feet ( 92 meters)
    43. 43. • Egypt's first straight-sided pyramid. • Started as a stepped pyramid. • Near completion the steps were packed with stone and the whole structure was cased in finest limestone. • Heavy outer layers eventually slid downwards (around 1550 BC) • Leaving a square, three-stepped core standing. • The first Egyptian pyramid with an aboveground burial chamber (just above the first step level)
    44. 44. GIZA SAQQARA DAHSHUR MAIDUM Cairo 2575 BC BENT PYRAMID First attempt at the classic shape Built by: Pharaoh Djoser Date: circa 2600 B.C. Location: Dahshur Height: 344 feet (105 meters)
    45. 45. • 54 degrees inclination changed to 43 degrees. • The reduced angle brought increased stability.
    46. 46. GIZA SAQQARA DAHSHUR MAIDUM 2540 BC RED PYRAMID Egypt's first “true” pyramid Built by: Pharaoh Snefru Date: circa 2600 B.C. Location: Dahshur Height: 341 feet ( 104 meters) CAIRO
    47. 47. GREAT PYRAMID Earths largest Built by: Pharaoh Snefru Date: circa 2550 B.C. Location: Giza Height: 481 feet ( 147 meters) GIZA SAQQARA DAHSHUR MAIDUM Cairo 2550 BC
    48. 48. • New Kingdom Period(1550–1070 B.C.E.) Pharaohs stopped constructing monumental pyramids. • Pyramids  drained the imperial treasury  raided by tomb robbers. • The Valley of the Kings-western shore of THEBES. • The area is a dried river valley. • High peak, naturally shaped as a pyramid. • Elaborate underground burial tombs were made in the Valley of the Kings.
    49. 49. Great Pyramid Location: Giza Construction: 2550 BC
    50. 50. GIZA SAQQARA DAHSHUR MAIDUM Cairo •The Pyramid of Khufu is the largest of the three pyramids. •The length of each side at the base averaging 7553/4 feet (230 metres) and its original height being 4812/5 feet (147 metres). Pyramid of Khufu Pyramid of Menkaure Pyramid of Khafre
    51. 51. •The entrance to the Great Pyramid is on the north side about 59 feet (18 meters) above ground level. •The King's Chamber is entirely lined and roofed with granite. •Above the King's Chamber are five compartments separated by massive horizontal granite slabs.
    52. 52. Great Temple Location: Abu Simbel Construction:1257 BC Ruler: Ramesses II
    53. 53. •Front of the temple-Four gigantic statues of Ramesses(20 meters high). •The facade is more than 35 meters wide and 30 meters high. •Above the entrance stands a figure of the god Re-Harakhte in a small niche. •Top of the facade crowned by a row of baboons.
    54. 54. •The central entrance leads into a large hall 54 feet wide and 58 feet deep with 8 massive pillars fronted by Osiris figures of the king each 30 feet high.
    55. 55. •Seated statues of the gods Ptah, Amun-Ra, the deified Ramses II, and Re- Horakhte. •The temple's orientation is arranged in such a way that twice every year on 22 February and 22 October the earliest sun-rays shine on the back wall of the innermost chamber, thus illuminating the statues of the four gods seated there.
    56. 56. •Just to the north of the main temple is a smaller one, dedicated to Nefretari for the worship of the goddess Hathor and adorned with 35-foot (10.5-metre) statues of the king and queen. • On either side of the entrance to the temple are a deified statue of Nefretari with statues of Ramesses II on either side of her. The statues of Nefretari are the same height as those of Ramesses, which is unusual. Small Temple
    57. 57. When the reservoir created by the building of Aswān High Dam threatened to submerge the site in the early 1960s, an international team disassembled both temples and reconstructed them 200 ft (60 m) above the riverbed.
    58. 58. Hypostyle Hall Location: Karnark temple Constructed: 1290 BC(approx.) Rulers: Seti I & Ramesses II
    59. 59. •Area occupied- 5,000 square metres(54,000 square feet). •Middle section of a temple at Karnark. N
    60. 60. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1. Entrance Passage 2. Central columns 3. Small side columns 4. Second pylon 5. Ramesses II war scenes 6. North Gateway 7. Seti I war scenes 8. Clerestory and the roof 9. Third pylon
    61. 61. •Hypostyle halls are noted for the density of their columns. •134 columns in 16 rows. •Main east-west axis is dominated by central avenues(2 middle rows) which are about 24m (78 ft) in height and have columns 21m (69ft) high and 3.6 m (11ft 9in) in diameter. •Side avenues are lower, with columns 13m(42ft 6in) high and 2.7m(8ft 9in) in diameter. N Reliefs of Seti I 2 n d 3 r d P Y L O N P Y L O N Plan
    62. 62. Construction •Laid down the foundations and then the bases of all the columns and the lowest course of blocks for the walls. •Buried the whole area with earth. •Next course of stones for all the columns and walls were then laid down and they too were buried. •Mud brick rams were added to allow the builders to drag the next layer of stone. •Process was completed until the highest part of the roof was finished. •The next stage of construction was to remove the earth fill and ramps. •During this "one-way ride" to the ground, the masons carefully smoothed the walls down.
    63. 63. Modern painting showing sculptors and painters decorating the building before the earth fill has been removed. This theory is now outdated. 1st theory: Sculptors carved the scenes immediately after the masons smoothed the walls as the earth embankments and ramps were removed. 2nd theory: The walls were not decorated until the last of the construction embankments were removed and the walls entirely smooth. Decline the 1st theory: •Seti's inscriptions should be found on the upper half of all the walls and columns, with Ramesses II's being on the lower half. This is not what we see. •Scaffolds must have been used.
    64. 64. •Central columns have open capitals imitating the feathery blossoms of flowering papyrus. •Smaller columns have closed-bud papyrus capitals. •One of the great window grilles from the Hall. These were the main source of light in the building, giving its atmosphere an eerie quality like that present at the dawn of creation.
    65. 65. MEDICINE •Medicine was produced from natural substances. •Remedies for ailments like throat infection, headaches and also to cure respiratory diseases. •Expertise in embalming used to heal cuts and to dress wounds. COSMETICS •Wigs. •Perfumes and scents. •A special black eye make up called kohl. •Ointments. •Facial Rouge . •Creams for wrinkles, graying of hair etc SCIENCE
    66. 66. MATHEMATICS •Numbers were based on the decimal and the repetitive systems (numbers based on the power of 10). •Use of simple arithmetic's of ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION . •The following signs were used to represent numbers in the decimal system. 1 10 100 1000 10,000 100,000 1,000,000 1 is shown by a single stroke. 10 is shown by a drawing of a hobble for cattle. 100 is represented by a coil of rope. 1,000 is a drawing of a lotus plant. 10,000 is represented by a finger. 100,000 by a tadpole or frog 1,000,000 is the figure of a god with arms raised above his head.
    67. 67. Numbers were usually written LEFT TO RIGHT, starting with the highest denominator. For example, in the number 2,525 the first number to appear on the left would be 2000, then 500, 20 and 5, as follows:
    68. 68. •Debens, a standard weight of 93.3 grams. •The deben was a general measure of copper, silver and gold, •The kite smaller unit (8-9 grams) was only used for measuring silver and gold. NILOMETRE •The Egyptian used a device called a nilometer to measure the depth of the river Nile, to check the water levels at the start of the seasons CALANDER •The Egyptians calendar was based 365 days calendar used for farming consisted of three seasons of four months. •Astronomical calendar were based on observations of star Sirius. WEIGHTS AND LENGTH •The human hand measurements were used. •The principal unit of measurement in ancient Egypt was the royal cubit, a length we know to have been 52.4 cm, approximating the length of a man's forearm.
    69. 69. MAKING OF PAPYRUS •The stalks of the papyrus plant are harvested. •Next the green skin of the stalk is removed and the inner pith is taken out and cut into long strips, pounded and soaked in water. •The strips are then cut to the length desired and laid horizontally and vertically in criss-cross pattern. •The sheet is put in a press and squeezed together, with cotton sheets removing the moisture and pressed to form a single sheet. •The papyrus roll-used for literary texts. •The usual size was about a foot to hundred foot high .
    70. 70. MUMMIFICATION Mummification is done in two parts 1. EMBALMING OF THE BODY • Body is taken to the ‘ibu’ where the embalmers rinse the body. • Internal organs are removed except the heart. • Body is stuffed with natron which help in drying the fluids. • After 40 days the body is washed and the internal organs are stored in canopic jars. 2. WRAPPING OF THE BODY • The body is wrapped with fine strips of linen. • The priest spells out the words while the mummy is wrapped. • At every layer the bandages are painted with liquid resin that glue the bandages together.
    71. 71. FACTORS AFFECTING ART - The course of art in Egypt paralleled to a large extent- •Political history •Entrenched Egyptian social system. •Geographical factors. USE OF ART- Art forms served those in power as a forceful propaganda instrument that perpetuate the existing framework of the society. CAUSE FOR THE ENRICHMENT OF ART- Search for useful and precious materials determined the – •Foreign policy •Establishment of trade routes and led ultimately to enrichment of Egyptian material culture. ART
    72. 72. PAINTINGS •Paintings was deeply related to religion and comes mainly from the tombs. •Represented the life of the pharaoh and activities to provide food , agriculture, hunting and entertainment. •Paintings were about 18” high and one above the other. •Use of hieroglyphics. •The Egyptians painted their everyday life which can be seen in the paintings in the tombs.
    73. 73. CHARACTERISTICS- •Shoulders in front view. •Legs and hands in profile. •Eyes without exception were always in front view. •Representation is flat and avoids perspective. •Composition and movement were underdeveloped. •Limited palette of colors in flat tints. •Paints applied usually in tempera, pigments being mostly mineral-based.
    74. 74. Cult of kings who were believed to become gods after death probably led to development of sculptures. CHARACTERISTIC •Large stone statues represented gods, kings and nobles. •Statues looked as if carved from front and side elevations. •Compact volume is emphasized. •Shows no movements and groups. •Emotional expression is restrained. SCULPTURES THE SPHINX TEMPLE AT ABU SIMBEL
    75. 75. In Egypt pottery provided the basic material for vessels of all kinds. POTTERY- •Pottery was rarely modeled. • Small vessels in animal form were also made. •Fine category of highly burnished red pottery vases in female form was produced during the 18th dynasty. • Canopic jars were used to contain the internal organs of individuals removed during the process of mummification. PLASTIC ARTS FAIENCE- The place of pottery for modeling was filled with faience (a glazed composition of ground quartz), most commonly blue or green in color. CANOPIC JARS
    76. 76. IN THE EARLY DYNASTIC PERIOD •Used for making small animal and human figures. •used for simple beads, amulets, and other components of jewelry. . IN THE LATE PERIOD •Making of amulets and divine figurines. •Faience tiles were used chiefly for wall decoration, as in the subterranean chambers of the Step Pyramid. • In the New Kingdom, tiles with floral designs were used in houses . DEVELOPMENT OF FAIENCE
    77. 77. GLASS- •Glass was used for small amulets, beads, inlays, and especially for small vessels. •Material was opaque, blue being the predominant. JEWELRY- •Gold provided Egyptian jewelry with its richness. •Precious stones were not used. •Additional colors and textures were provided by faience and glass. WOOD- •Excelled in the field of cabinetmaking. •Techniques of inlay, veneering, and marquetry are completely mastered. IVORY AND BONE- Many fine examples of the use of ivory were found in Tutankhamen's tomb, from simple geometric marquetry patterns to box panels carved with exquisitely informal scenes of the king with his queen.
    78. 78. COPPER AND BRONZE- •Alloyed with tin, as bronze in the third millennium. •The skill and artistry is shown in the fine bowls, jugs and in statues and statuettes of gods, kings, and ordinary mortals. • vessels were made by raising from metal ingots, beaten on wooden anvils. •Closed molds were used in the Middle Kingdom. •In the Late Period many vessels were produced by casting. GOLD AND SILVER- •Gold was more easily obtainable in ancient Egypt than silver and was therefore less valuable. •Easier to work and unaffected by environmental conditions. •Gold was lavishly used for many decorative purposes, as thin sheet, leaf, and inlay, in funerary equipment, and for vessels and furniture. STATUE OF KAROMAMA
    79. 79. • The Ancient Egyptians used three kinds of writings to write religious and secular texts: hieroglyphic, hieratic and, from the 25th Dynasty on, demotic. • Hieroglyphic writing uses clearly distinguishable • Pictures to express both sounds and ideas and was used from the end of the Prehistory until 396 AD HIEROGLYPHS HIERATIC • More cursive and quick hand drawing signs. • Scribe would often omit several details that made one sign different from another • Used for religious and secular texts. DEMOTIC • Used in administrative and private texts. • Advanced form of hieroglyphs. • New symbols or characters formed that marked a shift away from hieroglyphics. • Much easy to comprehend. LANGUAGE AND WRITING
    80. 80. • Hieroglyphic writing was written in columns or rows. • Reading direction is determined by the direction that human and animal figures faced. • Reading starts from the direction that figures face and continues in the opposite direction. • Columns were read down as we would read lines down a page. • Symmetry was used. HIEROGLYPHICS PAPYRUS SCULPTURES
    81. 81. ROSETTA STONE • The mystery of hieroglyphs was ultimately solved by the discovery of Rosetta stone which bore inscriptions in 3 languages(Ancient Egyptian , Demotic and Greek). • It lists all of the things that the pharaoh has done that are good for the priests and the people of Egypt. • The Rosetta Stone was written in all three scripts so that the priests, government officials and rulers of Egypt could read what it said. • It thus helped to decipher hieroglyphics.
    82. 82. BIBLIOGRAPHY ANCIENT EGYPT—DAVID SIWERMAN ENCYCLOPEDIA HISTORY OF THE WORLD HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE-- WORLD’S MYTHOLOGY IN COLOUR—A.G.SMITH 500 THINGS TO KNOW ABOUT HISTORY REFERENCES www.britannica.com www.nationalgeographic.com www.bbc.co.uk www.discoverychannel.co.uk www.touregypt.net www.ancientegypt.com www.history.memphis.edu www.witcombe.sbc.edu www.oi.uchicago.edu www.nutenberg.org DOCUMENTARIES ENGINEERING AN EMPIRE—HISTORY CHANNEL—FOX PRODUCTIONS LOST WORLDS RAMESES EGYPTIAN EMPIRE--HISTORY CHANNEL—FOX PRODUCTIONS GREAT BUILDERS OF EGYPT--HISTORY CHANNEL—FOX PRODUCTIONS

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