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Integrated Rural and Urban Development

Integrated Rural and Urban Development

Unit VI

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    Integrated Rural and Urban Development Integrated Rural and Urban Development Presentation Transcript

    • Unit VI Integrated Rural and Urban Development
    • Syllabus Integrated Rural and Urban Development • Policy background, Principal rural urban socio-economic interactions, factors contributing to rural-urban interaction, effects of economic liberalization policies, recommendations.
    • Integrated Rural and Urban Development
    • Policy Background • The high priority for rural development is reflected in policy statement and resource allocation in previous five year plans, manifestos of political parties and prouncements of political leaders. Its latest manifestation was in “Approach of Eighth Five Year Plan”, prepared by the Planning Commission in May 1990. • It was stated in the paper; • The new mandate rightly stresses the need to correct these distortions and to reorient development policy in such a way that it gives primacy to the immediate and urgent needs of the poor, reserving at least half the public outlays for the benefits of rural areas and emphasis on villages and small scale industries to produce goods and services for mass consumption using labour intensive techniques.
    • Policy Background
    • Policy Background • It may be expected that the election manifestos of political parties would emphasize the need for high priority to rural development. The emphasis was justified also in the early 1950s when a large proportion of the villages did not have basic services such as approach roads, primary schools, access to health centers, and even adequate water supply facilities
    • Villages did not have Basic Services
    • Policy Background • The villagers felt isolated and neglected. As a result of various agricultural development programs implemented during the previous 4 decades, agricultural production has increased by more than 3 times its level in the early 1950s, with most of the increase coming from increase in productivity. The progress in rural development may be expected to continue in the foreseeable future and could accelerate faster with more efficient implementation of rural development programmes.
    • Agricultural Development Programs
    • Policy Background • The perception of competition between rural and urban development should change such that rural and urban areas should be viewed as inter-related parts of a settlement system, which should be developed in an integrated manner.
    • Policy Background
    • Policy Background • It should be added that among the 15 major states of the country, the interaction are greater in the states of Punjab, Haryana, Maharashtra, Gujarat, K arnataka, Tamil Nadu and Kerala and the western region of U.P. In which there is a spatial dispersed patterns of Urbanization i.e. there is a large number of small and medium-sized towns and cities along with one or more metropolitan cities.
    • Rural Urban Interactions
    • Policy Background • The effects are much less in the states of central India notably Bihar, Orissa, West Bengal, and Assam and central region of U.P. & Madhya Pradesh. • These states have concentrated pattern of urbanization i.e. their urban population is concentrated in a few large cities and the number of small medium-sized towns/ cities is relatively small.
    • Policy Background
    • Concentrated Urbanization
    • Policy Background • It will be seen that in the states with dispersed urbanization the percentage of urban population, is higher than the national average in the majority of districts. On the other hand in states with concentrated urbanization the percentage is lower than the national average in the majority of districts. • The best example of concentrated urbanization is West Bengal; almost all its urban population is concentrated in the districts of Kolkata, Howrah, and Hooghly which form part of the Kolkata Metropolitan District while rest of the state is largely rural.
    • Kolkata Metropolitan District
    • Policy Background • It can be seen that states with dispersed urbanization are generally at a higher level of economic development than those with concentrated urbanization.
    • Principal Rural-Urban SocioEconomic Interactions • The principal types of interactions are listed below and are discussed at some length in subsequent paragraphs. • Use by villages of commercial. Industrial, social service and recreational facilities located in cities and towns; • Work in cities and towns by villagers living within commuting distance of them and use of such villages as dormitories by workers in the cities. Travel between rural homes, and urban work place could be on foot, by bicycle, motorcycle , bus or train.
    • Principal Rural-Urban Socio-Economic Interactions
    • Principal Rural-Urban SocioEconomic Interactions • Production by villagers of food including high value perishables foodsmilk, vegetables, meat, poultry products, fruits etc- for urban market; • Diversion of agricultural and other rural lands, located on fringes of cities for residential, industrial, commercial or other urban uses. • Rural to Urban migration.
    • Principal Rural-Urban SocioEconomic Interactions
    • Principal Rural-Urban SocioEconomic Interactions
    • Use by villagers of commercial, Industrial Social Services and Recreational Facilities Located in Cities and Towns. • The villagers go to urban places in order to sell their produce, to buy consumer, intermediate or producer goods, to obtain short or medium term loans from commercial & cooperative banks or to obtain other services mentioned above. • With progressive modernization of the rural economy as a result of improvement in transport and communication, spread of modern production techniques there is a rise in rural middle class, which wants a high standard of living.
    • Rural-Urban Socio-Economic Interactions
    • Rural-Urban Socio-Economic Interactions • One would expect that villagers would use the commercial and other service facilities located in small or medium-sized towns which are nearest to them.
    • Rural-Urban Socio-Economic Interactions
    • Works by Villagers in Cities and Towns Living within Commuting Distance from them • Such work increases employment & income thus providing relief from rural unemployment or under-employment and poverty, diversifies consumption among rural households and is also a strong influence for social change. • Both workers from poor landless & artesian families, belonging to the disadvantaged section of rural community, who are not needed for agricultural work are benefited.
    • Works by Villagers in Cities and Towns Living within Commuting Distance from them
    • Works by Villagers in Cities and Towns Living within Commuting Distance from them • There is less pressure for rural-to-urban migration because rural living and urban work can be combined and there is less need for expanding housing and infrastructure facilities in the cities. The social change effects are produced by spread of urban consumption patterns and weakening of traditional ties of cast & community; they include reduction in disabilities suffered by the scheduled castes and the scheduled tribes.
    • Works by Villagers in Cities and Towns Living within Commuting Distance from them
    • Increasing Production of Perishable foods benefits both farmers and other Groups in Villages. • It leads also to the establishment of backward or forward –linked industries in major production centers. Production and sale of milk by small, marginal farmers or the landless who keep one or two milk animals, has been an important components of dairy development in kheda district of Gujarat where the well known AMUL dairy is located. It is being actively encouraged now by the central government as well as by several state governments under the “Operation Flood” program.
    • Increasing Production of Perishable foods benefits both farmers and other Groups in Villages.
    • Increasing Production of Perishable foods benefits both farmers and other Groups in Villages. • It may be mentioned that the majority of milk producer in Kheda district are women. Payment by the dairy for the milk sold by them, adds to their income, which they can spend on meeting their own needs and those of their childrens. • Production of poultry products, traditionally an activity of scheduled cast & scheduled tribes, has developed during the last decade into a highly specialized and efficient small industry.
    • Increasing Production of Perishable foods benefits both farmers and other Groups in Villages
    • Increasing Production of Perishable foods benefits both farmers and other Groups in Villages. • Modern poultry farms have been established both near and within metropolitan areas of large cities and at various specialized centers. • Production of fruit, which had been an industry with traditional well established centers and has also spread to new centers. • There is a great potential for further increase in production of perishable foods for both domestic and international markets.
    • Increasing Production of Perishable foods benefits both farmers and other Groups in Villages.
    • Diversion of Rural Land located on the Outskirts of Cities • If the land is acquired from small, marginal farmers at low prices and payments of compensation to them is delayed, they become landless and have to work as laborers on construction projects. These effects have been seen in the New Mumbai Area. And on a much large scale in the vicinity of the industrial townships located next to the steel and heavy industry plants in the central and eastern states of IndiaMadhya Pradesh, Bihar, Orissa, West Bengal and Andhra Pradesh.
    • Diversion of Rural Land located on the Outskirts of Cities
    • Diversion of Rural Land located on the Outskirts of Cities • Furthermore dispossessed former landowners, who belong mainly to the scheduled tribes, suffer loss of social status and self esteem. • These effects are the principal cause of discontent among the tribal population of these states and tensions, which frequently erupted in violent conflict, between them and the new comers.
    • Diversion of Rural Land located on the Outskirts of Cities
    • Diversion of Rural Land located on the Outskirts of Cities • If the payment of compensation is timely and adequate and is used by the recipients in buying farmland elsewhere, starting non-agricultural enterprises, such as running of buses or trucks, small industries or retail or wholesale shops, education of childrens, their income increases and living improves. • These beneficial effects are lost, however if funds are squandered in Idleness, consumption such as large expenditure on marriages, funerals, or other ceremonies, court cases, furthermore the habitation areas of villages are often reduced to ghettos within the expanding cities.
    • Diversion of Rural Land located on the Outskirts of Cities
    • Rural to Urban Migration Reduces UnderEmployment or Unemployment in the Villages and Increase Income through Remittance. • On the other hand, the villagers are deprived of their most productive and dynamic manpower because most of the migrants are young men and women who aspire for more secure and higher income and a better life in the cities than in the villages. Although these aspiration are fulfilled only for a minority and the majority of the migrant find uncertain, low paid employment in the informal sector of the cities and have to live in the misery of the slums.
    • Rural to Urban Migration Reduces UnderEmployment or Unemployment in the Villages and Increase Income through Remittance.
    • Rural to Urban Migration Reduces UnderEmployment or Unemployment in the Villages and Increase Income through Remittance. • Variation in the number of migrants from year to year depends both on variation in employment opportunities in the cities and economic conditions in the villages. • Migration to large cities at present is and that of the tea gardens of Assam or overseas in the last century, was predominantly from poor and backward districts of U.P. Bihar, Orissa, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu. The economies of some of the districts in these regions are often called remittance economies because remittance from migrants is the largest source of income there.
    • Rural to Urban Migration Reduces UnderEmployment or Unemployment in the Villages and Increase Income through Remittance.
    • Areas of High Rural –Urban Interactions • The areas can be divided into two categories • Villages located within daily commuting distances of cities, particularly large cities, • Rural Corridors where a number of towns and cities are located within a short distance of one another and the intervening villages are being progressively urbanized.
    • Areas of High Rural –Urban Interactions Well Developed Corridors • Coastal Gujarat-Maharashtra: from Ahmadabad through Vadodara & Surat in Gujarat to Mumbai and from Mumbai to Pune; • Coastal Kerala-Karnataka: from Trivandrum in Kerala to Mangalore in Karnataka along the west coast of India; • Punjab-Haryana-Western Uttar Pradesh from Amritsar in Punjab through Haryana to Delhi
    • Areas of High Rural –Urban Interactions
    • Areas of High Rural –Urban Interactions
    • Areas of High Rural –Urban Interactions Incipent Corridors • The most important incipient corridors are the following: • From Mumbai eastward to Nagpur and Chandrapur in Maharashtra. • From Bangalore in Karnataka to Chennai in Tamil Nadu. • From Chennai West to Coimbatore and south-west to Tiruchchirappalli and Madurai in Tamil Nadu. • From Kanpur to Lucknow in Central Uttar-pradesh.
    • Areas of High Rural –Urban Interactions
    • Areas of High Rural –Urban Interactions • The corridors have been developed mainly during the four decades from 1951-91; the principal factors in their development have been the following • Improvement in transport and communications, particularly expansion of highways and feeder roads, • Establishment of new large and small industrial enterprises • Modernization of agricultural, near universal rural electrification and subsequent expansion of irrigation by electric pumps. • There is a trend towards the extension of most of the corridors and the development of new ones.
    • Areas of High Rural –Urban Interactions
    • Principal Factors Contributing to Increase in the Rural-Urban Interactions • The most Important factors some of which are inter-related, are the following. • Rapid Urbanization • Growth of modern manufacturing industries and service activities and their concentration in an around large cities. • Increase in transport and communication leading to increasing travel and transport of goods between villages and urban places by villagers on the other hand and by workers in the urban-based industries and service activities on the other.
    • Principal Factors Contributing to Increase in the Rural-Urban Interactions
    • Principal Factors Contributing to Increase in the Rural-Urban Interactions • Technological advances in agriculture, leading to increase in agricultural output including output of perishable foods for urban markets. • Spread of Information through the news and entertainment medianewspapers, magazines, radio and television.
    • Principal Factors Contributing to Increase in the Rural-Urban Interactions
    • The Prospect: Probable Effects of Economic Liberalization Policies. • An Increasing proportion of the work force, for industry, could be drawn from the neighboring villages, with the spread of the needed skill among the villagers. This will reduce the pressure of migration from villages to large cities. The pressure would be reduced further, if with improvement of transport and communication, the satellite towns and villages at the periphery of large cities were used as dormitories by workers in the cities much more than at present.
    • The Prospect: Probable Effects of Economic Liberalization Policies. • Rapid economic growth would result also in significant reduction in rural and urban poverty, if it is accomplished by an enlightened policy on distribution of its benefits. • Expansion/ Improvement of physical and social infrastructures would be more rapid and their operation would be more efficient as private sector resources of finances and management become available to supplement those of the public sector.
    • The Prospect: Probable Effects of Economic Liberalization Policies
    • The Prospect: Probable Effects of Economic Liberalization Policies. • Generation and distribution of electricity, telecommunications, constructio n of highways and operation of passenger road transport are examples of services which are suitable for private sector participation because their output can be priced at levels which would attract participation.
    • The Prospect: Probable Effects of Economic Liberalization Policies
    • Recommendations • Programmes for progress towards integrated rural and urban development. The most important programme are listed and discussed briefly below: • Expansion and improvement of Transportation Infrastructures, particularly highway and feeder roads. • Improvement of telecommunications by exploiting aggressively the rapid advances in technology that have occurred during the last two decades and still continuing.
    • Recommendations
    • Recommendations • Implementing a massive education program with the following objective • Achievement of functional literacy among all adults. • Rapid diffusion of marketable skills-technical/ vocational; and managerial-among both rural and urban youth. • Multi-faceted social education, which would maximize the positive and minimize the negative effects of rural-urban interactions. Particular emphasis should be given in the program to women with suitable changes in its content to meet their particular needs.
    • Recommendations
    • Recommendations • Policies and programmes aimed at achieving decentralized industrial development. • Increasing production of high value perishable foods and of industries processing them for both the domestic and inter-national markets. • Institutional Cooperation • The legislation for establishment of the institutions for rural development and administration on the other hand and urban local bodies on the other hand should specify the patterns of interaction between them.
    • Recommendations
    • Recommendations • Micro-regional plans: preparation of micro-regional plans can be useful tools for progress towards integrated rural and urban development. • Through them the common problems of rural and urban areas such as unemployment, poverty and deficiency of physical and social infrastructure can be identified and steps taken to elevate them. • Furthermore, policies and programs can be formulated and implemented for development and conservation of national resources such as water. The most suitable areal units for preparation of micro-regional plans are districts and metropolitan areas of large cities.
    • Recommendations
    • Recommendations District Development Plans • Such plans should be prepared initially for a limited number of districts and the process should be extended to a phased manner so as to achieve complete coverage of all district over a period of years. Metropolitan Plans • This plans provides the global envelope for preparation of plans of the town/ cities including within the region. Metropolitan development plans should give special attention to reducing unemployment and poverty, particularly in the rural areas. This will reduce pressure of migration from villages to town and cities, and from small towns to metropolitan cities.
    • Recommendations
    • References • Urbanization Urban Development & Metropolitan Cities in India • Dr V. Nath Concept Publications
    • Thanks…..