Health and Safety in Selected
Industrial Sectors

Unit-VI
Syllabus
• Health and Safety in selected industrial
Sectors
• Environmental, health and safety program
management in the p...
Health and Safety in Petroleum
Industry
• Safety and health management is one of the
vital constituents of Oil and Gas ind...
Health and Safety in Petroleum
Industry
Health and Safety in Petroleum
Industry
Health and Safety in Petroleum
Industry
• According to the report developed by the NORA
Oil and Gas Extraction Council; In...
Health and Safety in Petroleum
Industry
Health and Safety in Petroleum
Industry
• The above alarming incident data clearly
emphasizes the need for an effective
oc...
Health and Safety in Petroleum
Industry
Health and Safety in Petroleum
Industry
• Health protocols and periodic medical checkup should be pre-defined and done for...
Health and Safety in Petroleum
Industry
Hazards related to Oil and Gas
Industry
• Hazards in Oil and Gas industry can be
divided into two broad categories:
•
Safe...
Safety and Injury Hazards
Health and Illnesses Hazards
• Workers in Oil and Gas industry are generally
susceptible to following agents which lead to...
Chemical Hazards
Physical Hazards
Biological Hazards
Health and Illnesses Hazards
Health and Illnesses Hazards
• Ergonomic hazards (manual handling
activities, repetitive motions, awkward
postures);
and
p...
Ergonomic Hazards
Health and Illnesses Hazards
Managing Occupational Safety and
Health Risks
• The aim of occupational safety and health risk
management is to identify a...
Managing Occupational Safety and
Health Risks
Risk Management Process
• As stated earlier, risk management is crucial for
preventing work related injury and illness. It...
Risk Management Process
Risk Management Process
• Job Safety Analysis: It is a process of
systematically evaluating certain jobs, tasks,
processes...
Risk Management Process
Generally Risk Management Process in the Oil and Gas
Industry Involves the Following Key Steps
Occupational Safety and Health
Management System (OSHMS)
• The insinuation of implementing an
occupational Safety and Heal...
Safety and Health Management System
• It should ensure safety of different operational sites by
correctly mapping the busi...
Safety and Health Management
System
Components of an Effective Occupational Safety
and
Health Management System
• Occupational Safety and Health Management
Sy...
Components of an Effective Occupational Safety
and
Health Management System
Components of an Effective Occupational Safety
and
Health Management System
Components of an Effective Occupational Safety
and
Health Management System
Components of an Effective Occupational Safety
and
Health Management System
Benefits of Occupational Safety
and Health Management System
• It enables Oil and Gas industry in performing
hazard identi...
Benefits of Occupational Safety
and Health Management System
Benefits of Occupational Safety
and Health Management System
• Reduced costs associated with accidents and
incidents
• Imp...
Benefits of Occupational Safety
and Health Management System
Benefits of Occupational Safety
and Health Management System
• Given the perilous nature of the Oil and Gas
industry, the ...
Occupational Safety
and Health Management
Health and Safety Hazards in the
Construction Industry
• Construction workers build, repair, maintain,
renovate, modify an...
Health and Safety Hazards in the
Construction Industry
The Construction Labour Force
• A large portion of construction workers are
unskilled labourers; Construction workers
incl...
The Construction Labour Force
Selected Construction Occupations
Selected Construction Occupations.
Boilermakers
Bricklayers, concrete finishers and masons
Carpenters
Electricians
Elevato...
Selected Construction Occupations.
• Insulation workers (mechanical and floor, ceiling and
wall)
• Iron and steel workers ...
Health Hazards on Construction Sites
• Construction workers are exposed to a wide
variety of health hazards on the job. Ex...
Health Hazards on Construction Sites
Primary hazards encountered in skilled
construction trades
Primary hazards encountered in
skilled construction trades
Primary hazards encountered in
skilled construction trades
Construction Hazards
• As in other jobs, hazards for construction
workers are typically of four classes:
chemical, physica...
Chemical Hazards

• Chemical hazards are often airborne and can

appear as dusts, fumes, mists, vapours or gases;
thus, ex...
Chemical Hazards
Hazards
Chemical Hazards
• Several illnesses have been linked to the construction
trades, among them:
• silicosis among sand blast...
Chemical Hazards
Physical Hazards
• Physical hazards are present in every
construction project. These hazards include
noise, heat and cold,...
Physical Hazards
Physical Hazards
• The sources of noise are engines of all kinds (e.g.,
on vehicles, air compressors and cranes),
winches,...
Physical Hazards
Physical Hazards
• Pneumatic hammers, many hand tools and
earth-moving and other large mobile
machines also subject worker...
Physical Hazards
Physical Hazards
• Those who work under water or in
pressurized tunnels, in caissons or as divers
are exposed to high baro...
Decompression Sickness
Physical Hazards
• Strains and sprains are among the most
common injuries among construction
workers. These, and many chro...
Physical Hazards
Biological Hazards
• Biological hazards are presented by exposure to
infectious micro-organisms, to toxic substances of
bi...
Biological Hazards
Social Hazards
• Social hazards stem from the social organization of the
industry. Employment is intermittent and constant...
Controlling Occupational Hazards
• Measuring and evaluating exposure to
occupational hazards requires consideration of
the...
Controlling Occupational Hazards
Controlling Occupational Hazards
• As a general approach to hazard control, it is possible
to reduce exposure by reducing ...
Decreasing Exposure Concentration
• For reducing exposure concentration, it is useful to
consider the source, the environm...
Decreasing Exposure Concentration
Engineering Controls
• Hazards originate at a source. The most efficient way
to protect workers from hazards is to change ...
Environmental Controls
• Environmental controls are used to remove a
hazardous substance from the environment, if the
subs...
Environmental Controls
Environmental Controls
• Plywood sheets shield IR and UV radiation, and
material that absorbs and reflects sound will
prov...
Environmental Controls
Engineering Controls
• If sawing or drilling generates harmful dusts,
particulate matter or noise, these processes
could b...
Personal Protection
• When engineering controls or changes in work
practices do not adequately protect workers,
workers ma...
Personal Protection
Eating and Sanitary Facilities
• A lack of eating and sanitary facilities may
also lead to increased exposures. Often,
wor...
Eating and Sanitary Facilities
Management for Safe Construction
Work
• Effective safety programmes have several features in
common.
They
are
manifest
thr...
Management for Safe Construction
Work
Management for Safe Construction
Work
• Safety is an integral part of contracts and
subcontracts.
Everybody—managers,
supe...
Management for Safe Construction
Work
Preventing Accidents and Injuries
• Entities in the industry with lower injury rates
share several common characteristics:...
Preventing Accidents and Injuries
• This policy statement refers to a specific code of
practice that describes, in detail,...
Preventing Accidents and Injuries
Preventing Accidents and Injuries
• Hazards are identified, analysed and controlled
• Preparations are made for emergency ...
Preventing Accidents and Injuries
References
Environmental Management
Bala Krishnamoorthy- PHI publication
Wikipedia- The online free Encyclopedia
Safety an...
Thanks…
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Unit-VI

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Transcript of "Health and Safety in Selected Industrial Sectors"

  1. 1. Health and Safety in Selected Industrial Sectors Unit-VI
  2. 2. Syllabus • Health and Safety in selected industrial Sectors • Environmental, health and safety program management in the petroleum industry, construction industry and other industrial sectors.
  3. 3. Health and Safety in Petroleum Industry • Safety and health management is one of the vital constituents of Oil and Gas industry activities because most of the operational conditions, chemicals and end products (hydrocarbons and other compounds) associated with Oil and Gas production are well-known to pose serious safety and health threats to the workers
  4. 4. Health and Safety in Petroleum Industry
  5. 5. Health and Safety in Petroleum Industry
  6. 6. Health and Safety in Petroleum Industry • According to the report developed by the NORA Oil and Gas Extraction Council; In the US, during 2003-2008, 648 oil and gas extraction workers were fatally injured on the job, resulting in an occupational fatality rate of 29.1 deaths per 100,000 workers – eight times higher than the rate for all U.S. workers. Nearly half of all fatal events in the Oil and Gas extraction industry resulted from highway crashes (29%) and workers struck by objects and equipment (20%)
  7. 7. Health and Safety in Petroleum Industry
  8. 8. Health and Safety in Petroleum Industry • The above alarming incident data clearly emphasizes the need for an effective occupational safety and health management system that integrates safety and health concerns into a daily routine. • People working in Oil and Gas industry are exposed to various risk factors. Hence continuous monitoring of their working conditions and well-being is essential.
  9. 9. Health and Safety in Petroleum Industry
  10. 10. Health and Safety in Petroleum Industry • Health protocols and periodic medical checkup should be pre-defined and done for every worker depending on the job and work area type to identify possible deviations from the normal health and to confirm that necessary counteractive actions are taken in advance.
  11. 11. Health and Safety in Petroleum Industry
  12. 12. Hazards related to Oil and Gas Industry • Hazards in Oil and Gas industry can be divided into two broad categories: • Safety and Injury Hazards • Health and Illnesses Hazards
  13. 13. Safety and Injury Hazards
  14. 14. Health and Illnesses Hazards • Workers in Oil and Gas industry are generally susceptible to following agents which lead to various health and Illnesses hazards: • chemical hazards (toxic, corrosive, carcinogens, asphyxiates, irritant and sensitizing substances); • physical hazards (noise, vibration, radiations, extreme temperature); • biological hazards (virus, parasites, bacteria);
  15. 15. Chemical Hazards
  16. 16. Physical Hazards
  17. 17. Biological Hazards
  18. 18. Health and Illnesses Hazards
  19. 19. Health and Illnesses Hazards • Ergonomic hazards (manual handling activities, repetitive motions, awkward postures); and psychosocial hazards (overwork, odd working hours, isolated sites, violence). • The following table identifies the potential health effects from key processes in Oil and Gas industry:
  20. 20. Ergonomic Hazards
  21. 21. Health and Illnesses Hazards
  22. 22. Managing Occupational Safety and Health Risks • The aim of occupational safety and health risk management is to identify and assess safety and health hazards existing at the workplace and to define appropriate control and retrieval steps. • Business processes in Oil and Gas industry are very complex. Hence it is essential that a systematized approach should be used for managing occupational safety and health hazards. Its solution model can be based on the PDCA Cycle:
  23. 23. Managing Occupational Safety and Health Risks
  24. 24. Risk Management Process • As stated earlier, risk management is crucial for preventing work related injury and illness. It includes: • Identifying the risks • Evaluating and prioritizing the risks • Implementing preventive/protective measures to control the risk. • There are a number of circumstances in the Oil and Gas industry where a proper risk management process is essential. For example:
  25. 25. Risk Management Process
  26. 26. Risk Management Process • Job Safety Analysis: It is a process of systematically evaluating certain jobs, tasks, processes or procedures and eliminating or reducing the risks or hazards to As Low As Reasonably Practical (ALARP) in order to protect workers from injury or illness • Workplace inspections and audits • Change management - identification of new hazards, introduction of new equipment/process, or regulatory needs.
  27. 27. Risk Management Process
  28. 28. Generally Risk Management Process in the Oil and Gas Industry Involves the Following Key Steps
  29. 29. Occupational Safety and Health Management System (OSHMS) • The insinuation of implementing an occupational Safety and Health Management System at all workplaces came into limelight, when ‘Global Strategy on Occupational Safety and Health: Conclusions’ were adopted by the ‘International Labour Conference’ at its 91st session, 2003. • The Strategy advocates the application of a systems approach to the management of national OSH systems
  30. 30. Safety and Health Management System • It should ensure safety of different operational sites by correctly mapping the business processes, risks, and controls involved in all the three segments (upstream, midstream and downstream) of Oil and Gas industry • It should enable workers to follow consistent health and safety practices It should help in managing site inspections, permits, violations, lessons learned and best practices execution for Oil and Gas sector • It must be well documented (strategies and action plans) and should be easily understood and readily available to all the workers
  31. 31. Safety and Health Management System
  32. 32. Components of an Effective Occupational Safety and Health Management System • Occupational Safety and Health Management System is one of the critical factors whose successful execution confirms operational safety in upstream, midstream and downstream segments of Oil and Gas industry. • Following key components should be encompassed in an active occupational Safety and Health Management System:
  33. 33. Components of an Effective Occupational Safety and Health Management System
  34. 34. Components of an Effective Occupational Safety and Health Management System
  35. 35. Components of an Effective Occupational Safety and Health Management System
  36. 36. Components of an Effective Occupational Safety and Health Management System
  37. 37. Benefits of Occupational Safety and Health Management System • It enables Oil and Gas industry in performing hazard identification, risk assessment and implementing various control methods • It ensures well-being of all the employees and thus contributes to a more inspired, and performance driven workforce • Regular risk assessment process helps in frequent tracking and monitoring of health and safety indicators (both leading and lagging).
  38. 38. Benefits of Occupational Safety and Health Management System
  39. 39. Benefits of Occupational Safety and Health Management System • Reduced costs associated with accidents and incidents • Improved regulatory compliance • Implementation of OSH management system gives competitive edge and improves relationships between stakeholders, such as clients, contractors, subcontractors, consultants, suppliers, employees and unions
  40. 40. Benefits of Occupational Safety and Health Management System
  41. 41. Benefits of Occupational Safety and Health Management System • Given the perilous nature of the Oil and Gas industry, the need for implementation of an efficient occupational Safety and Health Management System is important for improving safety and health performance. Many countries have extensively participated in it by making strict and obligatory OSH standards and legislations.
  42. 42. Occupational Safety and Health Management
  43. 43. Health and Safety Hazards in the Construction Industry • Construction workers build, repair, maintain, renovate, modify and demolish houses, office buildings, temples, factories, hospitals, roads, bridges, tunnels, stadiums, docks, airports and more. • The International Labour Organization (ILO) classifies the construction industry as government and private-sector firms erecting buildings for habitation or for commercial purposes and public works such as roads, bridges, tunnels, dams or airports.
  44. 44. Health and Safety Hazards in the Construction Industry
  45. 45. The Construction Labour Force • A large portion of construction workers are unskilled labourers; Construction workers include about 5 to 10% of the workforce in industrialized countries. • In some countries, the work is left to migrant workers, and in others, the industry provides relatively well-paid employment and an avenue to financial security. For many, unskilled construction work is the entry into the paid labour force in construction or other industries.
  46. 46. The Construction Labour Force
  47. 47. Selected Construction Occupations
  48. 48. Selected Construction Occupations. Boilermakers Bricklayers, concrete finishers and masons Carpenters Electricians Elevator constructors Glaziers Hazardous materials (e.g., asbestos, lead, toxic dumps) removal workers • Installers of floors (including terrazzo), carpeting • Installers of drywall and ceilings (including ceiling tile) • • • • • • •
  49. 49. Selected Construction Occupations. • Insulation workers (mechanical and floor, ceiling and wall) • Iron and steel workers (reinforcement and structural) • Labourers • Maintenance workers • Millwrights • Operating engineers (drivers of cranes and other heavy equipment maintenance workers) • Painters, plasterers and paperhangers • Plumbers and pipefitters • Roofers and shinglers • Sheet metal workers • Tunnel workers
  50. 50. Health Hazards on Construction Sites • Construction workers are exposed to a wide variety of health hazards on the job. Exposure differs from trade to trade, from job to job, by the day, even by the hour. Exposure to any one hazard is typically intermittent and of short duration, but is likely to reoccur.
  51. 51. Health Hazards on Construction Sites
  52. 52. Primary hazards encountered in skilled construction trades
  53. 53. Primary hazards encountered in skilled construction trades
  54. 54. Primary hazards encountered in skilled construction trades
  55. 55. Construction Hazards • As in other jobs, hazards for construction workers are typically of four classes: chemical, physical, biological and social.
  56. 56. Chemical Hazards • Chemical hazards are often airborne and can appear as dusts, fumes, mists, vapours or gases; thus, exposure usually occurs by inhalation, although some airborne hazards may settle on and be absorbed through the intact skin (e.g., pesticides and some organic solvents). • Skin contact with chemicals in this state can occur in addition to possible inhalation of the vapour resulting in systemic poisoning or contact dermatitis. Chemicals might also be ingested with food or water, or might be inhaled by smoking.
  57. 57. Chemical Hazards
  58. 58. Hazards
  59. 59. Chemical Hazards • Several illnesses have been linked to the construction trades, among them: • silicosis among sand blasters, tunnel builders and rock drill operators • asbestosis (and other diseases caused by asbestos) among asbestos insulation workers, steam pipe fitters, building demolition workers and others • bronchitis among welders • skin allergies among masons and others who work with cement • neurologic disorders among painters and others exposed to organic solvents and lead.
  60. 60. Chemical Hazards
  61. 61. Physical Hazards • Physical hazards are present in every construction project. These hazards include noise, heat and cold, radiation, vibration and barometric pressure. Construction work often must be done in extreme heat or cold, in windy, rainy, snowy, or foggy weather or at night. Ionizing and non-ionizing radiation is encountered, as are extremes of barometric pressure.
  62. 62. Physical Hazards
  63. 63. Physical Hazards • The sources of noise are engines of all kinds (e.g., on vehicles, air compressors and cranes), winches, rivet guns, nail guns, paint guns, pneumatic hammers, power saws, sanders, routers, planers, explosives and many more. • Noise is present on demolition projects by the very activity of demolition. It affects not only the person operating a noise-making machine, but all those close-by and not only causes noiseinduced hearing loss, but also masks other sounds that are important for communication and for safety.
  64. 64. Physical Hazards
  65. 65. Physical Hazards • Pneumatic hammers, many hand tools and earth-moving and other large mobile machines also subject workers to segmental and whole-body vibration. • Heat and cold hazards arise primarily because a large portion of construction work is conducted while exposed to the weather, the principal source of heat and cold hazards
  66. 66. Physical Hazards
  67. 67. Physical Hazards • Those who work under water or in pressurized tunnels, in caissons or as divers are exposed to high barometric pressure. Such workers are at risk of developing a variety of conditions associated with high pressure: decompression sickness, inert gas narcosis, aseptic bone necrosis and other disorders.
  68. 68. Decompression Sickness
  69. 69. Physical Hazards • Strains and sprains are among the most common injuries among construction workers. These, and many chronically disabling musculoskeletal disorders occur as a result of either traumatic injury, repetitive forceful movements, awkward postures or overexertion. Falls due to unstable footing, unguarded holes and slips off scaffolding and ladders are very common.
  70. 70. Physical Hazards
  71. 71. Biological Hazards • Biological hazards are presented by exposure to infectious micro-organisms, to toxic substances of biological origin or animal attacks. Since there is constant change in the composition of the labour force on any one project, individual workers come in contact with other workers and, as a consequence, may become infected with contagious diseases— influenza or tuberculosis, for example. Workers may also be at risk of malaria, yellow fever, if work is conducted in areas where these organisms and their insect vectors are prevalent. • Some wood dusts are carcinogenic, and some (e.g., western red cedar) are allergenic.
  72. 72. Biological Hazards
  73. 73. Social Hazards • Social hazards stem from the social organization of the industry. Employment is intermittent and constantly changing, and control over many aspects of employment is limited because construction activity is dependent on many factors over which construction workers have no control, such as the state of an economy or the weather. • Because of the same factors, there can be intense pressure to become more productive. • Construction workers may lack stable and dependable networks of social support. Features of construction work such as heavy workload, limited control and limited social support are the very factors associated with increased stress in other industries. These hazards are not unique to any trade, but are common to all construction workers in one way or another.
  74. 74. Controlling Occupational Hazards • Measuring and evaluating exposure to occupational hazards requires consideration of the novel manner in which construction workers are exposed As exposures are characterized for tasks, it should be possible to develop an exposure profile for an individual worker with knowledge of the tasks he or she performed or was near enough to be exposed to. As knowledge of task-based exposure increases, one may develop task-based controls.
  75. 75. Controlling Occupational Hazards
  76. 76. Controlling Occupational Hazards • As a general approach to hazard control, it is possible to reduce exposure by reducing the concentration or the duration or frequency of the task. Since exposure in construction is already intermittent, administrative controls that rely on reducing the frequency or duration of exposure are less practical than in other industries. Consequently, the most effective way to reduce exposure is to reduce the concentration of hazards. Other important aspects of controlling exposure include provisions for eating and sanitary facilities and education and training.
  77. 77. Decreasing Exposure Concentration • For reducing exposure concentration, it is useful to consider the source, the environment in which a hazard occurs and the workers who are exposed. As a general rule, the closer controls are to a source, the more efficient and effective they are. • Three general types of controls can be used to reduce the concentration of occupational hazards. These are, from most to least effective: • engineering controls at the source • environmental controls that remove the hazard from the environment • personal protection provided to the worker.
  78. 78. Decreasing Exposure Concentration
  79. 79. Engineering Controls • Hazards originate at a source. The most efficient way to protect workers from hazards is to change the primary source with some sort of engineering change. For example, a less hazardous substance can be substituted for one that is more hazardous. • Non-respirable synthetic vitreous fibres can be substituted for asbestos, and water can be substituted for organic solvents in paints. Similarly, non-silica abrasives can replace sand in abrasive blasting (also known as sand blasting). Or a process can be fundamentally changed, such as by replacing pneumatic hammers with impact hammers that generate less noise and vibration.
  80. 80. Environmental Controls • Environmental controls are used to remove a hazardous substance from the environment, if the substance is airborne, or to shield the source, if it is a physical hazard. Local exhaust ventilation (LEV) can be used at a particular job with a ventilation duct and a hood to capture the fumes, vapours or dust. • The simple and effective method for controlling exposure to radiant physical hazards (noise, ultraviolet (UV) radiation from arc welding, infrared radiant (IR) heat from hot objects) is to shield them with some appropriate material.
  81. 81. Environmental Controls
  82. 82. Environmental Controls • Plywood sheets shield IR and UV radiation, and material that absorbs and reflects sound will provide some protection from noise sources. • Major sources of heat stress are weather and hard physical labour. Adverse effects from heat stress can be avoided through reductions in the workload, provision of water and adequate breaks in the shade and, possibly, night work.
  83. 83. Environmental Controls
  84. 84. Engineering Controls • If sawing or drilling generates harmful dusts, particulate matter or noise, these processes could be done by shear cutting or punching.
  85. 85. Personal Protection • When engineering controls or changes in work practices do not adequately protect workers, workers may need to use personal protective equipment (PPE) . In order for such equipment to be effective, workers must be trained in its use, and the equipment must fit properly and be inspected and maintained. Furthermore, if others who are in the vicinity may be exposed to the hazard, they should either be protected or prevented from entering the area.
  86. 86. Personal Protection
  87. 87. Eating and Sanitary Facilities • A lack of eating and sanitary facilities may also lead to increased exposures. Often, workers cannot wash before meals and must eat in the work zone, which means they may inadvertently swallow toxic substances transferred from their hands to food or cigarettes. A lack of changing facilities at a worksite may result in transport of contaminants from the workplace to a worker’s home.
  88. 88. Eating and Sanitary Facilities
  89. 89. Management for Safe Construction Work • Effective safety programmes have several features in common. They are manifest throughout organizations, from the highest offices of a general contractor to project managers, supervisors, union officials and workers on the job. • Codes of practice are conscientiously implemented and evaluated. Costs of injury and illness are calculated and performance is measured; those that do well are rewarded, those that do not are penalized.
  90. 90. Management for Safe Construction Work
  91. 91. Management for Safe Construction Work • Safety is an integral part of contracts and subcontracts. Everybody—managers, supervisors and workers—receives general, site-specific and site-relevant training and re-training. Inexperienced workers receive on-the-job training from experienced workers. In projects where such measures are implemented, injury rates are significantly lower than on otherwise comparable sites.
  92. 92. Management for Safe Construction Work
  93. 93. Preventing Accidents and Injuries • Entities in the industry with lower injury rates share several common characteristics: they have a clearly defined policy statement that applies throughout the organization, from top management to the project site.
  94. 94. Preventing Accidents and Injuries • This policy statement refers to a specific code of practice that describes, in detail, the hazards and their control for the pertinent occupations and tasks at a site. • Responsibilities are clearly assigned • Employees or their representatives are involved in establishing and administering a programme of injury prevention. Involvement often occurs in the formation of a joint labour or worker management committee • Physical examinations are performed to determine workers’ fitness for duty and job assignment.
  95. 95. Preventing Accidents and Injuries
  96. 96. Preventing Accidents and Injuries • Hazards are identified, analysed and controlled • Preparations are made for emergency situations • Accidents and injuries are investigated and recorded. • Workers and supervisors receive training and education in safety • Information about chemical, physical and other health hazards • And finally, contracts between contractors and subcontractors should include safety features.
  97. 97. Preventing Accidents and Injuries
  98. 98. References Environmental Management Bala Krishnamoorthy- PHI publication Wikipedia- The online free Encyclopedia Safety and Health Management System in Oil and Gas Industry • www.wipro.com • http://www.ilo.org/oshenc/part-xvi/construction/healthprevention-and-management/item/518-health-andsafety-hazards-in-the-construction-industry
  99. 99. Thanks…

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