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Engineering Geology
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Engineering Geology Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Engineering Geology
  • 2. Unit-I
  • 3. Introduction Course details 3 Hours Lecture /week with 3 Course Credits Communication: • Activities involve lectures, tutorials and a field practice • Lectures - provide the theoretical background of the topics • Tutorials - if there’s a need for additional guidance in the preparation for assessments. Please note that You have to arrange an appointment in due time. • Field Practice.
  • 4. Scope of Geology • Geology is the science of the earth, it is not a basic science like mathematics, physics, chemistry or biology, but is an application of these basic sciences to the problems presented by the earth.
  • 5. Scope of Geology
  • 6. Scope of Engineering Geology • Engineering geology may be defined as the branch of applied science which deals with the application of geology for a safe and economic design and construction of a civil engineering projects The basic objective of engineering geology are two fold: • It enables a civil engineer to understand engineering application of certain conditions related to the area of construction, which are essentially geological in nature. • It enables a geologists to understand the nature of geological information that is absolutely essential for the safe design and construction of a civil engineering project.
  • 7. Scope of Engineering Geology
  • 8. Scope of Engineering Geology
  • 9. Geology &Civil Engineering • The scope of engineering geology is best studied with reference to major activities of the profession of civil engineer which are: Construction, water resource development, town and regional planning.
  • 10. Geology &Civil Engineering Geology in Construction Jobs • In all types of heavy construction jobs such as buildings, towers, tanks, dams and reservoir, highway bridges, traffic and hydropower tunnels etc. full geological information about the site of construction (or Excavation) and about the natural materials of construction is paramount importance.
  • 11. Geology &Civil Engineering
  • 12. Geology &Civil Engineering
  • 13. Geology &Civil Engineering
  • 14. Geology &Civil Engineering • The aspect of geology has full relevance in all the three aspects of each construction i.e. planning, designing and execution. Planning • Following geological information is greatly useful in planning an engineering project. • Topographical maps Such maps give details of relief features and are essential to understand relative merit and demerit of all the possible sites. • Hydrological Maps. These maps give broad details about the distribution and geometry of the surface water channels and also the occurrence and depth contour of groundwater. • Geological Maps. Petrological characters and structural disposition of rock types as developed in the proposed area depicted in geological maps.
  • 15. Planning Topographical maps
  • 16. Planning Hydrological Maps Geological Maps
  • 17. Planning Hydrological Maps Geological Maps
  • 18. Geology &Civil Engineering Design • Some of the geological characters that have a direct or indirect bearing upon the design of a proposed project are: • (i) the existence of hard bed rocks and their depth from and inclination. • (ii) The mechanical properties along and across the site of the proposed project; • (iii) Presence, nature and distribution pattern of planes of structural weakness • (iv) The position of ground water table in totality. • (v) Seismic character of the area as deciphered from the seismic history and prediction about future seismicity.
  • 19. Geology &Civil Engineering
  • 20. Geology &Civil Engineering
  • 21. Geology &Civil Engineering
  • 22. Geology &Civil Engineering Construction • The engineer responsible for the quality control of construction materials will derive enormous benefit from his geological background of the nature material such as sand, gravel, crushed rocks. • Similarly for construction in geologically sensitive areas as those of coastal belts, seismic zones and permafrost regions, knowledge of geological history of the area is of great importance. • Construction of underground projects like tunnels cannot at all be undertaken without a through knowledge of the geological characters and setting of the rocks and their relevance to the loads imposed.
  • 23. Geology &Civil Engineering
  • 24. Geology &Civil Engineering
  • 25. Geology &Civil Engineering
  • 26. Geology &Civil Engineering Geology in Water Resource Development • Exploration and development of water resources have become very important areas of activities for scientists, technologists and engineers in all parts of the world. • The water resource engineers has to understand the water cycle in all essential details. Study of water cycle is an essential prerequisite for effective planning and execution of major water resource development programmers on national and regional level.
  • 27. Geology in Water Resource Development
  • 28. Geology in Water Resource Development
  • 29. Geology in Water Resource Development
  • 30. Geology &Civil Engineering Geology in Town and Regional Planning • A town planner is concerned essential with land utilization in as best and as aesthetics a manner as possible for developing cities and towns for meetings social needs in different areas. • The regional Town Planner is responsible for adopting an integrated approach in all such cases of allocation of land for developmental projects. • Thus a change induced in the natural setup of an area due to a proposed new project is going to lead a series of changes in the adjoining and even in distant places. In nature, nothing works in isolation. As such all sound planning must be in tune with the natural features and processes of a region.
  • 31. Geology in Town and Regional Planning
  • 32. Geology in Town and Regional Planning
  • 33. Brief History of Formation of Earth and Earth Crust
  • 34. Brief History of Formation of Earth and Earth Crust • According to currently held views of the earth, the planets of the solar system originated from a hot gas and dust cloud probably formed by a supernova explosion. • The dust particles are considered to have aggregated into clumps of materials that grew into our prismoidal planets. • In the early phases, when the cloud-called solar nebulas-was very hot, mainly iron rich compounds accumulated into protoplanets to form what would become the iron rich planetary cores, while low density silicate minerals of the outer parts were formed at a later stage lower temperatures. This gave the present radial segregation into distinct chemical zones.
  • 35. Formation of Earth and Earth Crust
  • 36. Earth and Earth Crust
  • 37. Earth and Earth Crust
  • 38. Formation of Earth and Earth Crust • The earth began to cool by loss of heat of radiations, and when it had cooled sufficiently, by the consolidation of molten earth material, and outer crust of solid material was formed. These solids building up the earth are called rocks. • Thus the first rock to be formed on the earth were formed by the cooling and consolidation of molten rock material. They belong to important class of rock igneous rocks because of the high temperature of their formation.
  • 39. Brief History of Formation of Earth and Earth Crust
  • 40. Formation of Earth and Earth Crust
  • 41. Brief History of Formation of Earth and Earth Crust
  • 42. Brief History of Formation of Earth and Earth Crust
  • 43. Formation of Earth and Earth Crust • The earth began to cool by loss of heat of radiations, and when it had cooled sufficiently, by the consolidation of molten earth material, and outer crust of solid material was formed. These solids building up the earth are called rocks. • Thus the first rock to be formed on the earth were formed by the cooling and consolidation of molten rock material. They belong to important class of rock igneous rocks because of the high temperature of their formation.
  • 44. Formation of Earth and Earth Crust
  • 45. Brief History of Formation of Earth and Earth Crust • When the first rocks of the solid crust were formed. Obviously no water could exist on the earth in the liquid form at this stage, all of it being held in the atmosphere in the form of vapor. • As the earth cooled down to below boiling point of vapor began to condense and the first rain fell. The water accumulated in the hollows and depressessions of the land surface forming the first oceans, and gradually a system of river, lakes , oceans etc were established.
  • 46. Brief History of Formation of Earth and Earth Crust • Water, as soon as it appeared in the liquid state, began to attack the first formed rocks with the help of the atmosphere as a result causing consequent decay of rocks called rock weathering. • All these products of the decay of land are carried by running water, and are ultimately dumped on the ocean bottom and accumulated there for ages forming thick layer of new rocks. • The newely formed rocks, as soon as they emerge from the sea, come under the attack of water and atmosphere, and the newely formed ocean starts receiving material derived from the decay of the rock land. • The rocks formed by the deposition of rock waste on ocean are called ‘sedimentary rocks’ and as a result of number of such sedimentary cycles vast piles of sedimentary rocks have accumulated in different parts of the earth in different geological period.
  • 47. Sedimentary rocks Metamorphic rocks Plutons Desert Playa lake Delta Glacier The Sedimentary Stages of the Rock Cycle Weathering breaks down rocks. Erosion carries away particles. Transportation moves particles downhill. Deposition occurs when particles settle out or precipitate. Diagenesis lithifies the sediment to make sedimentary rocks. Burial occurs as layers of sediment accumulate.
  • 48. Sedimentary Rocks
  • 49. Brief History of Formation of Earth and Earth Crust • The Internal Processes The period of uplift of sedimentary rocks are period of great crustal instability. The internal forces that develop give rise to tectonic earth movements by the sediments are folded into high mountains like himalayas and alps. • Large quantities of molten rock material called magma, formed by the melting of crustal rocks, are outpoured on the surface through volcanoes as lava. The forces which bring about tectonic earth movements are also responsible for giving rise to the third type of rocks the ‘metamorphic rocks’.
  • 50. Metamorphic Rocks
  • 51. Brief History of Formation of Earth and Earth Crust • Thus by the operation of different geological processes different types of rocks are formed, each having different characteristics depending on the mode of formation. To understand the geological processes, therefore, the characteristics of rocks resulting by their operation have to be studied.
  • 52. Brief History of Formation of Earth and Earth Crust
  • 53. Formation of Earth and Earth Crust
  • 54. Formation of Earth and Earth Crust
  • 55. Formation of Earth and Earth Crust
  • 56. Thanks……….