1. Emergency Preparedness and
• Emergency preparedness and workplace
• Accident investigation and analysis, HACCP
concepts : hazardous materials handling,
storage, use and disposal , rules and
regulations, MSDS, disaster management
3. Emergency Preparedness
• Emergency planning is an important part of a
comprehensive workplace safety program.
• Taking proactive steps can reduce the social
and economic costs of emergencies, criminal
acts, crises, and disasters.
4. Emergency Preparedness
5. Accident Investigation
• The term "accident" can be defined as an
unplanned event that interrupts the
completion of an activity, and that may (or
may not) include injury or property
• An incident usually refers to an unexpected
event that did not cause injury or damage this
time but had the potential.
6. Accident Investigation
7. Accident Investigation
• When accidents are investigated, the emphasis
should be concentrated on finding the root
cause of the accident rather than the
investigation procedure itself so you can
prevent it from happening again.
8. Accident Investigation
• The accident investigation process involves the following
• Report the accident occurrence to a designated person
within the organization
• Provide first aid and medical care to injured person(s)
and prevent further injuries or damage
• Investigate the accident
• Identify the causes
• Report the findings
• Develop a plan for corrective action
• Implement the plan
• Evaluate the effectiveness of the corrective action
• Make changes for continuous improvement
9. Accident Investigation
10. Accident Causation Models
• The simple model attempts to illustrate that the
causes of any accident can be grouped into five
categories - task, material, environment,
personnel, and management. When this
model is used, possible causes in each
category should be investigated.
11. Accident Causation Models
12. Accident Causation Models
13. Accident Causation Models
• Members of the accident investigation team will look for
answers to questions such as:
• Was a safe work procedure used?
• Had conditions changed to make the normal procedure
• Were the appropriate tools and materials available?
• Were they used?
• Were safety devices working properly?
14. Accident Causation Models
• To seek out possible causes resulting from the equipment and materials
used, investigators might ask:
• Was there an equipment failure?
• What caused it to fail?
• Was the machinery poorly designed?
• Were hazardous substances involved?
• Were they clearly identified?
• Was a less hazardous alternative substance possible and available?
• Was the raw material substandard in some way?
• Should personal protective equipment (PPE) have been used?
• Was the PPE used?
• Were users of PPE properly trained?
15. Personal Protective Equipment
16. Accident Causation Models
• The physical environment, and especially sudden
changes to that environment, are factors that need to be
identified. The situation at the time of the accident is what
is important, not what the "usual" conditions were. For
example, accident investigators may want to know:
• What were the weather conditions?
• Was poor housekeeping a problem?
• Was it too hot or too cold?
• Was noise a problem?
• Was there adequate light?
• Were toxic or hazardous gases, dusts, or fumes present?
18. Accident Causation Models
• The physical and mental condition of those individuals
directly involved in the event must be explored. The
purpose for investigating the accident is not to establish
blame against someone but the inquiry will not be complete
unless personal characteristics are considered. Some factors
will remain essentially constant while others may vary
from day to day:
• Were workers experienced in the work being done?
• Had they been adequately trained?
• Can they physically do the work?
• What was the status of their health?
• Were they tired?
• Were they under stress (work or personal)?
19. Accident Causation Models
20. Accident Causation Models
• Management holds the legal responsibility for the safety of the
workplace and therefore the role of supervisors and higher
management and the role or presence of management systems must
always be considered in an accident investigation. Failures of
management systems are often found to be direct or indirect factors in
accidents. Ask questions such as:
• Were safety rules communicated to and understood by all employees?
• Were written procedures and orientation available?
• Were they being enforced?
• Was there adequate supervision?
• Were workers trained to do the work?
• Had hazards been previously identified?
• Had procedures been developed to overcome them?
• Were unsafe conditions corrected?
• Was regular maintenance of equipment carried out?
• Were regular safety inspections carried out?
21. Accident Causation Models
• This model of accident investigations
provides a guide for uncovering all possible
causes and reduces the likelihood of looking
at facts in isolation.
22. Accident Analysis
• An accident may be described as a result of
a chain of events in which something has
gone wrong, resulting in an undesired
23. Accident Analysis
• When dealing with accidents in the workplace,
one can estimate the magnitude of the
problem retrospectively by comparing the
number of accidents (incidence rate) with
the severity of the accidents (lost work
days). However, if one wants to estimate the
magnitude of the problem prospectively, it is
done by evaluating the presence of risk
factors in the workplace—that is, factors
that might lead to accidents.
24. Accident Analysis
• A sufficiently complete and accurate view of
the state of affairs with respect to workplace
accidents can be gained by means of a
comprehensive reporting and recordkeeping system.
25. Accident Analysis
• Analyses of well-prepared accident reports can
give a picture of the basic relationships
essential to understanding the causes of the
accidents. In order to estimate the magnitude
of the problem in detail, a determination of
risk factors is essential.
26. Accident Analysis
• Knowledge of the relevant risk factors can
be obtained by analysing the detailed
information provided with each accident
record as to where workers and operators were
located when the accident occurred, what they
were doing or handling, by what means, what
damages or injuries occurred and other
particulars surrounding the accident.
27. Accident Analysis
• Risk measurement must be made on the
basis of information regarding the number
and seriousness of injuries that have
occurred in the past, yielding a retrospective
measurement. The risk of injury to individuals
may be described by two types of data:
• Measurement of risk provides a calculated
frequency of injuries and a measurement of
the seriousness of the injury. This could be
described as the number of lost work day cases
(or fatalities) per number of workers
• Type of risk or element of danger
assessment provides not only an indication of the
exposure sources and other harmful factors
which may cause an accident, but also an
indication of the circumstances leading to
injury or damage. Work performed at a height,
for example, will involve a risk of falling, with
serious injury as a possible result. Similarly, work
with cutting tools involves a risk of cuts from
contact with sharp components, and work with
noisy machines for a long period of time may
result in hearing damage.
• However, it is one thing to know what has
happened, and another to assess what will
happen in the future. It should be noted that the
very knowledge of the exposure sources and other
potentially harmful factors which may cause
damage or injury in connection with tasks of
various sorts, as well as knowledge of the factors
that can either heighten or reduce those risk
factors that influence risk measurement, can
provide a basis for recognition of the risk.
34. Factors Determining Risk
• The factors which are of greatest relevance in
determining risk are:
• factors which determine the presence or absence (or
potential) of risks of any sort.
• factors which either increase or minimize the
probability of these risks resulting in accidents or
• factors affecting the seriousness of accidents
associated with these risks.
• To clarify the first point, it is necessary to identify the
causes of the accident—namely, exposure sources and
other harmful factors; the two latter points constitute
the factors which influence the measurement of risk.
35. Exposure sources and occupational
• The concept of injuries due to exposure sources
is often linked to the concept of disease (or
disorder) because a disease can be viewed as
caused by exposure to one or several agents over
a short (acute exposure) or long (chronic
exposure) period of time. Chronic exposure
agents are usually not directly harmful, but
take effect rather after a relatively constant
and extended period of exposure, whereas
acute exposures are almost instantaneously
36. Exposure Sources and Occupational
37. Exposure sources and occupational
• Examples of exposure sources which may result in an injury
in the form of a disease-like condition are:
• chemical exposures (solvents, cleaning agents, degreasing
• physical exposures (noise, radiation, heat, cold, inadequate
lighting, lack of oxygen, etc.)
• physiological exposures (heavy loads, bad work postures
or repetitive work)
• biological exposures (viruses, bacteria, flour, animal blood
or leather, etc.)
• psychological exposures (work in isolation, threat of
violence, changing working hours, unusual job demands,
38. Harmful factors and occupational
• The concept of harmful factors (not
including exposure sources) is linked to
occupational accidents, because this is where
damages occur and workers are exposed to
the type of actions that cause instant injury.
This type of action is easily identified because
the damage or injury is recognized
immediately when it occurs.
39. Harmful factors and occupational
• Examples of harmful factors which may result in persons being
injured by an accident are often linked to different energy forms,
sources or activity, such as the following:
• energy that involves cutting, dividing or planing, usually in
connection with such types of sharp objects as knives, saws and
• energy that involves pressing and compressing, usually in
connection with different shaping means such as presses and
• heat and cold, electricity, sound, light, radiation and vibration
• toxic and corrosive substances
• energy exposing the body to excessive stress in such actions, for
example, as the moving of heavy loads or twisting of the body
• mental and psychological stresses such as the threat of violence.
40. Harmful factors and Occupational
41. Controlling Exposures
• From the point of view of measurable risk, it
should be recognized that control of the
probability of exposures and the seriousness of
injuries to workers often depends on the
following three factors:
42. Controlling Exposures
Elimination/substitution safety measures.
• Workplace hazards in the form of exposure sources or other
harmful factors may be eliminated or mitigated
by substitution (e.g., a less harmful chemical may replace a
toxic chemical in a process).
Technical safety measures.
• These measures, often called engineering controls, consist
of separating persons from harmful factors by
encapsulating the harmful elements, or installing
barriers between workers and the factors which may
cause injury. Examples of these measures include, but are
not limited to, automation, remote control, use of ancillary
equipment and machine protection (guarding).
43. Controlling Exposures
44. Controlling Exposures
Organizational safety measures.
Organizational safety measures, also known
as administrative controls, include separating persons
from harmful factors either by means of special
working methods or by separation in time or space.
• Examples of these controls include, but are not limited
to, reduced exposure time, preventive maintenance
programmes, encapsulating the individual workers
with personal protective equipment, and expedient
organization of work
45. Organizational Safety Measures.
46. Controlling Human Conduct
• It is often not possible to isolate all hazards
using the above control measures. It is
commonly supposed that accident prevention
analysis ends here because it is believed that
the workers will then be able to take care of
themselves by acting “according to the
47. Controlling Human Conduct
48. Controlling Human Conduct
• Knowledge. Workers must first be aware of the
types of risk, potential hazards and elements
of danger that may be found in the
workplace. This usually requires education,
training and job experience.
49. Controlling Human Conduct
50. Controlling Human Conduct
The opportunity to act.
• Positive support of the safety programme must be
forthcoming from management, supervisors and
the surroundings, including concern about risk
taking, designing and following working methods
with safety in view, safe use of the proper tools,
clearly defining tasks, establishing and
following safe procedures, and providing clear
instructions on how equipment and materials
are to be safely handled.
51. Controlling Human Conduct
52. Controlling Human Conduct
The will to act safely.
• Technical and organizational factors are important with
respect to workers’ readiness to behave in ways that
will ensure workplace safety, but social and cultural
factors are at least equally important. Risks will arise
if, for example, safe conduct is difficult or timeconsuming, or if it is not desired by management or
colleagues, or is not appreciated by them.
Management must be clearly interested in safety,
taking steps to prioritize it and displaying a positive
attitude towards the need for safe conduct.
53. Analysis of Individual Accidents
• Analysis of individual accidents has two primary
• First, it can be used to determine the cause of
an accident and the specific work factors that
contributed to it.
• Second, one can gain knowledge which may be
used for analyses of many similar accidents at
both the enterprise level and at more
comprehensive (e.g., organization-wide or
54. Analysis of Individual Accidents
• the identity of the workplace and the work itself (that
is, information relating to the sector or the trade in
which the workplace is positioned), and the work
processes and the technology that characterize the work
• the nature and the seriousness of the accident
• factors causing the accident, such as exposure
sources, the way in which the accident occurred and the
specific working situation causing the accident
• general conditions at the workplace and the working
situation (comprising the factors mentioned in the
55. Analysis of Individual Accidents
56. Types of Analyses
Types of Analyses
• There are five primary types of analyses of
accidents, each having a distinct purpose:
• Analyses and identification of where and
which types of accidents occur.
• The goal is to determine the incidence of the
injuries, as associated, for example, with
sectors, trade groups, enterprises, work
processes and types of technology.
57. Types of Analyses
• Analyses with respect to monitoring developments in
the incidence of accidents.
• The purpose is to be warned of changes, both positive
and negative. Measuring the effect of preventive
initiatives may be the result of such analyses, and
increases in new types of accidents within a specified
area will constitute warning of new risk elements.
• Analyses to prioritize initiatives that call for high
degrees of risk measurement, which in turn involve
calculating the frequency and seriousness of
• The goal is to establish a basis for prioritization to
determine where it is more important to carry out
preventive measures than elsewhere.
58. Incidence of Accidents
59. Types of Analyses
• Analyses to determine how the accidents occurred
and, especially, to establish both direct and underlying
causes. This information is then applied to the
selection, elaboration and implementation of concrete
corrective action and preventive initiatives.
• Analyses for elucidation of special areas which have
otherwise attracted attention (a sort of rediscovery or
control analyses). Examples include analyses of
incidences of a special injury risk or the discovery of a
hither to unrecognized risk identified in the course of
examining an already known risk.
60. Phases of the Analysis
• Irrespective of the level from which an analysis starts,
it will usually have the following phases:
• identification of where the accidents occur at the
general level selected
• specification of where the accidents occur at a more
specific level within the general level
• determination of goals in view of the incidence (or
frequency) and seriousness of the accidents
• description of exposure sources or other harmful
factors—that is, the direct causes of damage and injury
• examination of the underlying causal relation and
61. Accident Analysis
• Identification of accidents nationwide may
provide knowledge of the sectors, trade
groups, technologies and working processes
within which damages and injuries occur.
The goal is solely to identify where the
accidents by frequency and seriousness
partly establishes where something is wrong
in particular and partly indicates where the
risk has changed.
62. Accident Analysis
63. HACCP Concept
• Hazard analysis and critical control points
• Hazard analysis and critical control
points or HACCP is a systematic preventive
safety and biological, chemical, and physical
hazards in production processes that can cause
the finished product to be unsafe, and designs
measurements to reduce these risks to a safe level.
In this manner, HACCP is referred as the
prevention of hazards rather than finished
64. HACCP Concept
65. HACCP Concept
• HACCP has been increasingly applied to
industries other than food, such as
pharmaceuticals. This method, which in effect
seeks to plan out unsafe practices based on
science, differs from traditional "produce
and sort" quality control methods that do
nothing to prevent hazards from occurring and
must identify them at the end of the process.
66. HACCP Concept
Conduct a Hazard Analysis
• Plans determine the Safety hazards and identify the
preventive measures the plan can apply to control
Identify critical control points
• A critical control point (CCP) is a point, step, or
procedure in a manufacturing process at which
control can be applied and, as a result, a safety
hazard can be prevented, eliminated, or reduced
to an acceptable level.
Establish critical limits for each critical control
• A critical limit is the maximum or minimum
value to which a physical, biological, or
chemical hazard must be controlled at a critical
control point to prevent, eliminate, or reduce to an
Establish critical control point monitoring
• Monitoring activities are necessary to ensure
that the process is under control at each critical
Establish Corrective Actions
• These are actions to be taken when monitoring
indicates a deviation from an established critical
limit. The final rule requires a plant's HACCP
plan to identify the corrective actions to be
taken if a critical limit is not met. Corrective
actions are intended to ensure that no product
injurious to health or otherwise adulterated as
a result of the deviation enters commerce.
Establish procedures for ensuring the HACCP
system is working as intended
• Validation ensures that the plants do what
they were designed to do; that is, they are
successful in ensuring the production of a safe
product. Verification ensures the HACCP
plan is adequate, that is, working as
intended. Verification procedures may include
such activities as review of HACCP plans,
CCP records, critical limits and microbial
sampling and analysis.
Establish record keeping procedures
• The HACCP regulation requires that all plants
maintain certain documents, including its hazard
analysis and written HACCP plan, and records
documenting the monitoring of critical control points,
critical limits, verification activities, and the handling
of processing deviations.
• Implementation involves monitoring, verifying and
validating of the daily work that is compliant with
regulatory requirements in all stages all the time.
The differences among those three types of work are
given by Saskatchewan Agriculture and Food
76. Hazardous Waste
(Management, Handling & Movement) Rules
• “hazardous waste” means any waste which
by reason of any of its physical, chemical,
reactive, toxic, flammable, explosive or
corrosive characteristics causes danger or is
likely to cause danger to health or
environment, whether alone or when in
contact with other wastes or substances.
78. Hazardous Waste
(Management, Handling & Movement) Rules
• Obligations on the part of Entrepreneurs under the provisions
of Hazardous Waste (Management, Handling & Tran boundary
Movement) Rules, 2008
• It is mandatory under the provisions of the Hazardous Waste
(Management & Handling) Rules, 1989 framed under section 6, 8
and 25 of Environment (Protection) Act, 1986 for any person
handling hazardous wastes, to obtain authorization of the State
Pollution Control Board for collection, reception, storage,
transportation, treatment and disposal of such wastes.
• It shall be the duty of the occupier and the operator of a facility to
take adequate steps while handling hazardous waste to• (i) contain contaminants and prevent accidents and limit their
consequences on human and the environment; and
• (ii) Provide persons working on the site with information,
training and equipment necessary to ensure their safety.
80. Hazardous Waste
(Management, Handling & Movement) Rules
• Packaging, labelling and transport of hazardous wastes
• The occupier or operator of a facility shall ensure that the
hazardous wastes are packaged, based on the composition in
a manner suitable for handling, storage and transport and
the labelling and packaging shall be easily visible and be able
to withstand physical conditions and climatic factors.
• Packaging, labelling and transport of hazardous wastes shall
be in accordance with the provisions of the Rules made by the
Central Government under the Motor Vehicle Act, 1988 and
other guidelines issued from time to time.
• All hazardous waste containers shall be provided with a
general label as given in form 8 of the Rules.
• The occupier shall prepare six copies of the manifest in form 9
of the Rules comprising of colour code indicated below (all six
copies to be signed by the transporter).
82. Packaging, Labelling and Transport
of Hazardous Wastes
83. Packaging, Labelling and Transport
of Hazardous Wastes
• In case of transport of hazardous wastes to a
facility for treatment, storage and disposal
existing in a State other than the State
where hazardous wastes are generated, the
occupier shall obtain “No Objection
Certificate” from the State Pollution Control
Board or Committee of the concerned State
or Union Territory administration where
the facility is existing.”
84. Responsibilities for Disposal Site
The occupier or operator of a facility or any
association of occupiers shall be jointly and
severally responsible for identifying sites for
establishing the facility for treatment, storage
and disposal of hazardous wastes.
The State Government, operator of a facility or
any association of occupiers shall jointly and
severally be responsible for, and identify sites
for common facility for treatment, storage and
disposal of hazardous wastes in the State.
85. Responsibilities for Disposal Site
86. Responsibilities for Disposal Site
The operator of a facility, occupier or any
association of occupiers shall undertake an
environmental impact assessment (EIA) of the
selected site(s) and shall submit the EIA report
to the State Pollution Control Board or
The State Pollution Control Board or Committee
shall on being satisfied with the EIA report, give a
public notice for conducting a public hearing as
per the procedure contained in the
Environment Impact Assessment Notification.
87. Responsibilities for Disposal Site
88. Design and Setting up of Disposal
• The occupier, any association or operator of a
facility, as the case may be shall design and set
up disposal facility as per the guidelines issued
by the Central Govt. or the State Govt. as the case
• The occupier, any association or operator, shall
before setting up a disposal facility get the
design and the layout of the facility approved
by the State Pollution Control Board.
89. Design and Setting up of Disposal
90. Operation and Closure of Landfill
• The occupier or the operator as the case may
be, shall be responsible for safe and
environmentally sound operation of the facility
as per design approved under Rule-8A by the
State Pollution Control Board.
• The occupier or the operator shall ensure that
the closure of the landfill is as per the design
approved under Rule 8 A by the State Pollution
91. Operation and Closure of Landfill
92. Import and export of hazardous wastes
for recycling and reuse.
• No person shall import or export hazardous
contaminated with such hazardous wastes as
specified in Schedule 8.
• Any occupier importing or exporting hazardous
wastes shall provide detailed information in
Form 7 A to the Customs authorities.
• Any occupier importing or exporting hazardous
wastes shall comply with the articles of the
Basel Convention to which the Central
Government is a signatory.
93. Import and export of hazardous wastes
for recycling and reuse.
• Import of hazardous wastes from any country to India
shall not be permitted for dumping and disposal of such
wastes. However, import of such wastes may be allowed
for processing or reuse as raw material, after examining
each case on merit by the State Pollution Control Board
or by an officer authorized in this behalf. The exporting
country or the exporter as the case may be, of hazardous
wastes is to communicate in Form-6 to the Central
Government (Ministry of Environment & Forests) of the
proposed trans boundary movement of the hazardous
• Any person importing hazardous waste shall maintain
the records of hazardous wastes as specified and the
records so maintained shall be open for inspection by
the State Board.
94. Import and export of hazardous wastes
for recycling and reuse.
95. Data Maintenance & Accident
• After the grant of authorization under the Hazardous
Waste (Management & Handing) Rules, 1989, the
industry is required to maintain the record of
hazardous waste generated and to submit annual
return regarding disposal of hazardous waste to the
Board by 31st January of every year. Where an
accident occurs at the facility or on a hazardous
waste site or during the transportation of hazardous
waste, the occupier or operator of a facility is to
report immediately to the State Pollution Control
Board about the accident.
96. Data Maintenance & Accident
97. Material Safety Data Sheet
• A material safety data sheet (MSDS), safety data
sheet (SDS), or product safety data sheet (PSDS) is
an important component of occupational safety and
health. It is intended to provide workers and
emergency personnel with procedures for handling
or working with that substance in a safe manner,
and includes information such as physical data
(melting point, boiling point, flash point,
etc.), toxicity, health effects, first aid, reactivity,
storage, disposal, protective equipment, and spillhandling procedures. MSDS formats can vary from
source to source within a country depending on national
98. Material Safety Data Sheet
99. Material Safety Data Sheet
• SDSs are a widely done system for
on chemicals, chemical compounds, and
chemical mixtures. SDS information may
include instructions for the safe use and
potential hazards associated with a
particular material or product. These data
sheets can be found anywhere where
chemicals are being used.
100. Material Safety Data Sheet
101. Material Safety Data Sheet
• There is also a duty to properly label substances
on the basis of physico-chemical, health and/or
environmental risk. Labels can include hazard
symbols such as the European Union
standard black diagonal cross on an orange
background, used to denote a harmful substance.
• An SDS for a substance is not primarily
intended for use by the general consumer,
focusing instead on the hazards of working
with the material in an occupational setting.
102. Material Safety Data Sheet
• In some jurisdictions, the MSDS is required
to state the chemical's risks, safety, and
effect on the environment.
• It is important to use an MSDS specific to
both country and supplier, as the same
product (e.g. paints sold under identical brand
names by the same company) can have
different formulations in different countries.
103. Material Safety Data Sheet
104. Disaster Management
• The United Nations defines a Disaster as a
serious disruption of the functioning of a
community or a society.
• Disasters involve widespread human,
material, economic or environmental
impacts, which exceed the ability of the
affected community or society to cope using
its own resources.
105. Disaster Management
106. Disaster Management
• The Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies
define disaster management as the organisation
responsibilities for dealing with
humanitarian aspects of emergencies, in
particular preparedness, response and
recovery in order to lessen the impact of
107. Disaster Management
108. Types of Disasters
• There is no country that is immune from
disaster, though vulnerability to disaster varies.
There are four main types of disaster.
109. Types of Disasters
• Natural Disasters: including floods, hurricanes,
earthquakes and volcano eruptions that have
immediate impacts on human health and secondary
impacts causing further death and suffering from
(for example) floods, landslides, fires, tsunamis.
technological or industrial accidents, usually
involving the production, use or transportation of
hazardous material, and occur where these materials
are produced, used or transported, and forest fires
caused by humans.
110. Natural Disasters
111. Environmental Emergencies
112. Types of Disasters
• Complex Emergencies: involving a breakdown of authority, looting and attacks on
strategic installations, including conflict
situations and war.
• Pandemic Emergencies: involving a sudden
onset of contagious disease that affects
health, disrupts services and businesses,
brings economic and social costs.
113. Complex Emergencies
114. Pandemic Emergencies
115. Types of Disasters
• Any disaster can interrupt essential services, such
sewage/garbage removal, transportation and
• The interruption can seriously affect the
health, social and economic networks of local
communities and countries.
• Disasters have a major and long-lasting impact
on people long after the immediate effect has
116. Types of Disasters
• Local, regional, national and international
organisations are all involved in mounting a
humanitarian response to disasters. Each
will have a prepared disaster management
plan. These plans cover prevention,
preparedness, relief and recovery.
117. Types of Disasters
118. Disaster Prevention
• These are activities designed to provide
permanent protection from disasters. Not all
disasters, particularly natural disasters, can
be prevented, but the risk of loss of life and
injury can be mitigated with good
evacuation plans, environmental planning
and design standards.
119. Disaster Prevention
120. Disaster Preparedness
• These activities are designed to minimise
loss of life and damage – for example by
removing people and property from a
threatened location and by facilitating timely
and effective rescue, relief and rehabilitation.
Preparedness is the main way of reducing
the impact of disasters. Community-based
preparedness and management should be a
high priority in physical therapy practice
121. Disaster Preparedness
122. Disaster Relief
• This is a coordinated multi-agency response
to reduce the impact of a disaster and its
long-term results. Relief activities include
rescue, relocation, providing food and water,
preventing disease and disability, repairing
vital services such as telecommunications
and transport, providing temporary shelter
and emergency health care.
123. Disaster Relief
124. Disaster Recovery
• Once emergency needs have been met and
the initial crisis is over, the people affected
and the communities that support them are
still vulnerable. Recovery activities include
rebuilding infrastructure, health care and
rehabilitation. These should blend with
development activities, such as building
human resources for health and developing
policies and practices to avoid similar
situations in future.
125. Disaster Recovery
126. National Disaster Management
• In recognition of the importance of Disaster
Management as a national priority, set up a HighPowered Committee (HPC) in August 1999 and a
National Committee after the Gujarat
earthquake, for making recommendations on
the preparation of Disaster Management plans
mechanisms. The Tenth Five-Year Plan document
also had, for the first time, a detailed chapter on
Disaster Management. The Twelfth Finance
Commission was also mandated to review the
financial arrangements for Disaster Management.
127. National Disaster Management
128. Functions and Responsibilities
• NDMA, as the apex body, is mandated to lay down
the policies, plans and guidelines for Disaster
Management to ensure timely and effective response
to disasters. Towards this, it has the following
responsibilities:• Lay down policies on disaster management ;
• Approve the National Plan;
• Approve plans prepared by the Ministries or
Departments of the Government of India in
accordance with the National Plan;
• Lay down guidelines to be followed by the State
Authorities in drawing up the State Plan;
129. Functions and Responsibilities
• Lay down guidelines to be followed by the
different Ministries or Departments of the
Government of India for the Purpose of
integrating the measures for prevention of
disaster or the mitigation of its effects in their
development plans and projects;
implementation of the policy and plans for
• Recommend provision of funds for the purpose of
130. National Disaster Management
131. Functions and Responsibilities
• Provide such support to other countries affected
by major disasters as may be determined by the
• Take such other measures for the prevention of
disaster, or the mitigation, or preparedness and
capacity building for dealing with threatening
disaster situations or disasters as it may
• Lay down broad policies and guidelines for the
functioning of the National Institute of Disaster
132. National Disaster Management
• On 23 December 2005, the Government of
India enacted the Disaster Management Act,
which envisaged the creation of National
Disaster Management Authority (NDMA),
headed by the Prime Minister, and State
Disaster Management Authorities (SDMAs)
headed by respective Chief Ministers, to
spearhead and implement a holistic and
Management in India.
133. Disaster Management in India
National Institute of Disaster Management
NIDM, is a
premier institute for training and capacity
development programs for managing
natural disasters in India, on a national as
well as regional basis.
134. Disaster Management in India
Origin and Responsibilities
• The National Disaster Management Act of 2005
granted the Institute statutory organisation status.
The Act holds the Institute responsible for
"planning and promoting training and
research in the area of disaster management,
documentation and development of national
level information base relating to disaster
management policies, prevention mechanisms
and mitigation measures".