Data, Information and Systems Data A given fact , a number, a statement, or a picture Represents something in the real world Data are sets of discrete objective facts, presented without judgment or context The raw materials in the production of information
Data, Information and Systems Information Data that have meaning within a context Data in relationships Data after manipulation Data become information when they are categorized, analyzed, summarized and placed in context, becoming intelligible to the recipient.
Data, Information and SystemsData Manipulation Example: Customer Survey Reading through data collected from a customer survey with questions in various categories would be time-consuming and not very helpful. When manipulated, the surveys may provide useful information
Data, Information and SystemsGenerating Information Computer-based Information System take data as raw material, process it, and produce information as output.
Data, Information and SystemsInformation is Critical The information we have is not what we want, The information we want is not the information we need The information we need is not available.
Data, Information and SystemsWhy need Information? To ensure effective and efficient decision – making leading to prosperity of the Organization.
Data, Information and SystemsThe Four Stages of Data Processing Input: Data is collected and entered into computer. Data processing: Data is manipulated into information using mathematical, statistical, and other tools. Output: Information is displayed or presented. Feedback: Output that is used to make changes to input or processing activities
Data, Information and SystemsUniversity Inputs: Students, Faculty, Textbooks Processes: Education/Courses Output: graduates Feedback: surveys, grades
Data, Information and SystemsToyota Plant Inputs: raw materials, components Processes: assembly line Output: mini-vans Feedback: customer surveys, quality reports
Data, Information and SystemsWhat is a system? A set of components that interact to accomplish goalsWhat is an IS? A set of interrelated components that collect input, process, and output data and information and provide a feedback/control mechanismWhat is a MIS? An IS that uses IT. Components: hardware, software, databases, networks, people, procedures
Historic Development AI Artificial Intelligence KS/ES Knowledge / Expert System ESS Executive Support System DSS Decision Support System MIS Management Information System OAS Office Automation SystemTPS Transaction Processing System
Management Information SystemThe three sub-components – MIS - together bring out the focus clearly & effectively. System emphasizing a fair degree of Integration and a holistic view Information stressing on processed data in the context in which it is used by the end user Management focusing on the ultimate use of such information systems for managerial decision making
Management Information System Support of Strategic Advantage Support of Managerial Decision Making Support of Business Operations
Management Information System Strategic Level Management Level Knowledge Level Operational Level
Operational Level Information System which monitors the elementary activities and transaction of the organization.
Transaction Processing System Eg.Operational Level System Sales & Marketing Order Tracking & Order Processing Manufacturing Plant Scheduling & Material Movement Control Finance Securities Trading & Cash Management Accounting Payroll, Accounts Payable, Accounts Receivable Human Resource Compensation Training & Development & employee record keeping
Knowledge Level System Information System that support knowledge and data workers in an organization
Knowledge Level System Eg. Engineering Workstation & Word Processing Graphic Workstation & Document Imaging Managerial Workstation & Electronic Calendars
Management Information SystemManagement Level System Information System which support the monitoring controlling decision making and administrative activities of middle management.
Management Information System Eg.Sales & Marketing Sales Management & Sales Region AnalysisManufacturing Inventory Control & Production SchedulingFinance Annual Budgeting & Cost AnalysisAccounting Capital Investment Analysis & Profitability/Pricing Analysis
Strategic Level System Information System that supports the long range planning activities of senior managers
Strategic Level System Eg.Executive Support SystemSales & Marketing 5 Year Sales trend forecastManufacturing 5 Year operational planFinance 5 Year budgeting forecastAccounting Profit Planning