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  2. 2. INTRODUCTION TO WIND POWER The power in the wind can be computed by using the concepts of kinetics. The kinetic energy of any particle is given by the following formula Kinetic Energy =½ mv2. Amount of Air passing is given by m = ρ AV …………………..(1) Where m = mass of air transversing A=area swept by the rotating blades of wind mill type generator ρ = Density of air V= velocity of air Substituting this value of the mass in expression of K.E. = ½ ρ AV.V2 watts = ½ ρ AV3 watts ………………….. (2) Second equation tells us that the power available is proportional to air density (1.225 kg/m3) is proportional to the intercept area. Since the area is normally circular of diameter D in horizontal axis aero turbines, then, A = 0.25πD2 (Sq. m) Put this quantity in equation second then Available wind power Pa =0.125 ρ π D2 V3 watt
  4. 4. VERTICAL AXIS WIND TURBINE Vertical-axis wind turbines (VAWTs) are a type of wind turbine where the main rotor shaft is set vertically. Among the advantages of this arrangement are that generators and gearboxes can be placed close to the ground, and that VAWTs do not need to be pointed into the wind. Major drawbacks for the early designs (Savonius, Darrieus, giromill and cycloturbine) included the pulsatory torque that can be produced during each revolution and the huge bending moments on the blades. Later designs solved the torque issue by using the helical twist of the blades almost similar to Gorlov's water turbines. A VAWT tipped sideways, with the axis perpendicular to the wind streamlines, functions similarly. A more general term that includes this option is "transverse axis wind turbine". For example, the original Darrieus patent , includes both options. Drag-type VAWTs, such as the Savonius rotor, typically operate at lower tipspeed ratios than lift-based VAWTs such as Darrieus rotors and cycloturbines.
  6. 6. DARRIEUS WIND TURBINE The Darrieus wind turbine is a type of vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT) used to generate electricity from the energy carried in the wind. The turbine consists of a number of aerofoils usually—but not always—vertically mounted on a rotating shaft or framework. DARRIEUS WIND TURBINE WORKING METHODOLOGY
  7. 7. GIROMILL WIND TURBINE A subtype of Darrieus turbine with straight, as opposed to curved, blades. The cycloturbine variety has variable pitch to reduce the torque pulsation and is self-starting.The advantages of variable pitch are: high starting torque; a wide, relatively flat torque curve; a lower blade speed ratio; a higher coefficient of performance; more efficient operation in turbulent winds; and a lower blade speed ratio which lowers blade bending stresses. Straight, V, or curved blades may be used. Giromill VAWTs are also self-starting.
  8. 8. SAVONIUS WIND TURBINE Savonius turbines are one of the simplest turbines. Aerodynamically, they are drag-type devices, consisting of two or three scoops. Looking down on the rotor from above, a two-scoop machine would look like an "S" shape in cross section. Because of the curvature, the scoops experience less drag when moving against the wind than when moving with the wind. The differential drag causes the Savonius turbine to spin. Because they are drag- type devices, Savonius turbines extract much less of the wind's power than other similarly-sized lift-type turbines. Much of the swept area of a Savonius rotor may be near the ground, if it has a small mount without an extended post, making the overall energy extraction less effective due to the lower wind speeds found at lower heights.
  10. 10. ADVANTAGES OF SAVONIUS WIND TURBINE OVER OTHER WIND TURBINES • Savonius turbines are used whenever cost or reliability is much more important than efficiency. For example, most anemometers are Savonius turbines, because efficiency is completely irrelevant for that application. Much larger Savonius turbines have been used to generate electric power on deep-water buoys, which need small amounts of power and get very little maintenance. Design is simplified because, unlike with Horizontal Axis Wind Turbines (HAWTs), no pointing mechanism is required to allow for shifting wind direction and the turbine is self-starting. Savonius and other vertical-axis machines are good at pumping water and other high torque, low rpm applications and are not usually connected to electric power grids. They can sometimes have long helical scoops, to give smooth torque. • The most ubiquitous application of the Savonius wind turbine is the Flettner Ventilator which is commonly seen on the roofs of vans and buses and is used as a cooling device. • Small Savonius wind turbines are sometimes seen used as advertising signs where the rotation helps to draw attention to the item advertised. They sometimes feature a simple two-frame animation.
  12. 12. DESIGN OF BLADE In the project three blade with vertical shaft are used, it has a height & width of 18 inches & 13 inches respectively. The angle between two blades is 600. So if one Blade moves other blades comes in the position of first blade, so the speed is increases.
  13. 13. SHAFT DESIGNING  While designing the shaft of blades it should be properly fitted to the blade. The shaft should be as possible as less in thickness & light in weight for the six blade, the shaft used is very thin in size are all properly fitted. So no problem of slipping & fraction is created, it is made up of hollow Aluminum which is having very light weight. Length of shaft & diameter are 18 inches & 2.54cm respectively. And at the top and bottom ends mild steel of length 1inch each are respectively are fixed to give strength to the hollow shaft.
  14. 14. DESIGN OF BEARING For the smooth operation of Shaft, bearing mechanism is used. To have very less friction loss the two ends of shaft are pivoted into the same dimension bearing. The Bearing has diameter of 2.54cm. Bearing are generally provided for supporting the shaft and smooth operation of shaft. We have used ball bearings for the purpose of ease of maintenance
  15. 15. AN ELECTRIC DYNAMO For generation of electricity from the designed our vertical axis wind turbine, we chose a Bicycle dynamo which has the capacity to light a bulb of 12 V. This electric dynamo has the capacity.
  16. 16. SPECIFICATIONS BASE DIMENSIONS Height                           24 inches Width                            21 inches BLADE DIMENSIONS Height                            18 inches Diameter                        13 inches Thickness                       0.125 inches Angle                              45 ° Angle b/w blades            60° SHAFT DIMENSIONS Diameter                         2.54cm Length                            18 inches
  18. 18. VARIOUS OPERATIONS INOVLVED IN  FABRICATION PROCESS The  following  were  the  fabrication  techniques  involved  1. Gas Cutting 2. Arc Welding 3. Riveting
  20. 20. THEORTICAL CALCULATIONS The wind mill works on the principle of converting kinetic energy of the wind to mechanical energy. The kinetic energy of any particle is equal to one half its mass times the square of its velocity, K.E=½ mv2. ………………….. (1) K.E = kinetic energy m = mass v = velocity, M is equal to its Volume multiplied by its density ρ of air M = ρ AV ………………….. (2) Substituting eqn(2) in eqn(1) We get, K E = ½ ρ AV.V2 K E = ½ ρ AV3 watts ρ = density of air (1.225 kg/m3) A = π D2 /4 (Sq.m) D = diameter of the blade A = π*(1.22) 2 /4 A = 1.16Sq.m P = 1/8 ρ π D2 V3 Available wind power Pa = (½ ρ π D2 V3)/4
  21. 21. TRAIL 1 FOR VELOCITY 4.5m/s Pa = (½ ρ π D2 V3)/4 Pa = (½*1.225*π*1.222 *4.53)/4 Pa = 65.244watt TRAIL 2 FOR VELOCITY 5.5m/s Pa = (½ ρ π D2 V3)/4 Pa = (½*1.225*π*1.222 *5.53)/4 Pa = 119.12watt TRAIL 3 FOR VELOCITY 7.5m/s Pa = (½ ρ π D2 V3)/4 Pa = (½*1.225*π*1.222 *7.53)/4 Pa = 302.06watt TRAIL 4 FOR VELOCITY 10m/s Pa = (½ ρ π D2 V3)/4 Pa = (½*1.225*π*1.222 *103)/4 Pa = 716.00watt
  22. 22. ADVANTAGES • There are several reasons why we would choose a vertical axis wind turbine over a horizontal axis windmill. • They are mounted lower to the ground making it easy for maintenance if needed. • They start creating electricity at speeds of only 6 mph. And • Third, they may be able to be built at locations where taller structures, such as the horizontal type, can't be. • Higher power utilization-- 20% higher than HAWT. • Lower noise level--only 27-37 DB, suitable for your living condition. • Safer operation--Spin at slower speeds than horizontal turbines, decreasing the risk of injuring birds and also decreasing noise level. • Simpler installation and maintenance-- besides the traditional installation site, it can be mounted directly on a rooftop, doing away with the tower and associated guy lines. • Not affected by orientation variation—no matter the wind blow from any orientation, VAWT can work without regard to its face. • Economical and practical-Although one-time investment expenses are larger, but you don’t have to pay higher tariffs forever.
  23. 23. CONCLUSION • Our work and the results obtained so far are very encouraging and  reinforce the conviction that vertical axis wind energy conversion  systems are practical and potentially very contributive to the  production of clean renewable electricity from the wind even under  less than ideal sitting conditions. It is hoped that they may be constructed used high‐strength, low‐ weight materials for  deployment in more developed nations and settings or with very  low tech local materials and local skills in less developed countries. The Savonius wind turbine designed is ideal to be located on top of  a bridge or bridges to generate electricity, powered by wind. The  elevated altitude gives it an advantage for more wind opportunity.  With the idea on top of a bridge, it will power up street lights and  or commercial use. In most cities, bridges are a faster route for  everyday commute and in need of constant lighting makes this an  efficient way to produce natural energy
  24. 24. FUTURE DEVELOPMENTS The development of effective alternators and dynamos can be used to harness wind energy from relatively small winds. The use of materials like Acrylic Plastic Sheets can be used to develop low cost VWAT
  25. 25. BIBILOGRAPHY • Eggleston, David M. Wind Turbine Engineering  Design. Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1987.  • Hunt, Daniel V. Wind power: A Handbook on Wind  Energy Conversion Systems. Van Nostrand Reinhold,  1981.  • Kovarik, Tom, Charles Pupher, and John Hurst. Wind  Energy. Domus Books, 1979.  • Park, Jack. The Wind  Power Book. Cheshire Books,  1981.  • Putnam, Palmer Cosslett. Power  from the Wind. Van  Nostrand Company,
  26. 26. 3 D VIEW
  27. 27. TOP VIEW
  28. 28. FRONT VIEW
  29. 29. SIDE VIEW