Direct seeded rice
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Direct seeded rice Presentation Transcript

  • 1. 1
  • 2. COURSE SEMINAR ON 2 WEED MANAGEMENT IN DIRECT SEEDED RICE Speaker GAURAV I.D. No. A-12014 Supervisor Prof. M.K.SINGH Co- Supervisor DR. S.K.VERMA
  • 3. INTRODUCTION 3 INDIA (Rice) Area 43.8 mha Production 96.4 mt Productivity 2.2 t/ha
  • 4. 4 Why shift from transplanting to direct seed rice?  Lowering of water table  Costly  Destruction of soil structure
  • 5. 5 Practice of sowing sprouted/unsprouted seeds into puddled/ unpuddled soil by broadcasting/dibbling /drum seeding Direct Seeding
  • 6. 6 Different methods of rice establishment Dry Seeding TransplantingWet Seeding Broadcasting Drilling Broadcasting Drum Seeding Manual Mechanical
  • 7. 7 Advantages of DSR  Reduce Labour requirement-cost  Water requirement  Helps maintain proper plant stand  Direct-seeded plants mature 7 to 10 days earlier than transplanted rice.
  • 8. 8 Problems of Direct Seeded Rice  Establishment  Weeds – More diverse weed flora
  • 9. 9 Weed - A weed is a plant growing where it is not desired .(Jethro Tull 1713) E. colona E. crus-galli
  • 10. 10 WEED MANAGEMENT its is the combination of the techniqe of prevention, eradication and control to manage weeds in a crop or enviorment.
  • 11. 11 Weed flora of direct seeded rice  Grasses - Echinochloa crusgalli , E. colonum Ischaemum rugosum, Digera arvensis Leptochloa apnicea  Sedges - Cyperus iria, Cyperus difformis, Cyperus rotundus  Broad Leaf - Ammania baccifera, Caesulia axillaris
  • 12. Different weed management practices for direct-seeded rice systems 12 Integated weed management Preventive measures Stale seed bed Tillage system Compatative cultivar High seedling rate Row seedling in narrow row Crop residue as mulches Water management Mechanical/Manual weeding herbicides
  • 13. PREVENTIVE METHOD  USE CLEAN CROP SEED  MACHINERY USED FOR TILLAGE SOWING HARVESTING OPRETION SHOULD ALSO BE CLEAND  BUND AND IRRIGATION CANAL FREE FROM WEED 13
  • 14. CULTURAL PRACTICES APPROCHES IN DSR  Stale seedbed technique  Tillage practices  Competitive varieties  Row spacing and seed rate  Crop residue as mulches  Flooding 14
  • 15. 15 Stale seedbed practice In this practice, weed seedlings are allowed to emerge after light irrigation and then killed by nonselective herbicide application or tillage
  • 16. EFFECT OF TILLAGE SYSTEM ON SEEDLING EMERGENGE OF DIFFERENT WEED SPECIES UNDER AEROBIC RICE SYSTEM 16
  • 17. EFFECT OF HIGH SEED RATES  In many countries, high seeding rates are used in direct-seeded rice systems.  High seeding rates result in rapid canopy closure.and reduce weed competition.  High seeding rates may help to suppress weed growth and reduce grain yield losses due to weeds.  In such conditions, farmers cannot use high seeding rates because of the high cost incurred for seeds. Because of the availability of suitable sowing drills or planters with precise seed-metering devices , seeding rates of only 15 to 25 kg ha−1 are used for sowing dry-seeded rice crops. 17
  • 18. IN ROW-SEEDED CROPS,WEED EMERGING BETWEEN THE ROWS CAN BE DISTINGUISHED AND PULLED OUT. DIRECT-SEEDED CROP SHOULD BE GROWN USING NARROW ROW SPACING TO OBTAIN FASTER CANOPY CLOSURE AND LESS PENETRATION OF LIGHT AND ULTIMATELY LESS WEED GROWTH. IN WEED-FREE ENVIRONMENTS, THE GRAIN YIELD MAY BE SIMILAR BETWEEN A CROP PLANTED WITH 20-CM OR 30-CM ROW SPACING. SEED-SOWING DRILLS ARE CAPABLE OF SEEDING AT 18- TO 20-CM ROW SPACING. EFFECT OF ROW SEEDLING IN NARROW SPACING 18
  • 19. CROP RESIDUES OF PREVIOUS CROPS IF LEFT ON SOIL SURFACE AS MULCH CAN SUPPRESS WEEDS IN DSR THROUGH MULTIPLE MECHANISMS, INCLUDING, CREATING A PHYSICAL HINDRANCE TO EMERGING WEEDS OR BY RELEASING ALLELOCHEMICALS IN THE SOIL. Crop residue as mulches 19
  • 20. The use of residue as mulches can help in suppressing weed emergence and weed growth in dry-seeded rice systems 20
  • 21. EFFECT OF ESTABLISHMENT METHOD ON WEED MANAGEMENT 21
  • 22. 22 Effect of sowing methods in DSR Treatment Weed dry matter (q/ha) Effective tillers /m2 Grain yield (q/ha) Pudding- direct broadcast 2.71 (9.8) 258 41.4 ZT- direct line 3.23 (14.8) 173 35.9 ZT- direct broadcasting 3.42 (16.8) 190 38.2 Transplanting 1.0 (0) 240 54.9 Late transplanting 1.09 (1.2) 260 49.3 CD (p=0.05) 0.28 37 8.9 Walia et al (2006)Lomy sand, PR 115
  • 23. 23 Effect of crop establishment methods in DSR Treatment Plant height (cm) LAI at 60 DAS Weed dry matter Grain yield (q/ha) B:C ratio Dry seeding 80.8 2.89 32.3 38.41 0.48 Drum seeding 82.1 3.27 19.4 50.62 1.19 Zero tillage 83.0 2.98 38.9 42.27 0.80 Transplanted 83.3 3.46 15.3 55.29 0.96 CD (p=0.05) 0.9 0.17 7.1 4.12 - Yadav and Singh (2006)Sity loam
  • 24. 24 EFFECT OF FLOODING  Flooding is considered the best weed management option in rice.  Flooding can suppress the emergence and growth of several weed species  Early and continuous flooding at a shallow depth (e.g., 2 cm) can also help to suppress the emergence and growth of problematic weeds
  • 25. 25 Effect of Genotypes Competitive cultivar can suppress weed seed production, limit future weed infestation, and become a safe, environmentally benign and low cost tool for weed management early fast growth, maximum number of leaf, tall stature of plant and more tillering capacity have better competitive ability against weed than slow growing cultivars The choice of a cultivar plays an important role in crop-weed competition due to the cultivar’s morphological characters and the competitive ability of rice is usually associated with light interception-related traits
  • 26. 26
  • 27. 27 Roy and Mishra (1999)Sandy loam Genotypes Dry weight of weeds (g/m2) Plant height (cm) Panicle/m2 Panicle length (cm) Grain yield (q/ha) SBR 34-69-1 41.2 68.0 281.4 19.5 21.5 ES 18-11-2 62.8 63.0 264.7 18.5 19.2 CD (p=0.05) 4.0 3.2 6.8 0.5 1.2 Performance of rice genotypes under DSR
  • 28. MECHANICAL PRACTICES IN DSR  Using hand pused weeeder (e.g., cono weeder)  Note;- the use of mechanical weeder is feasiable only where rice planted in row 28
  • 29. DRY-SEEDED RICE ROW SEEDING WITH INTERROW WEEDING USING HOES AND WITHOUT ANY HERBICIDE ACHIEVED HIGHER GRAIN YIELD (SATOSHI ET AL., 2009). OPINED THAT RICE FARMERS CAN USE ROTARY WEEDING INSTEAD OF HERBICIDE IN CONTROLLING WEEDS AND ACHIEVE THE SAME GRAIN YIELD OF WET-SEEDED RICE. (MNGUU 2010) Conti….. 29
  • 30. 30 HERBICIDES  Pre -plant herbicides  Preplant herbicides: These are used to knock down existing weeds of a perennial nature before planting.  Use glyphosate @ 1.0 kg a.i./ ha in 400–500 L of water. It is preferable that the control of perennial weeds and seeding of rice should be done 7–10 days after glyphosate spray.  Use flat fan nozzles for spraying.  Best results are obtained when weeds are in active growth stages. If weeds are vegetating (not growing).  Apply light irrigation several days before glyphosate spray. This knocks down all weeds, including Cynadon dactylon and Cyperus rotundus.  Use paraquat @ 0.5 kg a.i. /ha in 600 L of water (preferably should be used when perennial weeds are not present, and sowing can be done immediately after spray). CONTI……
  • 31. 31 HERBICIDES  Pre-emergence herbicides  Pre-emergence herbicides are generally used before the emergence of weeds. Thus,these chemical molecules are applied immediately after the sowing of the crops.  Use pendimethalin @ 1.0 kg a.i./ ha in 600–750 L of water/ha in moist conditions and in evening hours.  Pretilachlor with safener at 0.50 kg a.i./ ha in standing-water conditions.  Post-emergence herbicides  Postemergence herbicides are used to knock down weeds after they are up or growing vigorously.  Use Almix at 0.004 kg a.i. ha for the control of broadleaf weeds and annual sedges. It also suppresses Cyperus rotundus for a fewdays.  Use 2,4-D at 0.5–0.75 kg a.i./ ha for knocking down Sesbania, annual sedges and broad leaf weeds.  Use Azimsulfuron @ 0.030 kg a.i./ ha to control most weeds, including Cyperus species, except grasses.
  • 32. Effect of stale bed method, on weed management Singh, 2013 TREATMENT Weed density (no./m2) 30DAS 60DAS Rice establishment Dry seeded after stale bed using shallow tillage 8.15 11.30 Dry seeded after stale bed using glyphosate1kg/ ha 7.25 10.49 LSD(P=0.05 0.82 NS
  • 33. 33 Effect of seed rate and weed control in WSR Treatment Weed dry matter (q/ha) WCE (%) Effective tillers/m2 Grain yield (q/ha) Seed rate (kg/ha) 40 9.23 52.63 389.9 44.7 50 9.22 52.74 394.8 45.8 60 9.21 52.85 401.3 46.2 CD (p=0.05) NS - NS NS Weed control treatments Pretila 0.75 7.67 61.59 410.4 50.6 Pendi 0.75 7.63 61.93 417.6 53.6 2 HW 7.56 65.52 420.3 54.2 Unweeded 15.47 - 306.1 15.4 CD (p=0.05) 0.17 - 29.2 4.54 Payman and Singh (2008)Loamy sand, Wet seeding, SPD
  • 34. 34 Effect of weed control treatments on weed and yield of DSR Treatment Weed dry matter (g/m2) WCE (%) Panicles /m2 Grain yield (q/ha) Butachlor 1.5 35.23 77.59 444 26.9 Butachlor 1.0 fb 2,4-D 0.6 34.84 77.84 460 27.8 Pendimethalin 1.5 25.71 83.67 460 28.0 Pendimethalin 1.0 fb 2,4-D 0.6 17.81 88.67 465 30.0 Weed free 6.04 96.16 518 31.3 Unweeded 157.24 - 283 14.3 CD (p=0.05) 21.62 - 58 3.4 Kalia and Bindra (1996)Sility clay loam, Dhan 221
  • 35. 35 Effect of different weed control treatments on weeds and DSR Treatment Weed density (No/m2) Weed dry wt. (g/m2) Grain yield (q/ha) Pretilachlor 0.37 + Safener 3.8 (14.0)* 15.2 (13.3) 57.3 Pretilachlor 0.56 + Safener 3.6 (12.0) 14.8 (1.2) 57.7 Pretila 0.37 + Safe + 1 HW 2.4 (5.0) 12.4 (5.3) 59.7 Pretilachlor 0.62 4.5 (20.0) 17.5 (20.7) 55.4 Pretilachlor 0.94 3.9 (14.0) 16.1 (15.8) 57.2 Pretila 0.62 + 1 HW 3.0 (8.0) 13.5 (8.2) 59.0 2 HW (20 and 45 DAS) 8.7(74.3) 24.5 (50.0) 58.3 Weedy 9.6 (92.3) 33.0 (99.7) 40.8 CD (p=0.05) 0.8 (6.8) 1.8 (10.3) 0.5 Mahajan et al (2003)*Figures in parenthesis are original values Sq. root transformation is used
  • 36. 36 Effect of seeding methods, intercropping and weed management in DSR Treatment Weed density (no/ha) Panicles/m2 Grain yield (q/ha) B:C ratio Seeding methods Surface 1.85 (90.4) 365 46 1.77 Anaerobic 1.83 (87.1) 373 47 1.84 CD (p=0.05) NS NS NS Intercropping Sole rice 2.07 (129.7) 356 41 1.65 Rice + Dhaincha 1.61 (47.8) 381 52 1.97 CD (p=0.05) 0.02 9 3 Weed management Pretila 0.3 fb HW 1.63 (49.6) 413 57 2.21 2 HW 1.73 (58.9) 381 53 1.97 Unweeded 2.22 (178.1) 291 22 0.98 CD (p=0.05) 0.06 13 3 Ravisankar et al (2008) Coimbatore, T.N Indian J Agron 53(1): 57-61 Clay loam
  • 37. 37 CONCLUSION  Weeds are one of major problem in DSR, reduces 5-95% yield  DSR is a labor-, fuel-, time-, and water-saving technology.  DSR is cost-effective and gives a higher net return than puddled transplanted rice.  Weed management is critical in DSR, but with an different weed management approach weeds can be managed. There is a need to integrate different weed management strategies.  Use of a stale seedbed practice  Higher seed rate and quick growing varieties  Use of crop residue as mulches  Use of weed-competitive cultivars  Appropriate herbicide mixtures, timing,