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XML Parsing

XML Parsing

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6   xml parsing 6 xml parsing Presentation Transcript

  • XML Parsing Atul Kahate [email_address]
  • Agenda
    • XML Parsing/Processing Basics
      • Simple API for XML (SAX)
      • Document Object Model (DOM)
    • XML and Java using JAXP
    • XML and ASP.NET
  • XML Parsing/Processing
  • XML Processing
    • XML processing means
      • Reading an XML document
      • Parsing it in the desired manner
    • Allows handling the contents of an XML document the way we want
  • XML Parser
    • Software that sits between an application and the XML files
    • Shield programmers from having to manually parse through XML documents
    • Programmers are free to concentrate on the contents of the XML file, not syntax
    • Programmers use the parser APIs to access/manipulate an XML file
  • XML Processing Approaches
    • Process as a sequence of events
      • Simple API for XML Processing (SAX)
    • Process as a hierarchy of nodes
      • Document Object Model (DOM)
    • Pull approach
      • Streaming API (StAX)
  • SAX Versus DOM
  • StAX
    • Pulls events from the XML document via the parser
    • Also an event-based API, but differs from SAX
      • The application, and not the parser; controls the flow
  • Simple API for XML (SAX)
  • XML Processing as Sequence of Events – 1
    • Process as a sequence of events
      • Event is the occurrence of something noticeable
      • e.g. in Windows, mouse movement, keyboard input are events
      • The OS captures all events and sends messages to a program
      • The programmer has to take an appropriate action to deal with the event
  • XML Processing as Sequence of Events – 2
    • Process as a sequence of events
      • Event-based model can be applied to XML documents also
      • Various events that occur while reading an XML document sequentially
        • Start of document
        • Start tag of an element
        • End tag of an element
        • Comments
  • XML Processing as Sequence of Events – 3
    • Process as a sequence of events
      • The programmer has to write code to handle these events
      • Called as event handlers
  • Sequential Processing Example – 1
    • Consider the following XML document
    • <?xml version=“1.0”?>
    • <books>
    • <book>
    • <name> Learning XML </name>
    • <author> Simon North </author>
    • <publication> TMH </publication>
    • </book>
    • <book>
    • <name> XML by Example </name>
    • <author> Don Box </author>
    • <publication> Pearson </publication>
    • </book>
    • </books>
  • Sequential Processing Example – 2
    • Events generated when we read the above XML file
    • Start document
    • Start element: books
    • Start element: book
    • Start element: name
    • Characters: Learning XML
    • End element: name
    • Start element: author
    • Characters: Simon North
    • End element: author
    • Start element: publication
    • Characters: TMH
    • End element: publication
    • End element: book
    • End document
  • Sample XML Tree
  • Tree Processing Sequence 1 2 8 3 4 9 10 14 15 5 6 7 11 12 13 16 17
  • Sequential Traversal: Summary
    • Order
      • Top to bottom
      • Left to right
    • Advantages
      • Simple
      • Fast
      • Requires less amount of memory
    • Drawback
      • Not possible to look ahead
  • SAX Concept
  • JAXP Java API for XML Processing
  • JAXP Concept Application program written in Java for working with XML Java API for XML Processing (JAXP) JAXP APIs Simple API for XML Processing (SAX) Document Object Model (DOM) Sequential processing Tree-based processing
  • JAXP
    • Java API for XML Processing
    • Standardized by Sun
    • Very thin layer on top of SAX or DOM
    • Makes application code parser-independent
    • Our programs should use JAXP, which in turn, calls parser APIs
    • Include package javax.xml.parsers.*
  • JAXP: API or Abstraction?
    • JAXP is an API, but is called as an abstraction layer
      • Does not provide new means of parsing XML
      • Does not add to SAX or DOM
      • Does not give new functionality to Java or XML handling
      • Makes working with SAX and DOM easier
      • It is vendor-neutral
  • JAXP and Parsing
    • JAXP is not a replacement for SAX, DOM, JDOM etc
    • Some vendor must supply the implementation of SAX, DOM, etc
    • JAXP provides APIs to use these implementations
      • In the early versions of JDK, Sun had supplied a parser called Crimson
      • Now, Sun provides Apache Xerces
      • Both are not a part of JAXP API – they are part of JAXP distribution
    • In JDK, we can locate Xerces implementations in the org.xml.sax and org.w3c.dom packages
  • JAXP API
    • The main JAXP APIs are defined in the package javax.xml.parsers
    • Contains two vendor-neutral factory classes
      • SAXParserFactory – Gives a SAXParser object
      • DocumentBuilderFactory – Gives a DocumentBuilder object
        • DocumentBuilder, in turn, gives Document object
  • Package Details
    • javax.xml.parsers
      • The JAXP APIs, which provide a common interface for different vendors' SAX and DOM parsers.
    • org.w3c.dom
      • Defines the Document class (a DOM), as well as classes for all of the components of a DOM.
    • org.xml.sax
      • Defines the basic SAX APIs.
    • javax.xml.transform
      • Defines the XSLT APIs that let you transform XML into other forms.
  • Which Packages to use in JAXP?
    • We need to include two sets of packages – one for JAXP and the other for SAX/DOM, as appropriate
    • // JAXP
    • import javax.xml.parsers.SAXParserFactory;
    • // SAX
    • import org.xml.sax.Attributes;
    • import org.xml.sax.SAXException;
    • import org.xml.sax.SAXNotRecognizedException;
    • import org.xml.sax.SAXNotSupportedException;
    • import org.xml.sax.SAXParseException;
    • import org.xml.sax.XMLReader;
    • import org.xml.sax.helpers.DefaultHandler;
    • import org.xml.sax.helpers.XMLReaderFactory;
  • SAX Programming in JAXP
  • SAX Approach
  • Key SAX APIs – 1
    • SAXParserFactory
      • Creates an instance of the parser determined by the system property, javax.xml.parsers.SAXParserFactory.
    •  
    • SAXParser
      • An interface that defines several kinds of parse() methods. In general, you pass an XML data source and a DefaultHandler object to the parser, which processes the XML and invokes the appropriate methods in the handler object.
    •  
    •  
  • Key SAX APIs – 2
    • SAXReader
      • The SAXParser wraps a SAXReader. Typically, you don't care about that, but every once in a while you need to get hold of it using SAXParser's getXMLReader(), so you can configure it. It is the SAXReader which carries on the conversation with the SAX event handlers you define.
    • DefaultHandler
      • Not shown in the diagram, a DefaultHandler implements the ContentHandler, ErrorHandler, DTDHandler, and EntityResolver interfaces (with null methods), so you can override only the ones you're interested in.
  • Design Patterns Factory Pattern
  • “ new” means “Concrete”
    • Vehicle vehicle = new Car ();
    • We want to use an interface (say Vehicle) to keep code flexible
    • However, we must create an instance of a concrete class (e.g. Car)
    • Makes the code more fragile and less flexible – Why? See next slide.
  • Using “new” – 1
    • Vehicle vehicle;
    • if (picnic)
    • vehicle = new Car ();
    • else if (work)
    • vehicle = new Bus ();
    • else
    • vehicle = new Scooter ();
  • Using “new” – 2
    • We do not know until run time which class to instantiate
    • Whenever code needs to be changed, we need to reopen this code and examine what needs to be added or removed
    • Mandates application changes at multiple places, making it difficult to maintain
  • What is wrong with “new”?
    • Nothing as such
    • Problem is changes to code and their impact on “new”
    • By coding to an interface, we know that we are insulated from changes made to a system
    • This is because different classes would implement the interface using polymorphism appropriately
  • Key OO Principle
    • Identify the aspects of code that vary and separate them from what stays the same
    • Code should be open for extension, but closed for modifications
  • Pizza Class – Ideal Situation
    • Pizza orderPizza () {
    • Pizza pizza = new Pizza () ;
    • Pizza.prepare ();
    • Pizza.bake ();
    • Pizza.cut ();
    • Pizza.pack();
    • return pizza;
    • }
    Ideally, we would like this to be an abstract class or an interface, but we cannot directly instantiate an abstract class or an interface!
  • Pizza Class – Ideal Situation
    • Pizza orderPizza () {
    • Pizza pizza = new Cheese Pizza () ;
    • Pizza.prepare ();
    • Pizza.bake ();
    • Pizza.cut ();
    • Pizza.pack();
    • return pizza;
    • }
    We are left with no choice but to instantiate a concrete class
  • Solution
    • Pizza orderPizza (String type) {
    • Pizza pizza;
    • if (type.equals (“cheese”)) {
    • pizza = new CheesePizza ();
    • }
    • else if (type.equals (“corn”)) {
    • pizza = new CornPizza ();
    • }
    • else {
    • pizza = new GeneralPizza ();
    • }
    • Pizza.prepare ();
    • Pizza.bake ();
    • Pizza.cut ();
    • Pizza.pack();
    • return pizza;
    • }
    • We are passing the type of pizza to orderPizza () method.
    • Based on the type of pizza, we instantiate the correct concrete class. Each pizza has to implement the Pizza interface.
    • Each pizza sub-type (e.g. cheese) knows how to prepare itself.
  • Is this correct?
    • Let us review the principles:
    • Identify the aspects of code that vary and separate them from what stays the same
    • Code should be open for extension, but closed for modifications
  • Problems
    • What if we remove one pizza type, and add another?
    • We need to touch the code
    • See next slide
  • Problem – Code
    • Pizza orderPizza (String type) {
    • Pizza pizza;
    • if (type.equals (“veg”)) {
    • pizza = new VeggiePizza ();
    • }
    • else if (type.equals (“corn”)) {
    • pizza = new CornPizza ();
    • }
    • else {
    • pizza = new GeneralPizza ();
    • }
    • Pizza.prepare ();
    • Pizza.bake ();
    • Pizza.cut ();
    • Pizza.pack();
    • return pizza;
    • return pizza;
    • }
    • Problem is that we end up touching code for modifications.
    • This is not what we want.
    • What is the solution?
  • Code Modified Further
    • Pizza orderPizza (String type) {
    • Pizza pizza;
    • if (type.equals (“cheese”)) {
    • pizza = new CheesePizza ();
    • }
    • else if (type.equals (“corn”)) {
    • pizza = new CornPizza ();
    • }
    • else {
    • pizza = new GeneralPizza ();
    • }
    • Pizza.prepare ();
    • Pizza.bake ();
    • Pizza.cut ();
    • Pizza.pack();
    • return pizza;
    • return pizza;
    • }
    if (type.equals (“cheese”)) { pizza = new CheesePizza (); } else if (type.equals (“corn”)) { pizza = new CornPizza (); } else { pizza = new GeneralPizza (); } Abstract out the code that varies, and put it into a separate class, that would only worry about how to create objects. If any other object needs a pizza object, this is the class to come to.
  • This new Class is our “Factory”
    • public class PizzaFactory {
    • public Pizza createPizza (String type) {
    • Pizza pizza = null;
    • if (type.equals (“cheese”)) {
    • pizza = new CheesePizza ();
    • }
    • else if (type.equals (“corn”)) {
    • pizza = new CornPizza ();
    • }
    • else {
    • pizza = new GeneralPizza ();
    • }
    • return pizza;
    • }
    • }
    • This new class creates new pizzas for its clients.
    • It has a createPizza () method, which all clients will use to instantiate new objects.
    • It contains code plucked out of the orderPizza () method.
  • Modified Client Code
    • public class PizzaStore {
    • PizzaFactory factory = new PizzaFactory ();
    • public Pizza orderPizza (String type) {
    • Pizza pizza = factory.createPizza (“Cheese”);
    • pizza.prepare ();
    • pizza.bake ();
    • pizza.cut ();
    • pizza.pack ();
    • return pizza;
    • }
    • }
    A variation of this is: PizzaFactory factory = PizzaFactory.newInstance (); In this case, newInstance () would be a static method in PizzaFactory, since we are not creating any object of PizzaFactory here
  • Another Factory Pattern Example
  • Factory Pattern – The Need – 1
    • Consider this:
    • Connection connection = new OracleConnection ();
    • Connection connection = new SqlServerConnection ();
    • Connection connection = new DB2Connection ();
    • ...
    • What are the problems?
    • How to resolve them?
  • Problems Summarized
    • Sometimes, an Application (or framework) at runtime, cannot anticipate the class of object that it must create. The Application (or framework) may know that it has to instantiate classes, but it may only know about abstract classes (or interfaces), which it cannot instantiate. Thus the Application class may only know when it has to instantiate a new Object of a class, not what kind of subclass to create.
    • A class may want it's subclasses to specify the objects to be created.
    • A class may delegate responsibility to one of several helper subclasses so that knowledge can be localized to specific helper subclasses.
  • Factory Pattern – The Need – 2
    • public Connection createConnection (String type) {
    • if (type.equals (&quot;Oracle&quot;) {
    • return new OracleConnection ();
    • }
    • else
    • if (type.equals (&quot;SQL Server&quot;) {
    • return new SqlServerConnection ();
    • }
    • else
    • if (type.equals (&quot;DB2&quot;) {
    • return new DB2Connection ();
    • }
    • }
    • Does it resolve all problems?
  • More on Factory Pattern – 1
    • Factory Method is a creational pattern. This pattern helps to model an interface for creating an object which at creation time can let its subclasses decide which class to instantiate. We call this a Factory Pattern since it is responsible for &quot;Manufacturing&quot; an Object. It helps instantiate the appropriate Subclass by creating the right Object from a group of related classes. The Factory Pattern promotes loose coupling by eliminating the need to bind application-specific classes into the code.
    • Factories have a simple function: Churn out objects.
  • More on Factory Pattern – 2
    • Obviously, a factory is not needed to make an object. A simple call to new will do it for you. However, the use of factories gives the programmer the opportunity to abstract the specific attributes of an Object into specific subclasses which create them.
    • The Factory Pattern is all about &quot; Define an interface for creating an object, but let the subclasses decide which class to instantiate. The Factory method lets a class defer instantiation to subclasses &quot;
  • Factory Pattern – The Need – 3
    • We still need to add new code for a new connection type
    • The existing class needs to undergo changes every time
    • When object creation changes a lot, use a factory
  • Factory Pattern – The Need – 4
    • Client code to use the factory
    • FirstFactory factory = FirstFactory.getInstance ();
    • Connection connection = factory.createConnection (“Oracle”);
  • The Factory Class – 1
    • public class FirstFactory {
    • protected static String type;
    • public static FirstFactory getInstance () {
    • type = null;
    • return new FirstFactory ();
    • }
    • ...
    • }
  • The Factory Class – 2
    • public class FirstFactory {
    • protected static String type;
    • public static FirstFactory getInstance () {
    • type = &quot;&quot;;
    • return new FirstFactory ();
    • }
    • public Connection createConnection (String t) {
    • type = t;
    • if (type.equals (&quot;Oracle&quot;)) {
    • return new OracleConnection ();
    • }
    • else
    • if (type.equals (&quot;SQL Server&quot;)) {
    • return new SQLServerConnection ();
    • }
    • else {
    • //if (type.equals (&quot;DB2&quot;)) {
    • return new DB2Connection ();
    • }
    • }
    • }
  • Connection Classes
    • public interface Connection {
    • public String description ();
    • }
    • public class OracleConnection implements Connection {
    • public OracleConnection () {
    • // Logic specific to Oracle
    • }
    • public String description () {
    • return &quot;Oracle&quot;;
    • }
    • }
    • public class SQLServerConnection implements Connection {
    • public SQLServerConnection () {
    • // Logic specific to SQL Server
    • }
    • public String description () {
    • return &quot;SQL Server&quot;;
    • }
    • }
    • public class DB2Connection implements Connection {
    • public DB2Connection () {
    • // Logic specific to DB2
    • }
    • public String description () {
    • return &quot;DB2&quot;;
    • }
    • }
  • Client Code
    • public class TestConnection {
    • public static void main (String args []) {
    • FirstFactory factory = FirstFactory.getInstance ();
    • Connection connection = factory.createConnection (&quot;DB2&quot;);
    • System.out.println (&quot;You are connected with &quot; + connection.description ());
    • }
    • }
  • Factory Pattern - Exercise
  • Exercise
    • We want to be able to create any of the following objects that have some similarities and some differences. Design using factory method design pattern.
      • Employee
      • Student
      • Player
  • SAX
  • Sequential Traversal: SAX
    • SAX (Simple API for XML)
    • Specify the parser to be used
    • Create a parser instance
    • Create an event handler to respond to parsing events
    • Invoke the parser with the designated content handler and document
  • 1 – Specify the Parser
    • Various approaches are possible
      • Set a system property for javax.xml.parsers.SAXParserfactory
      • Specify the parser in jre_dir/lib/jaxp.properties
      • Use system-dependent default parser (check documentation)
    • Usually done at the time of JDK installation itself automatically
  • 1 – Specify the Parser
    • Example
    • Public static void main (String [] args)
    • {
    • String jaxpPropertyName = “javax.xml.parsers.SAXParserFactory”;
    • }
  • 2 – Create a Parser Instance
    • Steps
      • Create an instance of a parser factory
      • Use that to create a SAXParser object
    • Example
    • SAXParserFactory factory = SAXParserFactory.newInstance ();
    • SaxParser p = factory.newSAXParser ();
  • 3 – Create an Event Handler
    • Event handler responds to parsing events
      • It is a subclass of DefaultHandler
        • public class MyHandler extends DefaultHandler { … }
      • Main event methods (callbacks)
        • startDocument, endDocument
        • startElement, endElement
        • characters, ignoreableWhitespace
  • 3 – Create an Event Handler
    • Example method: startElement
    • Declaration
    • public void startElement (String nameSpaceURI,
    • String localName,
    • String qualifiedName,
    • Attributes attributes)
    • throws SASException
    • Arguments
    • nameSpaceURI URI identifying the namespace uniquely
    • localName Element name without namespace prefix
    • qualifiedName Complete element name, including namespace prefix
    • attributes Attributes object, representing attributes of the element
  • 3 – Create an Event Handler
    • nameSpaceURI
    • <cwp:book xmlns:cwp= “http://www.test.com/xml/”>
    • qualifiedName attribute[1]
    • < cwp:chapter number=“23” part=“Server programming” >
    • <cwp: title > XML made easy </cwp:title>
    • </cwp:chapter>
    • localName
    • </cwp:book>
  • 4 – Invoke the Parser
    • Call the parse method, supplying:
      • The content handler
      • The XML document
        • File or Input stream
        • p.parse (file name, handler);
  • Sample XML File (emp.xml)
    • <?xml version=&quot;1.0&quot; encoding=&quot;UTF-8&quot;?>
    • <root>
    • <employee>test 1</employee>
    • <employee>test 1</employee>
    • <employee>test 1</employee>
    • <employee>test 1</employee>
    • <employee>test 1</employee>
    • <employee>test 1</employee>
    • <employee>test 1</employee>
    • </root>
  • Java Program to Count Total Number of Elements
    • import javax.xml.parsers.SAXParser;
    • import javax.xml.parsers.SAXParserFactory;
    • import org.xml.sax.*;
    • import org.xml.sax.helpers.DefaultHandler;
    • public class SAXEmployeeCount extends DefaultHandler
    • {
    • int tagCount = 0;
    • public void startElement (String uri, String localName, String rawName, Attributes attributes)
    • {
    • tagCount++;
    • }
    • public void endDocument()
    • {
    • System.out.println(&quot;There are &quot; + tagCount + &quot; elements.&quot;);
    • }
    • public static void main(String[] args)
    • {
    • SAXEmployeeCount handler = new SAXEmployeeCount ();
    • try {
    • SAXParserFactory spf = SAXParserFactory.newInstance ();
    • SAXParser parser = spf.newSAXParser ();
    • parser.parse(&quot;employee.xml&quot;, handler);
    • }
    • catch (Exception ex) {
    • System.out.println(ex);
    • }
    • }
    • }
  • Count Only Book Elements
    • <?xml version=&quot;1.0&quot;?>
    • <books>
    • <book category=&quot;reference&quot;>
    • <author>Nigel Rees</author>
    • <title>Sayings of the Century</title>
    • <price>8.95</price>
    • </book>
    • <book category=&quot;fiction&quot;>
    • <author>Evelyn Waugh</author>
    • <title>Sword of Honour</title>
    • <price>12.99</price>
    • </book>
    • <book category=&quot;fiction&quot;>
    • <author>Herman Melville</author>
    • <title>Moby Rick</title>
    • <price>8.99</price>
    • </book>
    • </books>
  • Parsing Code in JAXP
    • import java.io.IOException;
    • import java.lang.*;
    • import javax.xml.parsers.SAXParser;
    • import javax.xml.parsers.SAXParserFactory;
    • import org.xml.sax.Attributes;
    • import org.xml.sax.Locator;
    • import org.xml.sax.SAXException;
    • import org.xml.sax.SAXNotRecognizedException;
    • import org.xml.sax.SAXNotSupportedException;
    • import org.xml.sax.SAXParseException;
    • import org.xml.sax.XMLReader;
    • import org.xml.sax.ext.LexicalHandler;
    • import org.xml.sax.helpers.DefaultHandler;
    • import org.xml.sax.helpers.ParserAdapter;
    • import org.xml.sax.helpers.XMLReaderFactory;
    • public class BookCount extends DefaultHandler{
    • private int count = 0;
    • public void startDocument() throws SAXException {
    • System.out.println(&quot;Start document ...&quot;);
    • }
    • public void startElement(String uri, String local, String raw,
    • Attributes attrs) throws SAXException {
    • int year = 0;
    • String attrValue;
    • System.out.println (&quot;Current element = &quot; + raw);
    • if (raw.equals (&quot;book&quot;)) {
    • count++;
    • }
    • }
    • public void endDocument() throws SAXException {
    • System.out.println(&quot;The total number of books = &quot; + count);
    • }
    • public static void main (String[] args) throws Exception {
    • BookCount handler = new BookCount ();
    • try {
    • SAXParserFactory spf = SAXParserFactory.newInstance ();
    • SAXParser parser = spf.newSAXParser ();
    • parser.parse (&quot;book.xml&quot;, handler);
    • }
    • catch (SAXException e) {
    • System.err.println(e.getMessage());
    • }
    • }
    • }
  • Specifying Parser Name
    • import java.io.IOException;
    • import javax.xml.parsers.SAXParser;
    • import javax.xml.parsers.SAXParserFactory;
    • import org.xml.sax.Attributes;
    • import org.xml.sax.Locator;
    • import org.xml.sax.SAXException;
    • import org.xml.sax.SAXNotRecognizedException;
    • import org.xml.sax.SAXNotSupportedException;
    • import org.xml.sax.SAXParseException;
    • import org.xml.sax.XMLReader;
    • import org.xml.sax.ext.LexicalHandler;
    • import org.xml.sax.helpers.DefaultHandler;
    • import org.xml.sax.helpers.ParserAdapter;
    • import org.xml.sax.helpers.XMLReaderFactory;
    • public class SAXApp extends DefaultHandler{
    • // default parser to use
    • protected static final String DEFAULT_PARSER_NAME = &quot;org.apache.xerces.parsers.SAXParser&quot;;
    • private int count = 0;
    • public void countTopics () throws IOException, SAXException {
    • // create parser
    • try {
    • System.out.println (&quot;Inside countTopics&quot;);
    • }
    • catch (Exception e) {
    • e.printStackTrace(System.err);
    • }
    • }
    • public void startElement(String uri, String local, String raw,
    • Attributes attrs) throws SAXException {
    • if (raw.equals(&quot;topic&quot;)) count++;
    • System.out.println (raw);
    • }
    • public void endDocument() throws SAXException {
    • System.out.println(&quot;There are &quot; + count + &quot; topics&quot;);
    • }
    • public static void main (String[] args) throws Exception{
    • System.out.println (&quot;Inside main ...&quot;);
    • SAXApp handler = new SAXApp();
    • try {
    • SAXParserFactory spf = SAXParserFactory.newInstance ();
    • SAXParser parser = spf.newSAXParser ();
    • parser.parse (&quot;contents.xml&quot;, handler);
    • }
    • catch (SAXException e) {
    • System.err.println(e.getMessage());
    • }
    • }
    • }
  • Exercise
    • Consider the following XML file and write a program to count the number of elements that have at least one attribute.
    • <?xml version=&quot;1.0&quot;?>
    • <BOOKS>
    • <BOOK pubyear=&quot;1929&quot;>
    • <BOOK_TITLE>Look Homeward, Angel</BOOK_TITLE>
    • <AUTHOR>Wolfe, Thomas</AUTHOR>
    • </BOOK>
    • <BOOK pubyear=&quot;1973&quot;>
    • <BOOK_TITLE>Gravity's Rainbow</BOOK_TITLE>
    • <AUTHOR>Pynchon, Thomas</AUTHOR>
    • </BOOK>
    • <BOOK pubyear=&quot;1977&quot;>
    • <BOOK_TITLE>Cards as Weapons</BOOK_TITLE>
    • <AUTHOR>Jay, Ricky</AUTHOR>
    • </BOOK>
    • <BOOK pubyear=&quot;2001&quot;>
    • <BOOK_TITLE>Computer Networks</BOOK_TITLE>
    • <AUTHOR>Tanenbaum, Andrew</AUTHOR>
    • </BOOK>
    • </BOOKS>
  • Solution
    • import java.io.IOException;
    • import javax.xml.parsers.SAXParser;
    • import javax.xml.parsers.SAXParserFactory;
    • import org.xml.sax.Attributes;
    • import org.xml.sax.Locator;
    • import org.xml.sax.SAXException;
    • import org.xml.sax.SAXNotRecognizedException;
    • import org.xml.sax.SAXNotSupportedException;
    • import org.xml.sax.SAXParseException;
    • import org.xml.sax.XMLReader;
    • import org.xml.sax.ext.LexicalHandler;
    • import org.xml.sax.helpers.DefaultHandler;
    • import org.xml.sax.helpers.ParserAdapter;
    • import org.xml.sax.helpers.XMLReaderFactory;
    • public class countAttr extends DefaultHandler{
    • private int count = 0;
    • public void startDocument() throws SAXException {
    • System.out.println(&quot;Start document ...&quot;);
    • }
    • public void startElement(String uri, String local, String raw,
    • Attributes attrs) throws SAXException {
    • System.out.println (&quot;Current element = &quot; + raw);
    • if (attrs.getLength () != 0) {
    • count++;
    • }
    • }
    • public void endDocument() throws SAXException {
    • System.out.println(&quot;The total number of attributes = &quot; + count);
    • }
    • public static void main (String[] args) throws Exception {
    • countAttr handler = new countAttr ();
    • try {
    • SAXParserFactory spf = SAXParserFactory.newInstance ();
    • SAXParser parser = spf.newSAXParser ();
    • parser.parse (&quot;countAttr.xml&quot;, handler);
    • }
    • catch (SAXException e) {
    • System.err.println(e.getMessage());
    • }
    • }
    • }
  • Exercise
    • For the same XML file, display element names only if the book is published in the 1970s.
  • Solution
    • import java.io.IOException;
    • import java.lang.*;
    • import javax.xml.parsers.SAXParser;
    • import javax.xml.parsers.SAXParserFactory;
    • import org.xml.sax.Attributes;
    • import org.xml.sax.Locator;
    • import org.xml.sax.SAXException;
    • import org.xml.sax.SAXNotRecognizedException;
    • import org.xml.sax.SAXNotSupportedException;
    • import org.xml.sax.SAXParseException;
    • import org.xml.sax.XMLReader;
    • import org.xml.sax.ext.LexicalHandler;
    • import org.xml.sax.helpers.DefaultHandler;
    • import org.xml.sax.helpers.ParserAdapter;
    • import org.xml.sax.helpers.XMLReaderFactory;
    • public class seventiesBooks extends DefaultHandler{
    • private int count = 0;
    • public void startDocument() throws SAXException {
    • System.out.println(&quot;Start document ...&quot;);
    • }
    • public void startElement(String uri, String local, String raw,
    • Attributes attrs) throws SAXException {
    • int year = 0;
    • String attrValue;
    • System.out.println (&quot;Current element = &quot; + raw);
    • if (attrs.getLength () > 0) {
    • attrValue = attrs.getValue (0);
    • year = Integer.parseInt (attrValue);
    • if (year < 1970) {
    • count++;
    • }
    • }
    • }
    • public void endDocument() throws SAXException {
    • System.out.println(&quot;The total number of matching elements = &quot; + count);
    • }
    • public static void main (String[] args) throws Exception {
    • seventiesBooks handler = new seventiesBooks();
    • try {
    • SAXParserFactory spf = SAXParserFactory.newInstance ();
    • SAXParser parser = spf.newSAXParser ();
    • parser.parse (&quot;countAttr.xml&quot;, handler);
    • }
    • catch (SAXException e) {
    • System.err.println(e.getMessage());
    • }
    • }
    • }
  • Exercise
    • Consider the following XML document (stock.xml)
    • <?xml version=&quot;1.0&quot;?>
    • <stock>
    • <stockinfo symbol=&quot;IFL&quot;>
    • <company>i-flex solutions limited</company>
    • <price>2500</price>
    • </stockinfo>
    • <stockinfo symbol=&quot;HLL&quot;>
    • <company>Hindustan Lever</company>
    • <price>1840</price>
    • </stockinfo>
    • <stockinfo symbol=&quot;LT&quot;>
    • <company>Laresn and Toubro</company>
    • <price>2678</price>
    • </stockinfo>
    • <stockinfo symbol=&quot;Rel&quot;>
    • <company>Reliance Communications</company>
    • <price>1743</price>
    • </stockinfo>
    • </stock>
    • Produce output as shown on the next slide
  • Expected Output
  • Solution
    • import java.io.*;
    • import org.xml.sax.*;
    • import org.xml.sax.helpers.*;
    • import javax.xml.parsers.*;
    • public class DisplayStockDetails extends DefaultHandler {
    • public void startDocument () throws SAXException {
    • System.out.println (&quot;nDisplaying Stock Details&quot;);
    • System.out.println (&quot;=========================n&quot;);
    • }
    • public void endDocument () throws SAXException {
    • System.out.println (&quot;nEnd of Details&quot;);
    • System.out.println (&quot;==============n&quot;);
    • }
    • public void startElement (String uri, String local, String raw,
    • Attributes attrs) throws SAXException {
    • // Skip processing root element
    • if (local.equals (&quot;stock&quot;))
    • return;
    • // Skip processing if there are no attributes
    • if (attrs == null)
    • return;
    • for (int i=0; i<attrs.getLength (); i++) {
    • System.out.println (&quot;[Symbol: &quot; + attrs.getValue (i) + &quot;]&quot;);
    • }
    • }
    • public void endElement (String uri, String local, String raw) throws SAXException {
    • // System.out.println ();
    • }
    • public void characters (char[] ch, int start, int length) throws SAXException {
    • System.out.println (new String (ch, start, length));
    • }
    • public static void main (String[] args) throws Exception {
    • DisplayStockDetails handler = new DisplayStockDetails ();
    • try {
    • SAXParserFactory spf = SAXParserFactory.newInstance ();
    • SAXParser parser = spf.newSAXParser ();
    • parser.parse (&quot;stock.xml&quot;, handler);
    • }
    • catch (SAXException e) {
    • System.err.println(e.getMessage());
    • }
    • }
    • }
  • Exercise
    • Consider the following XML file and write a program to find out and display the total cost for all CDs.
    • <?xml version=&quot;1.0&quot; encoding=&quot;ISO-8859-1&quot;?>
    • <catalog>
    • <cd>
    • <title>Empire Burlesque</title>
    • <artist>Bob Dylan</artist>
    • <country>USA</country>
    • <company>Columbia</company>
    • <price>10.90</price>
    • <year>1985</year>
    • </cd>
    • <cd>
    • <title>Candle in the wind</title>
    • <artist>Elton John</artist>
    • <country>UK</country>
    • <company>HMV</company>
    • <price>8.20</price>
    • <year>1998</year>
    • </cd>
    • </catalog>
  • Solution
    • import java.io.IOException;
    • import java.lang.*;
    • import javax.xml.parsers.SAXParser;
    • import javax.xml.parsers.SAXParserFactory;
    • import org.xml.sax.Attributes;
    • import org.xml.sax.Locator;
    • import org.xml.sax.SAXException;
    • import org.xml.sax.SAXNotRecognizedException;
    • import org.xml.sax.SAXNotSupportedException;
    • import org.xml.sax.SAXParseException;
    • import org.xml.sax.XMLReader;
    • import org.xml.sax.ext.LexicalHandler;
    • import org.xml.sax.helpers.DefaultHandler;
    • import org.xml.sax.helpers.ParserAdapter;
    • import org.xml.sax.helpers.XMLReaderFactory;
    • public class CDPrice extends DefaultHandler{
    • private int count = 0, total = 0;
    • private boolean flagIsAvailable = false, flagIsCurrentElementPrice = false;
    • public void startDocument() throws SAXException {
    • System.out.println(&quot;Start document ...&quot;);
    • }
    • public void startElement(String uri, String local, String raw,
    • Attributes attrs) throws SAXException {
    • int year = 0;
    • String attrValue;
    • System.out.println (&quot;Current element = &quot; + raw);
    • if (raw.equals (&quot;price&quot;)) {
    • flagIsCurrentElementPrice = true;
    • System.out.println (&quot;INSIDE if of startElement ===&quot;);
    • }
    • }
    • public void characters (char [] ch, int start, int len) throws SAXException {
    • if (flagIsCurrentElementPrice) {
    • System.out.println (&quot;ch = &quot; + ch);
    • System.out.println (&quot;start = &quot; + start);
    • System.out.println (&quot;len = &quot; + len);
    • StringBuffer buffer = new StringBuffer ();
    • for (int i=0; i<len; i++) {
    • buffer.append (ch[start+i]);
    • }
    • System.out.println (&quot;*** buffer = &quot; + buffer + &quot; ***&quot;);
    • String str = buffer.substring (0);
    • int uprice = Integer.parseInt(str);
    • total += uprice;
    • flagIsCurrentElementPrice = false;
    • System.out.println (&quot;Current total = &quot; + total);
    • }
    • }
    • public void endDocument() throws SAXException {
    • System.out.println(&quot;The total price of available CDs = &quot; + total);
    • }
    • public static void main (String[] args) throws Exception {
    • CDPrice handler = new CDPrice();
    • try {
    • SAXParserFactory spf = SAXParserFactory.newInstance ();
    • SAXParser parser = spf.newSAXParser ();
    • parser.parse (&quot;cdcatalog2.xml&quot;, handler);
    • }
    • catch (SAXException e) {
    • System.err.println(e.getMessage());
    • }
    • }
    • }
  • Document Object Model (DOM)
  • DOM – Basic Flow
  • Basic Concepts
  • JAXP and DOM – Overview
    • Class DocumentBuilderFactory
      • public abstract class javax.xml.parsers.DocumentBuilderFactory extends java.lang.object
      • Defines a factory API that enables applications to obtain a parser that produces DOM object trees from XML documents
        • parse method: Parses the contents of an XML document and returns the contents as a new Document object
  • JAXP and DOM – Overview
    • Class DocumentBuilder
      • public abstract class javax.xml.parsers. DocumentBuilder extends java.lang.Object
      • Defines the API to obtain DOM Document instances from an XML document
  • JAXP and DOM – Overview
    • Interface Document
      • public interface Document extends Node
      • The Document interface represents the entire HTML or XML document
      • Conceptually, it is the root of the document tree, and provides the primary access to the document's data
  • JAXP and DOM – Overview
    • Interface Element
      • public interface Element extends Node
      • The Element interface represents an element in an HTML or XML document
      • Elements may have attributes associated with them
      • Inherits from Node, the generic Node interface
      • attributes may be used to retrieve the set of all attributes for an element
  • JAXP and DOM
    • DocumentBuilderFactory factory = DocumentBuilderFactory.newInstance ();
    • DocumentBuilder builder = factory.newDocumentBuilder ();
    • Document document = builder.parse (fileName);
    • Element root = document.getDocumentElement ();
  • Example – XML File
    • Count the number of Employee elements from this XML using DOM
    • <?xml version=&quot;1.0&quot; encoding=&quot;UTF-8&quot;?>
    • <root>
    • <employee>test 1</employee>
    • <employee>test 1</employee>
    • <employee>test 1</employee>
    • <employee>test 1</employee>
    • <employee>test 1</employee>
    • <employee>test 1</employee>
    • <employee>test 1</employee>
    • </root>
  • Example – Java Code
    • package javaapplication1;
    • import org.w3c.dom.*;
    • public class Main
    • {
    • public static void main(String[] args)
    • {
    • try {
    • DocumentBuilderFactory factory = DocumentBuilderFactory.newInstance ();
    • DocumentBuilder builder = factory.newDocumentBuilder ();
    • Document document = builder.parse (&quot;cdcatalog.xml&quot;);
    • Element root = document.getDocumentElement ();
    • NodeList nodes = document.getElementsByTagName(&quot;employee&quot;);
    • System.out.println(&quot;There are &quot; + nodes.getLength() + &quot; elements.&quot;);
    • } catch (Exception ex) {
    • System.out.println(ex);
    • }
    • }
    • }
  • Check if a File is Well-Formed
    • package sicsr;
    • import javax.xml.parsers.*;
    • public class IsWellFormed {
    • /**
    • * @param args
    • */
    • public static void main(String[] args) {
    • try {
    • DocumentBuilderFactory domFactory = DocumentBuilderFactory. newInstance ();
    • DocumentBuilder domBuilder = domFactory.newDocumentBuilder();
    • domBuilder.parse( &quot;NWF.xml&quot; );
    • }
    • catch (org.xml.sax.SAXException ex) {
    • System. out .println( &quot;File is not well-formed&quot; );
    • }
    • catch (FactoryConfigurationError ex) {
    • System. out .println(ex.toString ());
    • }
    • catch (ParserConfigurationException ex) {
    • System. out .println(ex.toString ());
    • }
    • catch (Exception ex) {
    • System. out .println(ex.toString ());
    • }
    • }
    • }
  • JAXP Code to Open an XML File
    • import org.w3c.dom.*;
    • import javax.xml.parsers.*;
    • import org.xml.sax.*;
    • public class DOMExample1 {
    • public static void main (String[] args) {
    • try {
    • DocumentBuilderFactory factory = DocumentBuilderFactory.newInstance ();
    • DocumentBuilder builder = factory.newDocumentBuilder ();
    • Document document = builder.parse (&quot;cdcatalog.xml&quot;);
    • Element root = document.getDocumentElement ();
    • System.out.println (&quot;In main ... XML file openend successfully ...&quot;);
    • }
    • catch (ParserConfigurationException e1) {
    • System.out.println (&quot;Exception: &quot; + e1);
    • }
    • catch (SAXException e2) {
    • System.out.println (&quot;Exception: &quot; + e2);
    • }
    • catch (java.io.IOException e3) {
    • System.out.println (&quot;Exception: &quot; + e3);
    • }
    • }
    • }
  • Case Study – XML File
    • <?xml version=&quot;1.0&quot;?>
    • <catalog>
    • <cd>
    • <title>Empire Burlesque</title>
    • <artist>Bob Dylan</artist>
    • <country>USA</country>
    • <company>Columbia</company>
    • <price>10</price>
    • <year>1985</year>
    • </cd>
    • <cd>
    • <title>Candle in the wind</title>
    • <artist>Elton John</artist>
    • <country>UK</country>
    • <company>HMV</company>
    • <price>8</price>
    • <year>1998</year>
    • </cd>
    • </catalog>
  • Problem
    • Write a program to find out if an element by the name price exists in the XML file and display its contents
  • Solution
    • import org.w3c.dom.*;
    • import javax.xml.parsers.*;
    • import org.xml.sax.*;
    • public class DOMExample2 {
    • public static void main (String[] args) {
    • NodeList elements;
    • String elementName = &quot;price&quot;;
    • try {
    • DocumentBuilderFactory factory = DocumentBuilderFactory.newInstance ();
    • DocumentBuilder builder = factory.newDocumentBuilder ();
    • Document document = builder.parse (&quot;cdcatalog.xml&quot;);
    • Element root = document.getDocumentElement ();
    • System.out.println (&quot;In main ... XML file openend successfully ...&quot;);
    • elements = document.getElementsByTagName(elementName);
    • // is there anything to do?
    • if (elements == null) {
    • return;
    • }
    • // print all elements
    • int elementCount = elements.getLength();
    • System.out.println (&quot;Count = &quot; + elementCount);
    • for (int i = 0; i < elementCount; i++) {
    • Element element = (Element) elements.item(i);
    • System.out.println (&quot;Element Name = &quot; + element.getNodeName());
    • System.out.println (&quot;Element Type = &quot; + element.getNodeType());
    • System.out.println (&quot;Element Value = &quot; + element.getNodeValue());
    • System.out.println (&quot;Has attributes = &quot; + element.hasAttributes());
    • }
    • }
    • catch (ParserConfigurationException e1) {
    • System.out.println (&quot;Exception: &quot; + e1);
    • }
    • catch (SAXException e2) {
    • System.out.println (&quot;Exception: &quot; + e2);
    • }
    • catch (DOMException e2) {
    • System.out.println (&quot;Exception: &quot; + e2);
    • }
    • catch (java.io.IOException e3) {
    • System.out.println (&quot;Exception: &quot; + e3);
    • }
    • }
    • }
  • Problem
    • Write a program to display element names and their attribute names and values
  • Solution
    • import org.w3c.dom.*;
    • import javax.xml.parsers.*;
    • import org.xml.sax.*;
    • public class DOMExample3 {
    • public static void main (String[] args) {
    • NodeList elements;
    • String elementName = &quot;cd&quot;;
    • try {
    • DocumentBuilderFactory factory = DocumentBuilderFactory.newInstance ();
    • DocumentBuilder builder = factory.newDocumentBuilder ();
    • Document document = builder.parse (&quot;cdcatalog.xml&quot;);
    • Element root = document.getDocumentElement ();
    • System.out.println (&quot;In main ... XML file openend successfully ...&quot;);
    • elements = document.getElementsByTagName(elementName);
    • // is there anything to do?
    • if (elements == null) {
    • return;
    • }
    • // print all elements
    • int elementCount = elements.getLength();
    • System.out.println (&quot;Count = &quot; + elementCount);
    • for (int i = 0; i < elementCount; i++) {
    • Element element = (Element) elements.item(i);
    • System.out.println (&quot;Element Name = &quot; + element.getNodeName());
    • System.out.println (&quot;Element Type = &quot; + element.getNodeType());
    • System.out.println (&quot;Element Value = &quot; + element.getNodeValue());
    • System.out.println (&quot;Has attributes = &quot; + element.hasAttributes());
    • // If attributes exist, print them
    • if(element.hasAttributes())
    • {
    • // if it does, store it in a NamedNodeMap object
    • NamedNodeMap AttributesList = element.getAttributes();
    • // iterate through the NamedNodeMap and get the attribute names and values
    • for(int j = 0; j < AttributesList.getLength(); j++) {
    • System.out.println(&quot;Attribute: &quot; +
    • AttributesList.item(j).getNodeName() + &quot; = &quot; +
    • AttributesList.item(j).getNodeValue());
    • }
    • }
    • }
    • }
    • catch (ParserConfigurationException e1) {
    • System.out.println (&quot;Exception: &quot; + e1);
    • }
    • catch (SAXException e2) {
    • System.out.println (&quot;Exception: &quot; + e2);
    • }
    • catch (DOMException e2) {
    • System.out.println (&quot;Exception: &quot; + e2);
    • }
    • catch (java.io.IOException e3) {
    • System.out.println (&quot;Exception: &quot; + e3);
    • }
    • }
    • }
  • Problem
    • For a given element, find out all the child elements and display their types
  • Solution
    • import org.w3c.dom.*;
    • import javax.xml.parsers.*;
    • import org.xml.sax.*;
    • public class DOMExample4 {
    • public static void main (String[] args) {
    • NodeList elements, Children;
    • String elementName = &quot;cd&quot;;
    • String local = &quot;&quot;;
    • Element element = null;
    • try {
    • DocumentBuilderFactory factory = DocumentBuilderFactory.newInstance ();
    • DocumentBuilder builder = factory.newDocumentBuilder ();
    • Document document = builder.parse (&quot;cdcatalog.xml&quot;);
    • Element root = document.getDocumentElement ();
    • System.out.println (&quot;In main ... XML file openend successfully ...&quot;);
    • elements = document.getElementsByTagName(elementName);
    • // is there anything to do?
    • if (elements == null) {
    • return;
    • }
    • // print all elements
    • int elementCount = elements.getLength();
    • System.out.println (&quot;Count = &quot; + elementCount);
    • for (int i = 0; i < elementCount; i++) {
    • element = (Element) elements.item(i);
    • System.out.println (&quot;Element Name = &quot; + element.getNodeName());
    • System.out.println (&quot;Element Type = &quot; + element.getNodeType());
    • System.out.println (&quot;Element Value = &quot; + element.getNodeValue());
    • System.out.println (&quot;Has attributes = &quot; + element.hasAttributes());
    • // Find out if child nodes exist for this element
    • Children = element.getChildNodes();
    • if (Children != null) {
    • for (int j=0; j< Children.getLength(); j++) {
    • local = Children.item(j).getNodeName();
    • System.out.println (&quot;Child element name = &quot; + local);
    • }
    • }
    • }
    • }
    • catch (ParserConfigurationException e1) {
    • System.out.println (&quot;Exception: &quot; + e1);
    • }
    • catch (SAXException e2) {
    • System.out.println (&quot;Exception: &quot; + e2);
    • }
    • catch (DOMException e2) {
    • System.out.println (&quot;Exception: &quot; + e2);
    • }
    • catch (java.io.IOException e3) {
    • System.out.println (&quot;Exception: &quot; + e3);
    • }
    • }
    • }
  • Node Types
    • 1 ELEMENT_NODE Element The element name 2 ATTRIBUTE_NODE Attribute The attribute name 3 TEXT_NODE Text #text 4 CDATA_SECTION_NODE CDATA #cdata-section 5 ENTITY_REFERENCE_NODE Entity reference The entity reference name 6 ENTITY_NODE Entity The entity name 7 PROCESSING_INSTRUCTION_NODE PI The PI target 8 COMMENT_NODE Comment #comment 9 DOCUMENT_NODE Document #document 10 DOCUMENT_TYPE_NODE DocType Root element 11 DOCUMENT_FRAGMENT_NODE DocumentFragment #document-fragment 12 NOTATION_NODE Notation The notation name
  • Making Use of Node Types
    • import org.w3c.dom.*;
    • import javax.xml.parsers.*;
    • import org.xml.sax.*;
    • public class DOMExample4 {
    • public static void main (String[] args) {
    • NodeList elements, Children;
    • String elementName = &quot;cd&quot;;
    • String local = &quot;&quot;;
    • Element element = null;
    • try {
    • DocumentBuilderFactory factory = DocumentBuilderFactory.newInstance ();
    • DocumentBuilder builder = factory.newDocumentBuilder ();
    • Document document = builder.parse (&quot;cdcatalog.xml&quot;);
    • Element root = document.getDocumentElement ();
    • System.out.println (&quot;In main ... XML file openend successfully ...&quot;);
    • elements = document.getElementsByTagName(elementName);
    • // is there anything to do?
    • if (elements == null) {
    • return;
    • }
    • // print all elements
    • int elementCount = elements.getLength();
    • System.out.println (&quot;Count = &quot; + elementCount);
    • for (int i = 0; i < elementCount; i++) {
    • element = (Element) elements.item(i);
    • System.out.println (&quot;Element Name = &quot; + element.getNodeName());
    • System.out.println (&quot;Element Type = &quot; + element.getNodeType());
    • System.out.println (&quot;Element Value = &quot; + element.getNodeValue());
    • System.out.println (&quot;Has attributes = &quot; + element.hasAttributes());
    • // Find out if child nodes exist for this element
    • Children = element.getChildNodes();
    • if (Children != null) {
    • for (int j=0; j< Children.getLength(); j++) {
    • local = Children.item(j).getNodeName();
    • System.out.println (&quot;Child element name = &quot; + local);
    • }
    • }
    • }
    • }
    • catch (ParserConfigurationException e1) {
    • System.out.println (&quot;Exception: &quot; + e1);
    • }
    • catch (SAXException e2) {
    • System.out.println (&quot;Exception: &quot; + e2);
    • }
    • catch (DOMException e2) {
    • System.out.println (&quot;Exception: &quot; + e2);
    • }
    • catch (java.io.IOException e3) {
    • System.out.println (&quot;Exception: &quot; + e3);
    • }
    • }
    • }
  • Problem
    • Write a program to create XML contents dynamically and write them to a file on the disk
  • Solution
    • import java.io.File;
    • import java.io.IOException;
    • import java.io.OutputStreamWriter;
    • import java.io.Writer;
    • import org.w3c.dom.*;
    • import javax.xml.parsers.*;
    • import org.xml.sax.*;
    • import javax.xml.transform.TransformerConfigurationException;
    • import javax.xml.transform.TransformerException;
    • import javax.xml.transform.Source;
    • import javax.xml.transform.dom.DOMSource;
    • import javax.xml.transform.Result;
    • import javax.xml.transform.stream.StreamResult;
    • import javax.xml.transform.Transformer;
    • import javax.xml.transform.TransformerFactory;
    • public class DOMExample5 {
    • public static void main (String[] args) {
    • Source source;
    • File file;
    • Result result;
    • try {
    • DocumentBuilderFactory factory = DocumentBuilderFactory.newInstance ();
    • DocumentBuilder builder = factory.newDocumentBuilder ();
    • // Create a new XML document
    • Document document = builder.newDocument ();
    • Element root = (Element) document.createElement(&quot;Order&quot;);
    • // Insert child Manifest
    • document.appendChild(root);
    • Node manifestChild = document.createElement(&quot;Manifest&quot;);
    • root.appendChild(manifestChild);
    • // Insert Items
    • CreateOrderDOM co = new CreateOrderDOM ();
    • co.insertItem(document, manifestChild, &quot;101&quot;, &quot;Name one&quot;, &quot;$29.99&quot;);
    • co.insertItem(document, manifestChild, &quot;108&quot;, &quot;Name two&quot;, &quot;$19.99&quot;);
    • co.insertItem(document, manifestChild, &quot;125&quot;, &quot;Name three&quot;, &quot;$39.99&quot;);
    • co.insertItem(document, manifestChild, &quot;143&quot;, &quot;Name four&quot;, &quot;$59.99&quot;);
    • co.insertItem(document, manifestChild, &quot;118&quot;, &quot;Name five&quot;, &quot;$99.99&quot;);
    • // Normalizing the DOM
    • document.getDocumentElement().normalize();
    • // Prepare the DOM document for writing
    • source = new DOMSource(document);
    • // Prepare the output file
    • file = new File(&quot;test.xml&quot;);
    • result = new StreamResult(file);
    • // Write the DOM document to the file
    • // Get Transformer
    • Transformer xformer = TransformerFactory.newInstance().newTransformer();
    • // Write to a file
    • xformer.transform(source, result);
    • } catch ( Exception ex ) {
    • ex.printStackTrace();
    • }
    • }
    • }
  • Stream API (StAX) – Brief Overview To be covered in more depth in “Web Services”
  • What is StAX?
    • Addition in Java EE 5.0
    • Pull approach
    • Event-based API
    • Different from SAX, since application pulls event from the XML document/parser, and not the other way round
    • Can do read and write
  • StAX Classification
    • Two APIs
      • Cursor-based API
        • Allows walk-through of an XML document in document order and
        • Provides access to all the structural and content information in the form of event objects
      • Iterator-based API
        • Similar to cursor API, but does not provide low level access
  • Using XSLT in JAXP
  • Applying an XSLT to an XML File Programatically
    • package sicsr;
    • import javax.xml.transform.*;
    • import javax.xml.transform.stream.StreamResult;
    • import javax.xml.transform.stream.StreamSource;
    • import java.io.*;
    • public class ApplyXSLT {
    • public static void main(String[] args) {
    • try {
    • StreamSource xmlFile = new StreamSource ( new File ( &quot;history.xml&quot; ));
    • StreamSource xslFile = new StreamSource ( new File ( &quot;history.xsl&quot; ));
    • TransformerFactory xslFactory = TransformerFactory. newInstance ();
    • Transformer transformer = xslFactory.newTransformer (xslFile);
    • StreamResult resultStream = new StreamResult (System. out );
    • transformer.transform(xmlFile, resultStream);
    • }
    • catch (Exception ex) {
    • ex.printStackTrace();
    • }
    • }
    • }
  • Details about the Transformer
    • TransformerFactory is an abstract class in javax.xml.transform package
      • Can be used to create a Transformer object
    • Transformer is also an abstract class in javax.xml.transform.Transformer package
      • An instance of this class can transform a source tree into a result tree
  • XML and ASP.NET – An Overview
  • XmlReader and XmlWriter
    • XMLReader
      • Pull-style API for XML
      • Forward-only, read-only access to XML documents
      • XMLReader is an abstract class that other classes derive from, to provide specific concrete instances such as XmlTextReader and XmlNodeReader
      • In ASP.NET 2.0, XMLReader is a factory
        • We need not specify which implementation of XMLReader needs to be used
        • We use a static Create method, and supply necessary parameters and let .NET decide how to instantiate it
  • Example – XML Document
    • <? xml version =&quot;1.0&quot; encoding =&quot;utf-8&quot; ?>
    • < bookstore >
    • < book genre =&quot;autobiography&quot; publicationdate =&quot;1981&quot; ISBN =&quot;1-861003-11-0&quot;>
    • < title >The Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin</ title >
    • < author >
    • < first-name >Benjamin</ first-name >
    • < last-name >Franklin</ last-name >
    • </ author >
    • < price >8.99</ price >
    • </ book >
    • < book genre =&quot;novel&quot; publicationdate =&quot;1967&quot; ISBN =&quot;0-201-65512-2&quot;>
    • < title >The Confidence Man</ title >
    • < author >
    • < first-name >Herman</ first-name >
    • < last-name >Melville</ last-name >
    • </ author >
    • < price >11.99</ price >
    • </ book >
    • < book genre =&quot;philosophy&quot; publicationdate =&quot;1991&quot; ISBN =&quot;1-861001-57-6&quot;>
    • < title >The Gorgias</ title >
    • < author >
    • < first-name >Sidas</ first-name >
    • < last-name >Plato</ last-name >
    • </ author >
    • < price >9.99</ price >
    • </ book >
    • </ bookstore >
  • Example – ASP.NET Page
    • using System;
    • using System.Data;
    • using System.Configuration;
    • using System.Collections;
    • using System.Web;
    • using System.Web.Security;
    • using System.Web.UI;
    • using System.Web.UI.WebControls;
    • using System.Web.UI.WebControls.WebParts;
    • using System.Web.UI.HtmlControls;
    • using System.Xml;
    • using System.IO;
    • public partial class XMLReader2 : System.Web.UI.Page
    • {
    • protected void Page_Load(object sender, EventArgs e)
    • {
    • int bookCount = 0;
    • XmlReaderSettings settings = new XmlReaderSettings();
    • settings.IgnoreWhitespace = true;
    • settings.IgnoreComments = true;
    • string booksFile = Path.Combine(Request.PhysicalApplicationPath, &quot;Books.xml&quot;);
    • using ( XmlReader reader = XmlReader.Create(booksFile, settings))
    • {
    • while (reader.Read())
    • {
    • if (reader.NodeType == XmlNodeType.Element && &quot;book&quot; == reader.LocalName)
    • {
    • bookCount++;
    • }
    • }
    • }
    • Response.Write( String.Format( &quot;Found {0} books!&quot;, bookCount));
    • }
    • }
  • Validating an XML Against a Schema
    • using System.Xml.Schema;
    • using System;
    • using System.Xml;
    • using System.IO;
    • public partial class XMLReader3 : System.Web.UI.Page
    • {
    • protected void Page_Load(object sender, EventArgs e)
    • {
    • int bookCount = 0;
    • XmlReaderSettings settings = new XmlReaderSettings();
    • string booksSchemaFile = Path.Combine(Request.PhysicalApplicationPath, &quot;books.xsd&quot;);
    • settings.Schemas.Add ( null, XmlReader.Create (booksSchemaFile));
    • settings.ValidationType = ValidationType.Schema;
    • settings.ValidationFlags = XmlSchemaValidationFlags.ReportValidationWarnings;
    • settings.ValidationEventHandler += new ValidationEventHandler (settings_ValidationEventHandler);
    • settings.IgnoreWhitespace = true;
    • settings.IgnoreComments = true;
    • string booksFile = Path.Combine(Request.PhysicalApplicationPath, &quot;Books.xml&quot;);
    • using ( XmlReader reader = XmlReader.Create(booksFile, settings))
    • {
    • while (reader.Read())
    • {
    • if (reader.NodeType == XmlNodeType.Element && &quot;book&quot; == reader.LocalName)
    • {
    • bookCount++;
    • }
    • }
    • }
    • Response.Write( String.Format( &quot;Found {0} books!&quot;, bookCount));
    • }
    • void settings_ValidationEventHandler(object sender, System.Xml.Schema. ValidationEventArgs e)
    • {
    • Response.Write(e.Message);
    • }
    • }
  • Creating an XML Document
    • using System.Xml.Schema;
    • using System;
    • using System.Xml;
    • using System.IO;
    • public partial class XMLReader3 : System.Web.UI.Page
    • {
    • protected void Page_Load(object sender, EventArgs e)
    • {
    • int bookCount = 0;
    • XmlReaderSettings settings = new XmlReaderSettings();
    • string booksSchemaFile = Path.Combine(Request.PhysicalApplicationPath, &quot;books.xsd&quot;);
    • settings.Schemas.Add ( null, XmlReader.Create (booksSchemaFile));
    • settings.ValidationType = ValidationType.Schema;
    • settings.ValidationFlags = XmlSchemaValidationFlags.ReportValidationWarnings;
    • settings.ValidationEventHandler += new ValidationEventHandler (settings_ValidationEventHandler);
    • settings.IgnoreWhitespace = true;
    • settings.IgnoreComments = true;
    • string booksFile = Path.Combine(Request.PhysicalApplicationPath, &quot;Books.xml&quot;);
    • using ( XmlReader reader = XmlReader.Create(booksFile, settings))
    • {
    • while (reader.Read())
    • {
    • if (reader.NodeType == XmlNodeType.Element && &quot;book&quot; == reader.LocalName)
    • {
    • bookCount++;
    • }
    • }
    • }
    • Response.Write( String.Format( &quot;Found {0} books!&quot;, bookCount));
    • }
    • void settings_ValidationEventHandler(object sender, System.Xml.Schema. ValidationEventArgs e)
    • {
    • Response.Write(e.Message);
    • }
    • }
  • Thank you! Any Questions?