Organizational Behaviour Stephen Robbins 14Ed. Chapter 4

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Kelli J Schutte

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  • Historically the study of organizational behavior has not given much attention to emotions. Emotions were typically seen as irrational so managers tended to work to make the workplace emotion-free.
    Often managers viewed emotions as disruptive to the workplace and therefore a hindrance to productivity. However, when thinking about emotions, typically managers were focusing on negative emotions. Even though there are some negative emotions that could hinder productivity, there is no doubt that workers bring their emotions to the workplace. Therefore, any study in organizational behavior would not be complete without considering the roles of emotions in the workplace.
  • Affect is a generic term that covers a broad range of feelings people experience. This includes both emotions and moods. Emotions are intense feelings that are directed at someone or something. Moods are the feelings that tend to be less intense than emotions and that lack a contextual stimulus.
  • Not all psychologists agree; however, there do seem to be six basic emotions that emerge in studies: anger, fear, sadness, happiness, disgust, surprise. All other emotions fall under these six. Some psychologists even place these basic six on a spectrum of emotion.
  • Our basic moods carry positive and negative affects, they cannot be neutral. Emotions are grouped into general mood states. These states impact how employees perceive reality and thereby the moods can impact the work of employees.
  • There are some who think that emotions are linked to irrationality and that expressing emotions in public may be damaging to your career or status. However, research has shown that emotions are necessary for rational thinking. They help us make better decisions and help us understand the world around us. If we are going to make decisions, we need to incorporate both thinking and feeling.
  • Affective Events Theory demonstrates that employees react emotionally to things that happen to them at work and this can influence their job performance and job satisfaction. The intensity of these responses will be based on emotion and mood.
  • AET has a number of implications. These implications are as follows:
    When an employee has an emotional episode, it is actually the result of a series of emotional experiences that are triggered by a single event.
    Your job satisfaction is impacted by current and past emotions.
    As your emotions fluctuate over time, it will create variations in job performance.
    Behaviors that are driven by emotions are typically brief and variable.
    Both positive and negative emotions can distract workers and reduce job performance.
    In summary, emotions do provide very valuable information and predict factors about behavior. In addition, it is important not to ignore minor events as they will accumulate over time.
  • Emotional Intelligence (EI) is a growing area of study and is becoming increasingly important in the understanding of individual behavior. EI is pulling in one’s understanding of emotions and their impact on behavior. An individual who is emotionally intelligent will have a strong sense of self-awareness, recognizing your own emotions when experienced. They are also able to detect emotions in others. By understanding their own emotions and those of others, they can manage emotional cues and information to make decisions.
    EI plays a very important role in job performance; however, the jury is still out on the role EI plays in effectiveness in organizations.
  • There are numerous applications of emotions and moods. These include selection of employees, decision making, creativity, motivation, and leadership.
  • Organizational Behaviour Stephen Robbins 14Ed. Chapter 4

    1. 1. Kelli J. Schutte William Jewell College Robbins & Judge Organizational Behavior 14th Edition Emotions and MoodsEmotions and Moods 4-1Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall
    2. 2. Topics we will coverTopics we will cover  Chapter 4  What are emotions are moods?  Basic emotions and basic moods  The functions of emotions – Sources of emotions and moods is not included – Emotional Labor is not included  Affective events theory  Emotional intelligence – Case for and against EI are not included  OB Applications of emotions and moods – Focus on: selection, decision making, leadership and customer service – Global issues is not included Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 4-2
    3. 3. Why Were Emotions Ignored in OB?Why Were Emotions Ignored in OB?  The “Myth of Rationality” – Emotions were seen as irrational – Managers worked to make emotion-free environments  View of Emotionality – Emotions were believed to be disruptive – Emotions interfered with productivity – Only negative emotions were observed  Now we know emotions can’t be separated from the workplace Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 4-3
    4. 4. What are Emotions and Moods?What are Emotions and Moods? Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 4-4 See E X H I B I T 4-1 See E X H I B I T 4-1
    5. 5. The Basic EmotionsThe Basic Emotions  While not universally accepted, there appear to be six basic emotions: 1. Anger 2. Fear 3. Sadness 4. Happiness 5. Disgust 6. Surprise  All other emotions are subsumed under these six  May even be placed in a spectrum of emotion: – Happiness – surprise – fear – sadness – anger – disgust Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 4-5
    6. 6. Basic Moods: Positive and Negative AffectBasic Moods: Positive and Negative Affect  Emotions cannot be neutral.  Emotions (“markers”) are grouped into general mood states.  Mood states affect perception and therefore perceived reality. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 4-6 E X H I B I T 4-2 E X H I B I T 4-2
    7. 7. What Is the Function of Emotion?What Is the Function of Emotion? Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 4-7  Emotions can aid in our decision-making process. Many researchers have shown that emotions are necessary for rational decisions.
    8. 8. Affective Events Theory (AET)Affective Events Theory (AET)  An event in the work environment triggers positive or negative emotional reactions – Personality and mood determine response intensity – Emotions can influence a broad range of work variables Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 4-8 E X H I B I T 8-6 E X H I B I T 8-6
    9. 9. Implications of AETImplications of AET 1. An emotional episode is actually the result of a series of emotional experiences triggered by a single event 2. Current and past emotions affect job satisfaction 3. Emotional fluctuations over time create variations in job performance 4. Emotion-driven behaviors are typically brief and variable 5. Both negative and positive emotions can distract workers and reduce job performance  Emotions provide valuable insights about behavior  Emotions, and the minor events that cause them, should not be ignored at work; they accumulate Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 4-9
    10. 10. Emotional Intelligence (EI)Emotional Intelligence (EI)  A person’s ability to: – Be self-aware • Recognizing own emotions when experienced – Detect emotions in others – Manage emotional cues and information  EI plays an important role in job performance  EI is controversial and not wholly accepted Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 4-10
    11. 11. OB Applications of Emotions and MoodsOB Applications of Emotions and Moods  Selection – EI should be a hiring factor, especially for social jobs.  Decision Making – Positive emotions can lead to better decisions.  Leadership – Emotions are important to acceptance of messages from organizational leaders.  Customer Services – Emotions affect service quality delivered to customers which, in turn, affects customer relationships – Emotional Contagion: “catching” emotions from others Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 4-11

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