Business Research Methods, 9th ed.Chapter 6

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William G. Zikmund, Barry J. Babin, Jon C. Carr, Mitch Griffin

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Business Research Methods, 9th ed.Chapter 6

  1. 1. Business Research Methods William G. Zikmund Chapter 6: Problem Definition and the Research Proposal
  2. 2. Problem discovery Problem definition (statement of research objectives) Secondary (historical) data Experience survey Pilot study Case study Selection of exploratory research technique Selection of basic research method Experiment Survey Observation Secondary Data StudyLaboratory Field Interview Questionnaire Selection of exploratory research technique Sampling Probability Nonprobability Collection of data (fieldwork) Editing and coding data Data processing Interpretation of findings Report Data Gathering Data Processing and Analysis Conclusions and Report Research Design Problem Discovery and Definition
  3. 3. COMPLETELY CERTAIN ABSOLUTE AMBIGUITY CAUSAL OR DESCRIPTIVE EXPLORATORY Uncertainty Influences the Type of Research
  4. 4. Problem Discovery and Definition • First step • Problem, opportunity, or monitor operations • Discovery before definition • Problem means management problem
  5. 5. “The formulation of the problem is often more essential than its solution.” Albert Einstein
  6. 6. Problem Definition • The indication of a specific business decision area that will be clarified by answering some research questions.
  7. 7. Statement of Research Objectives Problem Definition Defining Problem Results in Clear Cut Research Objectives Exploratory Research (Optional) Analysis of the Situation Symptom Detection
  8. 8. The Process of Problem Definition Ascertain the decision maker’s objectives Understand background of the problem Isolate/identify the problem, not the symptoms Determine unit of analysis Determine relevant variables State research questions and objectives
  9. 9. 9 Ascertain the Decision Maker’s Objectives • Decision makers’ objectives • Managerial goals expressed in measurable terms.
  10. 10. The Iceberg Principle • The principle indicating that the dangerous part of many business problems is neither visible to nor understood by managers.
  11. 11. 11 Understand the Background of the Problem • Exercising judgment • Situation analysis - The informal gathering of background information to familiarize researchers or managers with the decision area.
  12. 12. 12 Isolate and Identify the Problems, Not the Symptoms • Symptoms can be confusing
  13. 13. Symptoms Can Be Confusing Twenty-year-old neighborhood swimming association: • Membership has been declining for years. • New water park -residents prefer the expensive water park???? • Demographic changes: Children have grown up
  14. 14. Problem Definition Organization Symptoms Based on Symptom True Problem Twenty-year-old neighborhood swimming association in a major city. Membership has been declining for years. New water park with wave pool and water slides moved into town a few years ago. Neighborhood residents prefer the expensive water park and have negative image of swimming pool. Demographic changes: Children in this 20- year-old neighborhood have grown up. Older residents no longer swim anywhere.
  15. 15. 15 Determine the Unit of Analysis • Individuals, households, organizations, etc. • In many studies, the family rather than the individual is the appropriate unit of analysis.
  16. 16. 16 Determine the Relevant Variable • Anything that may assume different numerical values
  17. 17. Types of Variables • Categorical • Continuous • Dependent • Independent
  18. 18. Hypothesis • An unproven proposition • A possible solution to a problem • Guess
  19. 19. 19 State the research questions and research objectives
  20. 20. If you do not know where you are going, any road will take you there.
  21. 21. Statement of business problem Exploratory research (optional) Statement of business problem Broad research objectives Specific Objective 1 Specific Objective 2 Specific Objective 3 Research Design Results
  22. 22. The Process of Problem Definition Ascertain the decision maker’s objectives Understand background of the problem Isolate/identify the problem, not the symptoms Determine unit of analysis Determine relevant variables State research questions and objectives
  23. 23. Research Proposal • A written statement of the research design that includes a statement explaining the purpose of the study • Detailed outline of procedures associated with a particular methodology
  24. 24. Basic Questions - Problem Definition • What is the purpose of the study? • How much is already known? • Is additional background information necessary? • What is to be measured? How? • Can the data be made available? • Should research be conducted? • Can a hypothesis be formulated?
  25. 25. Basic Questions - Basic Research Design • What types of questions need to be answered? • Are descriptive or causal findings required? • What is the source of the data?
  26. 26. Basic Questions - Basic Research Design • Can objective answers be obtained by asking people? • How quickly is the information needed? • How should survey questions be worded? • How should experimental manipulations be made?
  27. 27. Basic Questions - Selection of Sample • Who or what is the source of the data? • Can the target population be identified? • Is a sample necessary? • How accurate must the sample be? • Is a probability sample necessary? • Is a national sample necessary? • How large a sample is necessary? • How will the sample be selected?
  28. 28. Basic Questions - Data Gathering • Who will gather the data? • How long will data gathering take? • How much supervision is needed? • What operational procedures need to be followed?
  29. 29. Basic Questions - Data Analysis • Will standardized editing and coding procedures be used? • How will the data be categorized? • What statistical software will be used? • What is the nature of the data? • What questions need to be answered? • How many variables are to be investigated simultaneously? • Performance criteria for evaluation?
  30. 30. Basic Questions - Type of Report • Who will read the report? • Are managerial recommendations requested? • How many presentations are required? • What will be the format of the written report?
  31. 31. Basic Questions - Overall Evaluation • How much will the study cost? • Is the time frame acceptable? • Is outside help needed? • Will this research design attain the stated research objectives? • When should the research be scheduled to begin?
  32. 32. Anticipating Outcomes • Dummy tables • Representations of the actual tables that will be in the findings section of the final report; used to gain a better understanding of what the actual outcomes of the research will be.

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