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    Switch Switch Presentation Transcript

    • 1
    • Hub • It is a Physical layer device (Layer 1) • It is Dummy Device • It works with 0’s and 1’s (Bits) • It works with broadcasting • It works with shared bandwidth • It is has 1 Broadcast Domain and 1 Collision Domain • Collisions are identified using Access Methods called CSMA/CD and CSMA/CA 2
    • Broadcast Domain & Collision Domain • Broadcast Domain Set of all devices that receive broadcast frames originating from any device within the set. • Collision domain In Ethernet, the network area within which frames that have collided are propagated is called a collision domain. • A collision domain is a network segment with two or more devices sharing the same bandwidth. • Repeaters and hubs propagate collisions, LAN switches, bridges, and routers do not. 3
    • Types of Hubs • Active Hubs uses power supply and regenerates the data (i.e.) strengthens the signals in case of disturbances. • Passive Hubs doesn’t use power supply and it will not not regenerates the data (i.e.) strengthens the signals in case of disturbances. It is used only to share the physical media • Intelligent Hubs are sometimes called as smart hubs. These devices basically function as active hubs, but also include a microprocessor chip and diagnostic capabilities and are useful in troubleshooting situations. 4
    • Switch • It is Datalink layer device (Layer 2) • Its is An Intelligent device • It works with Physical addresses (i.e. MAC addresses) • It works with fixed bandwidth • It works with Flooding and Unicast • It has 1 Broadcast domain and Number of Collision domains depends upon the number of ports. • It maintains a MAC address table 5
    • Types of Switches • Manageable switches On a Manageable switch an IP address can be assigned and configurations can be made. It has a console port . • Unmanageable switches On an Unmanageable switch configurations cannot be made, an IP address cannot be assigned as there is no console port. 6
    • Bridge Vs Switch Bridge • Bridges are software based • Bridges have lesser no. of ports • Generally used for Switch • Switches are hardware based • Switches have higher no. of ports • Generally used for connecting two connecting single different topology topology (Segment) (Segment) 7
    • Router • It is a Network layer device (Layer 3) • Its is an Intelligent device • It works with Logical Addressing (i.e. IP,IPX,AppleTalk) • It works with Fixed bandwidth • Number of Broadcast domains depends upon the number of ports and Number of Collision domains depends upon the number of ports. 8
    • How many Broadcast & Collision Domains E0 E1 9
    • Broadcast Domains E0 E1 10
    • Collision Domains E0 E1 11
    • Cisco’s Hierarchical Design Model Cisco divided the Switches into 3 Layers • Access Layer Switches Switches Series : 1900 & 2900 • Distribution Layer Switches Switches Series : 3000 & 5000 • Core Layer Switches Switches Series : 7000, 8000 & 10,000 12
    • Access Layer Switch 13
    • Switching Mode Three types of Switching Mode : • Store & Forward • Fragment Free • Cut through 14
    • Store & Forward • Store and forward switching pulls in the whole frame into the port buffer, checks the CRC and then switches the frame if its error free • All switches support Store and Forward • A Default switching method for distribution layer switches. • Latency : High – Latency is the period of time from when the beginning of a frame enters to when the end of the frame exits the switch. – Latency is directly related to the configured switching process and volume of traffic. 15
    • Store & Forward Whenever, a Frame is received by the Switch Whenever, a Frame is received by the Switch It will store the Complete Frame It will store the Complete Frame It will run CRC on Complete Frame It will run CRC on Complete Frame If, Error If, Error Contact Source Contact Source Transport Layer Transport Layer If, No Error If, No Error Check MAT Check MAT If, Entry If, Entry is there is there Unicast Unicast If, Entry If, Entry is not is not there there Flooding Flooding 16
    • Fragment Free • It is also referred to as Modified Cut-Through or Runtless switching method. • The switch checks the first 64 bytes of a frame before forwarding it for fragmentation, thus guarding against runt frames. • 64 bytes is the minimum legal size of an Ethernet frame. Frames smaller than 64 bytes are called Runt frames. • Faster compared to Store and Forward but could switch corrupt or bad frames. • A Default Switching method for access layer switches. • Latency : Medium 17
    • Fragment Free Whenever, a Frame is received by the Switch Whenever, a Frame is received by the Switch It will store the Frame It will store the Frame It will run CRC on 64 byte of Frame It will run CRC on 64 byte of Frame If, Error If, Error Contact Source Contact Source Transport Layer Transport Layer If, No Error If, No Error Check MAT Check MAT If, Entry If, Entry is there is there Unicast Unicast If, Entry If, Entry is not is not there there Flooding Flooding 18
    • Cut Through • The switch reads only the first part of the frame (i.e) the destination MAC address before forwarding • It is faster compared to store and forward but the biggest Problem is it may be switching bad frames. • Although this occurs infrequently and the destination network adapter will discard the faulty packet upon receipt • A Default switching method for the core layer switches • Latency : Low 19
    • Cut through Whenever, a Frame is received by the Switch Whenever, a Frame is received by the Switch Check MAT Check MAT If, Entry If, Entry is there is there Unicast Unicast If, Entry If, Entry is not is not there there Flooding Flooding 20
    • External of Switch Catalyst 1900 10BaseT 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 10 mbps Ports 9 10 11 12 A B Fast Ethernet 100 mbps Ports 21