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Eukariotic Cell Structure
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Eukariotic Cell Structure

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  • 1. Eukaryotic Cells
  • 2. A Generalized Eukaryotic Cell
  • 3. Pores through the Cell Nucleus
  • 4.
    • Nucleus
    • The nucleus consists of the nuclear envelope, nucleolus, chromatin, and nucleoplasm.
    • Nuclear Envelope
    • Structure -two unit membranes with a fluid-filled space                 -nuclear pores present                 -outer membrane may be continuous with endoplasmic                   reticulum
    • Function -selectively permeable to control movement in or out                -contains nuclear contents
    • Chromatin
    • Structure -composed of long thin strands of DNA
    • Function -contains instructions that control cell metabolism and heredity
    • Nucleolus
    • Structure -non-membraneous matrix of RNA (ribonucleic acid) and protein.
    • Function - instructions in DNA are copied here                - works with ribosomes in the synthesis of protein
  • 5.  
  • 6. Centriole Structure - nine triplets of microtubules form one centriole                - two centrioles form one centrosome. Function  - forms spindle fibres to separate chromosomes during cell                  division Vacuole Structure    - a single layer of unit membrane enclosing fluid in a sack Function    - produces turgor pressure against cell wall for support    - stores water and various chemicals    - may store insoluble wastes Cytoskeleton Structure - Composed of microtubules Function - Supports cell and provides shape - Aids movement of materials in and out of cells
  • 7. Mitochondria
    • Power house of cell and account for 20% of the cell volume, 1 µm diameter.
    • Enzymes carry out oxidative reactions that capture energy in ATP.
    • Glucose  +  Oxygen  ------> Carbon Dioxide  +  Water  + Energy (ATP)
    • Mitochondria contains mitochondrial DNA and can replicate independently.
  • 8. Mitochondrial DNA
  • 9. Chloroplasts
    • Like mitochondria chloroplast too have outer and inner membrane (stroma), it corresponds mitochondrial matrix.
    • Unlike mitochondria chloroplast have separate inner membrane (thylacoids), that contain chlorophyll (in Grana), that capture energy during photosynthesis.
    • chlorophyll CO 2 + H 2 O ---------------> Glucose + O 2 (food)                      radiant energy  
    • Chloroplast contains chloroplast DNA and can replicate independently.
  • 10. Ribosome Structure - non-membraneous, spherical bodies composed of      RNA (ribonucleic acid) and protein enzymes. Function - site of protein synthesis Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) Structure - sheets of unit membrane with ribosomes on the                  outside (rough ER) and without ribosome (smooth ER).                - forms a tubular network throughout the cell   Function - transports chemicals between cells and within cells                - provides a large surface area for the organization                  of chemical reactions and synthesis
  • 11. Lysosome Structure - membrane bound bag containing hydrolytic enzymes                - hydrolytic enzyme = (water split biological catalyst)                  i.e. using water to split chemical bonds. Function - break large molecules into small molecules by                  inserting a molecule of water into the chemical bond Peroxisome: -Membrane bound organelle, contains enzymes. -These enzymes in plant cell oxidize fats and in animal cell oxidizes amino acids. -Peroxisomal enzymes converts hydrogen peroxide to water, to prevent the toxic effect of hydrogen peroxide. Golgi Apparatus Structure - stacks of flattened sacs of unit membrane (cisternae)                - vesicles pinch off the edges Function - modifies chemicals to make them functional                - secretes chemicals in tiny vesicles                - stores chemicals                - may produce endoplasmic reticulum
  • 12. Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Flagella Compared
    • One central pair and 9 peripheral pair of microtubules, made up of tubulin.
    • Each pair of peripheral microtubules associated with a protein Dynein, which cross-bridges with other flagellar proteins for movement. The movement is dependent on ATP hydrolysis by dynein.
  • 13. Oxytricha The Ciliated Protozoan
  • 14. The Stroke-and-Recovery Motion of a Cilium
  • 15. Cilia on an Organism Move in a Synchronized Fashion, Creating a Wave that Propels the Organism Forward
  • 16. Pseudopodia
  • 17. Amoeba (132X) Amoeba engulfing food particle Food particles
  • 18. Endosymbiosis
    • According to the endosymbiotic theory, organelles of eukaryotic cells came from prokaryotic cells those have developed symbiotic relation with eukaryote. If one organism lives inside the other, is called endosymbiosis.
    • Especially in case of mitochondria and chloroplast. They have outer and inner membranes, self replicating DNA and their structure resembles Gram negative and photosynthetic bacteria respectively.
    The cytoplasm of Pyrsonympha , a protist that live symbiotically in the hideouts of termites,. Bacteria acts as mitochondria for the protist.
  • 19.
    • Passive Transport: Cell expends no energy to move substances down a concentration gradient (high to low concentration)
    • Simple Diffusion
    • Facilitated Diffusion
    • Osmosis
    • Active Transport: Cell expends energy from ATP, enabling it to transport substances against a concentration gradient
    Movement of substances across the membrane
  • 20. Simple Diffusion: The random movements of molecules cause them to spread out (diffuse) from an area of high concentration to area of low concentration
  • 21. Facilitated Diffusion: Carrier protein molecules aid in the movement of substances through cell membrane from high to low concentration
  • 22. Osmosis: The diffusion of water from an area of high water concentration to an area of low water concentration through a semi or, selectively permeable membrane (Cell Membrane)
  • 23. Experiments that examine the effects of tonicity on osmosis
  • 24. Active Transport: Carrier protein molecules aid in movement of molecules against a concentration gradient requires energy in form of ATP
  • 25. Endocytosis and Exocytosis
    • Eukaryotic cells move substances by forming membrane-enclosed vesicles
    • Endocytosis: Form by invagination (poking in) and surrounding substances from outside the cell
    • Exocytosis: Vesicles inside the cell fuse with the plasma membrane and extrude contents from the cell
  • 26. 1.Phagocytosis (solid/ semisolid) 2. Pinocytosis (liquid)

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