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  • So what is the best way to work with Geon and our exciting new product range – as a customer or as a business owner? As one of our associates – a business owner – you get all the products at wholesale prices, enjoy tax advantages, and now have a plan to create wealth So if being a business owner makes sense…
  • So what is the best way to work with Geon and our exciting new product range – as a customer or as a business owner? As one of our associates – a business owner – you get all the products at wholesale prices, enjoy tax advantages, and now have a plan to create wealth So if being a business owner makes sense…
  • So what is the best way to work with Geon and our exciting new product range – as a customer or as a business owner? As one of our associates – a business owner – you get all the products at wholesale prices, enjoy tax advantages, and now have a plan to create wealth So if being a business owner makes sense…
  • So what is the best way to work with Geon and our exciting new product range – as a customer or as a business owner? As one of our associates – a business owner – you get all the products at wholesale prices, enjoy tax advantages, and now have a plan to create wealth So if being a business owner makes sense…
  • So what is the best way to work with Geon and our exciting new product range – as a customer or as a business owner? As one of our associates – a business owner – you get all the products at wholesale prices, enjoy tax advantages, and now have a plan to create wealth So if being a business owner makes sense…
  • So what is the best way to work with Geon and our exciting new product range – as a customer or as a business owner? As one of our associates – a business owner – you get all the products at wholesale prices, enjoy tax advantages, and now have a plan to create wealth So if being a business owner makes sense…
  • So what is the best way to work with Geon and our exciting new product range – as a customer or as a business owner? As one of our associates – a business owner – you get all the products at wholesale prices, enjoy tax advantages, and now have a plan to create wealth So if being a business owner makes sense…
  • So what is the best way to work with Geon and our exciting new product range – as a customer or as a business owner? As one of our associates – a business owner – you get all the products at wholesale prices, enjoy tax advantages, and now have a plan to create wealth So if being a business owner makes sense…

Transcript

  • 1. • Provides key nutrients needed by the body to neutralize free radicals.• Helps protect against cellular damage. May exhibit anti-aging benefits.• Super ORAC (Primary) Antioxidants are the body’s own natural defense against free radicals.• They scavenge or ‘mop’ them up before they have a chance to harm cells.
  • 2.  Slow or prevent damage to body cells May improve immune function and lower risk for infection and cancer Carotenoids – beta carotene (familiar) Vitamin C Vitamin E Found in colorful fruits/veggies and grains
  • 3. Free Radical Diseases Alzheimer’s Stroke Parkinson’s Photo-aging (wrinkles) Macular Degeneration & Cataracts Periodontitis Emphysema Lung Cancer Coronary Heart Disease Diabetes Hypertension & Alcohol & Chronic Kidney Disease Viral Liver Diseases Prostate Cancer Rheumatoid Arthritis Colo-rectal CancerPeripheral Vascular Disease Skin Cancer & Osteoarthritis Melanoma
  • 4. The free radical diseases•Cancer initiation and promotion isassociated with chromosomal defectsand oncogene activation. It is possiblethat endogenous free radical reactions,like those initiated by ionizing radiation,may result in tumour formation.
  • 5. The free radical diseases•Atherosclerosis may be due to freeradical reactions involving diet-derivedlipids in the arterial wall and serum toyield peroxides and other substances.These compounds induce endothelialcell injury and produce changes in thearterial walls .
  • 6. Antioxidants•vitamin E•vitamin C•carotenoids
  • 7. vitamin E•Vitamin E is a fat-soluble substancepresent in all cellular membranes and ismainly stored in adipose tissue, the liverand muscle. Vitamin E is a principalantioxidant in the body and protectspolyunsaturated fatty acids in cellmembranes from peroxidation.
  • 8. Vitamin E and cancer•Besides being a free radical scavenger,vitamin E at high intakes enhances thebodys immune responses. Vitamin E alsoinhibits the conversion of nitrites in thestomach to nitrosamines, which arecancer promoters.
  • 9. Vitamin E and cardiovascular disease•Vitamin E intakes are associated withlowered risk of angina and mortality fromheart disease.
  • 10. Vitamin E and neurological disorders•Supplementation with vitamin C andE might be of benefit in slowing theprogression of Parkinsons disease.
  • 11. Vitamin C•Vitamin C, or ascorbic acid, is a water-soluble vitamin. This vitamin is a freeradical scavenger, it is considered to beone of the most important antioxidants inextra cellular fluids. Its protective effectsextend to cancer, coronary artery disease,arthritis and aging.
  • 12. Vitamin C and cancer•Vitamin C is effective in protecting tissuesagainst oxidative damage. It suppresses theformation of carcinogens. Numerous studieshave reported the protective effect of fruit andvegetable consumption on incidence ofcancer . This is mainly attributed to theprotective effect of vitamin C against cancer.
  • 13. Vitamin C and cardiovascular disease•Vitamin C may lower total cholesterol inthe blood, thus reducing the risk ofcardiovascular disease. Coronary heartdisease mortality is higher in those withblood vitamin C levels that are near or inthe deficient range.
  • 14. Vitamin C and cataracts•High intake of fruits and vegetableswhich are rich sources of ascorbic acidappear to be protective too. In severalstudies, cataract patients were shown tohave low vitamin C and E intakes andlow plasma vitamin C levels.
  • 15. Carotenoids•Carotenoids are a group of red, orangeand yellow pigments found in plantfoods, particularly fruits and vegetables.• Some carotenoids like b-carotene actas a precursor of vitamin A; others donot.
  • 16. Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) is essential for the body and is: A metalloprotein – containing several sub units organised around a metallic group And most importantly An enzyme – the antioxidant enzyme SOD eliminates, in a continuous way, superoxideradicals, precursors of other oxygen reactive forms (secondary free radicals)
  • 17. SOD acts at the source. It is the first and one of themajor components of the body’s antioxidant system.SOD is a powerful and efficient antioxidant: • 1 iu SOD eliminates 1μmol superoxide/min and SOD has an active lifespan of several days! • In the end, billions of superoxide molecules destroyed SOD is a primary antioxidant and possibly our most important one
  • 18. Reactive oxygen species: formation of secondary free radicalsHydroxyl radical induces the formation ofsecondary free radicals: • Secondary free radicals or organic peroxides are very toxic • They increase oxidative reactions which are propagated from one to the next • They are directly responsible for cell alterations and destruction • They indirectly participate in the inflammation process
  • 19. Pro-Oxidants Antioxidants(Reactive Oxygen SpeciesFree Radicals) OXIDATIVE STRESS Cell & Tissue Damage Oxidants AntioxidantsCell / Tissue Damage Protection / Tissue Repair
  • 20. Antioxidant systems: the primary antioxidantsThe primary antioxidants: • are endogenous molecules • act at the source (where free radicals are created) • are enzymes which continuously eliminate the free radicals just formed: - SOD eliminates the superoxide ion - catalase and the glutathione peroxidase eliminate hydrogen peroxide
  • 21. Antioxidant systems: the secondary antioxidantsThe secondary antioxidants • are exogenous molecules, carried by food (vitamins A, C, E, polyphenols…) • they scavenge the secondary free radicals • one molecule of a secondary antioxidant traps one free radical molecule – a 1:1 relationship
  • 22. Oxidants and antioxidants in the bodyUnder normal circumstances andconditions, the body’s endogenousantioxidant systems are able to neutralizethe oxidant (free radical) molecules Therefore → no oxidative stress means → no cell damage
  • 23. Oxidative stress… …is the result of an imbalance between oxidant and antioxidant production increase of free radicals→ antioxidant systems overpowered
  • 24. Oxidative stress: consequencesA break in the equilibrium caused by… • UVA and B • Stress, overwork, diet • Pollution, chemicals, cigarettes • Chronic inflammation … puts the body into oxidative stress: → attacks on cell constituents (cell membranes, protein, lipids DNA) Only solution: we must combat free radicals
  • 25.  Lipid L• O2 (LH) OH• H2O  Fe 2+  LOO• H2O2 1 O2  UV light   heme Fe H2O, H+ CoQ H + O2 O2-• HOO•   NADPH H+ or CoQ Figure 5. Pathways for the formation of reactive oxygen species  Singlet oxygen  lipid radical  Peroxyl radical  Haber-Weiss Superoxide reaction;  lipid peroxyl radical anion  Superoxide  Fenton reaction radical dismutase
  • 26. The fight against secondary free radicals……occurs with the secondary antioxidants (vitamins A,C, E, polyphenols etc) BUT antioxidants (acting 1 against 1) are quickly outnumbered and cannot eliminate a continuous and strong production of free radicals
  • 27. Secondary antioxidants are vital but just slow down the oxidative stress– we need to do something extra…
  • 28. Functions of Pentose Phosphate Pathway 1) NADPH for biosynthetic pathways (e.g., synthesis of fatty acids and cholesterol); 2) NADPH for maintaining glutathione in its reduced state . 3) Pentose sugar for synthesis of nucleic acids
  • 29. Table 1. Reactive Oxygen Species and Antioxidants that Reduce ThemReactive Species AntioxidantSinglet oxygen 1O2 Vitamin A, vitamin ESuperoxide radical (O2-•) superoxide dismutase, vitamin CHydrogen peroxide(H2O2) Catalase; glutathione peroxidasePeroxyl radical (ROO•) Vitamin C, vitamin ELipid peroxyl radical Vitamin E(LOO•)Hydroxyl radical (OH•) Vitamin C
  • 30. H2O2 glutathione 2 H2O peroxidase GSSG 2 glutathione GSH reductase NADP+ NADPH + H+ pentose pathwayFigure 6. Reactions of glutathione reduction and oxidation
  • 31. SUMMARY OF ANTI-OXIDANT ENZYMESGlutathione peroxidase: 2 GSH + H2O2  GSSG + 2 H2OUses selenium as a cofactorCatalase : 2 H2O2  H2O + O2Lipid Peroxidase: removes LOOHSuperoxide dismutase: 2 O2-• + 2H+ → H2O2 + O2Mitochondrial - Mn2+ cofactorCytoplasmic – Cu2+-Zn2+ cofactors; mutationsassociated with familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis(FALS)
  • 32. NUTRITIONAL CORRELATE: SELENIUM selenocysteine in glutathione peroxidase intake may be related to lower cancer mortality • cancer patients have lower plasma Se levels • risk may be higher in those with low Se intake • AZCC study – reduced incidence of prostate, colon, lung cancers toxicity (> 1 mg/day) results in hair loss, GI upset,nerve damage
  • 33. lipid peroxyl radical Figure 7. Antioxidant cascade LOO• rxn 5 LOOH Reduced forms/reduction Oxidized forms/oxidation Vit Ered VIT Eox rxn 6 hydroxyl radical (OH•) superoxide radical (O2-•) rxn 9 VIT Cox Vit Cred rxn 7 reduced rxn 4 products H2O2 +ROOH Glutathioneox Glutathionered rxn 2 (GSSG) 2H2O (GSH) NADP+ rxn 1 NADPH + H+ Pentose phosphate pathway (rxn 8) Glucose-6-P Ribulose-5-P
  • 34. Medical Scenario:If the antioxidant protective system in the redblood cell becomes defective, hemolyticanemia occurs; that is red blood cells undergohemolysis and their concentration in the blooddecreases. Such is the case if g luc o s e 6 -p ho s p ha te d e hy d ro g e na s e is defective in thepentose phosphate pathway. In individualswhose glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase isdefective, there is insufficient NADPH producedin red blood cells to maintain the ratio ofreduced glutathione to oxidized glutathione atits normal value of well over 100. Hence,