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Human Immunodeficiency virus , (AIDS)
Human Immunodeficiency virus , (AIDS)
Human Immunodeficiency virus , (AIDS)
Human Immunodeficiency virus , (AIDS)
Human Immunodeficiency virus , (AIDS)
Human Immunodeficiency virus , (AIDS)
Human Immunodeficiency virus , (AIDS)
Human Immunodeficiency virus , (AIDS)
Human Immunodeficiency virus , (AIDS)
Human Immunodeficiency virus , (AIDS)
Human Immunodeficiency virus , (AIDS)
Human Immunodeficiency virus , (AIDS)
Human Immunodeficiency virus , (AIDS)
Human Immunodeficiency virus , (AIDS)
Human Immunodeficiency virus , (AIDS)
Human Immunodeficiency virus , (AIDS)
Human Immunodeficiency virus , (AIDS)
Human Immunodeficiency virus , (AIDS)
Human Immunodeficiency virus , (AIDS)
Human Immunodeficiency virus , (AIDS)
Human Immunodeficiency virus , (AIDS)
Human Immunodeficiency virus , (AIDS)
Human Immunodeficiency virus , (AIDS)
Human Immunodeficiency virus , (AIDS)
Human Immunodeficiency virus , (AIDS)
Human Immunodeficiency virus , (AIDS)
Human Immunodeficiency virus , (AIDS)
Human Immunodeficiency virus , (AIDS)
Human Immunodeficiency virus , (AIDS)
Human Immunodeficiency virus , (AIDS)
Human Immunodeficiency virus , (AIDS)
Human Immunodeficiency virus , (AIDS)
Human Immunodeficiency virus , (AIDS)
Human Immunodeficiency virus , (AIDS)
Human Immunodeficiency virus , (AIDS)
Human Immunodeficiency virus , (AIDS)
Human Immunodeficiency virus , (AIDS)
Human Immunodeficiency virus , (AIDS)
Human Immunodeficiency virus , (AIDS)
Human Immunodeficiency virus , (AIDS)
Human Immunodeficiency virus , (AIDS)
Human Immunodeficiency virus , (AIDS)
Human Immunodeficiency virus , (AIDS)
Human Immunodeficiency virus , (AIDS)
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Human Immunodeficiency virus , (AIDS)

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THE BASIC INFORMATION ABOUT WHAT IS HIV AND HOW IT DESTRUCT THE IMMUNE SYSTEM. THEN LEADS TO AIDS. PRESENTATION ALSO EXPLAINS THE DIAGNOSIS OF HIV, ITS TREATMENT …

THE BASIC INFORMATION ABOUT WHAT IS HIV AND HOW IT DESTRUCT THE IMMUNE SYSTEM. THEN LEADS TO AIDS. PRESENTATION ALSO EXPLAINS THE DIAGNOSIS OF HIV, ITS TREATMENT
WHY WE DONT HAVE VACCINE FOR HIV AND WHAT ARE THE PRESENT SCENARIO OF VACCINE DEVELOPMENT..
I HOPE IT WILL EXPLAIN WELL ABOUT HIV INFECTION AND AIDS, MAY PROVE USEFUL FOR YOU GUYS.....

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  1. Human Immunodeficiency Virus BY: MANISH DHAWAN
  2. INTRODUCTION      Family: Retroviridae Genus: Lentiviridae Disease that HIV causes, AIDS was first reported in the U.S. in 1981 in L.A. and New York Causative agent discovered and characterized by Luc Montagnier of France and Robert Gallo of the US in 1983-84. Retrovirus having: Reverse transcriptase
  3.     Antigenic strains : HIV-1 and HIV-2 HIV-1(virulent strain) is most prominent in U.S., Canada and Europe HIV-2 (less virulent) common in certain parts of West Africa, it is closely related to simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) found in monkey HIV-1 differs significantly from HIV-2/SIV.
  4. structure     Each virion expresses 72 glycoprotein projections composed of gp120 and gp41 The viral envelope derives from the host cell and contains some hostcell membrane proteins, including class I and class II MHC molecules Within the envelope is the viral core, or nucleocapsid, which includes a layer of a protein called p17 and an inner layer of a protein called p24. Genome consists of two copies of single-stranded RNA, which are associated with two molecules of reverse transcriptase (p64) and nucleoid proteins p10, a protease, and p32, an integrase.
  5.  Electron micrograph of HIV virions magnified 200,000 times. The glycoprotein projections are faintly visible as “knobs” extending from the periphery of each virion.
  6. Genome of HIV-1    Structural genes gag :- Group specific antigen, pol :- Reverse transcriptase, Protease and Integrase, env :- Envelope glycoprotein (gp).
  7.   Genes essential for viral replication: tat :- activates transcription, rev :- export of unspliced and singly spliced mRNAs from nucleus, LTR sequence:- promoter and enhancer elements Genes not essential for viral replication:vif :- promotes maturation and infectivity nef (negative factor) :- Down-regulates Host-cell class I MHC and CD4 vpr , vpx and vpu
  8. Stability Inactivation By :    Heat a) Autoclave b) hot air oven Glutaraldehyde 2% Hypochlorite 10,000 ppm : 1 in 10 dilution of domestic bleach Other disinfectants, including alcohols . Survival of HIV :   Virus may survive for up to 15 days at room temperature. At 37º C virus can survive for 10-15 days. Over 60º C virus is inactivated 100-fold each hour.
  9. Viral Infection  M-tropic, binds to CD4 and CCR5 of macrophage  T-tropic viruses infect T cells by binding with CD4 and CXCR4.
  10. Viral Replication
  11. HIV infecting a T-lymphocyte
  12. Destruction of T-cells
  13. Pathogenesis :Latency Period
  14. Destruction of Immune System
  15. HIV-Time Course
  16. Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome • Disease limits the body’s ability to fight infection due to markedly reduced helper T cells • CD4 count drops below 200 person is considered to have advanced HIV disease • If preventative medications not started the HIV infected person is now at risk for: – Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) – cryptococcal meningitis – toxoplasmosis
  17. NATURAL COURSE OF HIV/AIDS
  18. Stage 1 - Primary    Short, flu-like illness occurs one to six weeks after infection Mild symptoms Infected person can infect other people
  19. Stage 2 - Asymptomatic  Lasts for an average of ten years  This stage is free from symptoms  There may be swollen glands  The level of HIV in the blood drops to low levels  HIV antibodies are detectable in the blood
  20. Stage 3 - Symptomatic  The immune system deteriorates  Opportunistic infections and cancers start to appear.
  21. Stage 4 - HIV  AIDS  The immune system weakens too much as CD4 cells decrease in number.
  22. Opportunistic Infections associated with AIDS CD4<500  Bacterial infections  Tuberculosis (TB)  Herpes Simplex  Herpes Zoster  Vaginal candidiasis  Hairy leukoplakia  Kaposi’s sarcoma
  23. HIV infection to -> AIDS
  24. Diseases are predictive of the progression to AIDS: Oral Candidiasis Kaposi’s sarcoma Oral Hairy Leukoplakia
  25. Epidemiology Worldwide distribution
  26. ESCALATING EPIDEMIC !!! Source: WHO/UNAIDS/UN The Millennium Development Goals Report, 2009, p.32 and WHO.
  27. Status in India
  28. Blood Detection Tests Screening test for HIV HIV enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) Sensitivity > 99.9% Western blot Confirmatory test Speicificity > 99.9% (when combined with ELISA) HIV rapid antibody test Screening test for HIV Simple to perform Absolute CD4 lymphocyte count Predictor of HIV progression Risk of opportunistic infections and AIDS when <200 HIV viral load tests Best test for diagnosis of acute HIV infection Correlates with disease progression and response to HAART
  29. Urine Testing  Urine    Western Blot As sensitive as testing blood Safe way to screen for HIV Can cause false positives in certain people at high risk for HIV
  30. Oral Testing  Orasure     The only FDA approved HIV antibody. As accurate as blood testing Draws blood-derived fluids from the gum tissue. NOT A SALIVA TEST!
  31. Treatment Options
  32. HAART = Highly Active AntiRetroviral Treatment
  33. Antiretroviral Drugs (HAART)  Nucleoside  AZT Reverse Transcriptase inhibitors (Zidovudine), Lamivudine  Non-Nucleoside  Viramune  Protease  Norvir Transcriptase inhibitors (Nevirapine) inhibitors (Ritonavir),  Indinavir (Crixivan)
  34. HEALTH CARE FOLLOW UP OF HIV INFECTED PATIENTS For all HIV-infected individuals:  CD4 counts every 3–6 months  Viral load tests every 3–6 months and 1 month following a change in therapy  Toxoplasma IgG serology  CMV IgG serology  Pneumococcal vaccine  Influenza vaccine in season  Hepatitis B vaccine for those who are HBsAbnegative  Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccination  Papanicolaou smears every 6 months for women
  35. A Vaccine May Be the Only Way to Stop the HIV/AIDS Epidemic
  36. Why AIDS does not fit the paradigm for classic vaccine development • Classic vaccines mimic natural immunity against reinfection generally seen in individuals recovered from infection; there are no recovered AIDS patients. • Most vaccines protect against disease, not against infection; HIV infection may remain latent for long periods before causing AIDS. • Most vaccines protect for years against viruses that change very little over time; HIV-1 mutates at a rapid rate and efficiently selects mutant forms that evade immunity. • Most effective vaccines are whole-killed or live-attenuated organisms; killed HIV-1 does not retain antigenicity and the use of a live retrovirus vaccine raises safety issues. • Most vaccines protect against infections that are infrequently encountered; HIV may be encountered daily by individuals at high risk. • Most vaccines protect against infections through mucosal surfaces of the respiratory or gastrointestinal tract; the great majority of HIV infection is through the genital tract. • Most vaccines are tested for safety and efficacy in an animal model before trials with human volunteers; there is no suitable animal model for HIV/AIDS at present.
  37. Vaccine strategies under study Vaccine constituents Status Advantages Disadvantages Viral surface proteins, gp120 In phase I and II trials, which examine safety Safe and simple to prepare Vaccine –elicited antibodies have failed to recognize HIV from patients Live vector viruses In phase II trials Markers can control amount and kinds of viral proteins produced Complicated to prepare Combinations of In phase II trials elements, such as pure gp120 protein plus canarypox vector Should stimulate Complicated to both arms of the prepare immune response at once

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