Ecosystem trophic structure model: Spatial pattern set by autotrophs Decomposers blur the pattern Predators link components, stabilize system
C54.14 Eating meat is inefficient way of tapping PS productivity. Humans obtain far more calories by eating grains directly as a primary consumer than by prcessing that same amount of grain through another trophic level. We could feed many more people if we all consumed only plant material, feeding more efficiently as primary consumers 224 billion tons of plant production/year 59% = terrestrial 35-40% used by humans directly (as plants) or indirectly (by feed animals first) Food supplies can be increased and more people can be supported by eating lower on food chain
EcologyEcology– the study of how living thingsinteract with each other andwith their environment
Biotic Factors- anything that is living in the environmentAbiotic Factors-nonliving things within the environmentWhat types of things are nonliving?Rock formations, Soil, Sun, Climate etc.Are abiotic factors important?
Decomposers – nature’s recyclers (recyclenutrients)- break down wastes and dead organismsProducer/Autotroph– makes own foodPlants, and somesingle celledorganismsConsumer/Heterotroph– have to eat or absorb foodFungi, Animals(including humans!)
Secondary Consumer -something that eatsmeat (carnivore)Primary consumer -something that eatsplants (herbivore)Primary & SecondaryConsumer - if they eat bothplants and animals(omnivore)
Food chains-First organism in the food chain is aproducer
Producers (autotrophs)Primary Consumers(heterotrophs)The greatest amount of energy present inthis pyramid is found at which level?What organism is most likely to be locatedat the base of trophic pyramids?TrophicPyramidSecondary Consumers(heterotrophs)Tertiary Consumers(heterotrophs)
Food energy available to the humanpopulation at different trophiclevels.Food energy available to the humanpopulation at different trophiclevels.
CommensalismCommensalism– a relationship between two organismsin which one benefits and the other isnot harmed nor does it benefit
MutualismMutualism– a relationship between two organismsin which they both benefitAcacia ants live in thethorns of, defend, andare fed by the acaciatree in which they liveButterfly-weedprovides food forand is pollinated bybutterflies likePipevineSwallowtails.
ParasitismParasitism– a relationship between two organismsin which one benefits and the other isharmed
PredationPredation-When one animal kills anotheranimal-What is the difference between predation& parasitism?
NicheNiche– an organism’s job in a community(shelter, food, active time of day,anything that the organism can control)
CompetitiveCompetitiveExclusionExclusion- When one populationtakes over anotherpopulation’s nicheforcing the populationto leave the area.Human populationhas caused cities toexpand into forestareas forcingwildlife to leave insearch of shelter.
Populations-the amount of onespecies in an areacell, tissue, organ, organ system, organism,population, community, ecosystem,biosphereCommunity-All of the organismsin an area
EcosystemEcosystem – a community plus all the– a community plus all theabiotic factors in an environmentabiotic factors in an environmentBiomesBiomesTundra - Cold, dry, caribou, small bushes, grasses,polar bears
Rainforest– hot, wet, vines, ferns, orchids, tree frogs,insects, monkeys, palm trees, located alongthe equator, biome with the most diversity(contains more different types oforganisms than any other place)
Biosphere –All of the ecosystemsput togetherExample: Earth!Nutrient Cycles – the pathof nutrients being used &reused by variousorganismsExamples: Water Cycle,Carbon Cycle, NitrogenCycle
DecomposersRelease Carbon Dioxide &Decompose the waste &Dead organisms into fossil fuelsWaste & deadorganismsExhale Carbon DioxidePlants absorbCO2 to makesugarAnimals eat plants &take in sugar whichcontains carbon
Nitrogen Fixation - The conversion ofatmospheric nitrogen into ammoniaNitrogen FixingBacteria arelocated on theroots of plantsNitrogen fixing bacteria(waste and dead decayedmaterial)
Carrying Capacity- the maximum amount of one population thatan environment can holdLimiting Factors-Anything that can cause a population to notgrow any largerExamples: Shelter, Food, DiseaseSometimes humans create limiting factors if apopulation is getting out of control in an area.What could humans do to help control apopulation in an area?Issue more or less hunting licenses, Introduce apredator, Take away a food source
Positive and Negative impacts humansPositive and Negative impacts humanshave on the environmenthave on the environmentIllegal hunting/Legal hunting
Global Warming – The risingaverage temperature of the earth’satmosphere & oceansTemp. Changing over the years
Greenhouse Effect – Trapped heat maybe causing the earth’s temperature to riseCO2 Changing over the yearsTemp. Changing over the yearsPresent