Becoming or Using a Surrogate for treatment
What is Surrogacy?
Surrogacy refers to a situation where a woman agrees to conceive baby for another woman and
once child is born, hand it over to the commissioning parents. It is a complex third party
arrangement that involves medical, emotional, financial and legal issues. It may be an option
when a woman doesn’t have a uterus or has a medical issue that makes pregnancy unsafe.
Is there any key ethical issue in Surrogacy?
Everyone must be fully informed about the psychological, social and ethical issue before
they go ahead with the procedure to prevent no regrets and surprises later.
The emotional risks of giving up a child for adoption.
What are the different types of Surrogacy?
Straight Surrogacy also known as traditional surrogacy or partial surrogacy where the surrogate
mother is genetically related to the child and sperm donor is the child’s genetic father. Host
Surrogacy also known as gestational or total surrogacy where the woman carrying the child is
not genetically related to the surrogate and the embryo may have been created from the
The genetic mother’s egg and father’s sperm
Donor egg or donor sperm
Donor egg and genetic father’s sperm
What is the legal relationship between the surrogate mother and the child?
Regardless of whether the surrogate mother is genetically related to the child or not, she is
always treated as the child’s legal mother unless and until an order to transfer legal parenthood
passed by the court.
What are the chances of success with Surrogacy?
In many cases, surrogacy should have the same chance of birth as IVF itself. However some
lifestyle change needs to make by surrogate to improve the chance of ongoing pregnancy such
as being careful with caffeine and alcohol, not smoking, not using alternative therapies during
the treatment etc.
Who are eligible for Surrogacy arrangement?
Surrogacy is not for all. The arrangement could be considered if:
A woman with absence of uterus, uterine lining, ovaries or other parts of the genital
A woman with health condition that makes pregnancy unsafe or she may not be able to
carry a baby to term.
Couple with same sex relationship who may wish to have a child using their sperm
A woman had multiple IVF failure
Is there any medical risk involved with Surrogacy?
Every medical procedure has some risks involved so as there are certain medical risks involved
with surrogacy as well that may include:
There can be reactions to fertility drugs such as depression, irritation, headaches and
Rarely small risk of OHSS (ovarian hyper- stimulation syndrome) occurs such as
vomiting, stomach pain, shortness of breath and faintness.
Usual risk of pregnancy and birth on the surrogate
Transfer of diseases such as hepatitis or HIV, but this is usually quite rare because
necessary screening of everyone has been mandatory before the process begins.
Beginning the Process
Medical Review of Intended parents and Surrogate
Selection fo Surrogate and start of Surrogacy process.
Surrogacy review panel consider to ensure that the legal requirement and guidelines are met for
eligibility to proceed with the arrangement.
Primary Counselling Stage for Surrogate and Intended parents
Counselling session with all parties and explain implication and problemmay come.
Psychological assessment of intended parents and surrogate mother
Secondary Counselling Stage:Discuss issues raised and ensures all suggestions of surrogacy
arrangements are discussed. Also provide opportunity to ask queries.
Independent legal advice is given to the intended parents and surrogate (if applicable)
Discuss issues raised and ensures all suggestions of surrogacy arrangements are discussed.
Also provide opportunity to ask queries.
Joint counselling session to ensure all parties agreeable to proceed the surrogacy.
Application made to the Patient Review Panel for an appointment to be set.
Final Counselling Stage
After this Surrogacy Treatment starts.
Proceeding with Surrogacy Arrangement
Surrogacy procedure starts with the complete understanding of the surrogacy arrangement cycles. At the beginning, all parties
will be required to undertake screening blood tests for Hepatitis B&C, HIV AIDS, Cytomegalovirus, Syphilis and Human TLymphotropic Virus 1&2. If commissioning mother using her own eggs, then she and surrogate will also require screening for
In order to create the embryo(s), the intended mother (if using her own eggs) will be required to undergo IVF cycle which starts
from Follicle stimulating hormone injections that are administered daily. The injections stimulate the development of ovarian
follicles and after 5-7 days of injections, a stimulation scan is performed to measure the size and number of follicles. The egg
collection process usually starts after 12-14 days of injections.
Egg Collection is a one day procedure usually performed in the morning. Approximately 20 minutes it takes depending on the
number of follicles to remove eggs from the ovaries. Some symptoms may be experienced after this procedure such as mild
discomfort, tiredness and slight bleeding. That same afternoon, sperm is prepared from male partner or donor and added to
the eggs for fertilization. If applicable, a period should be expected approx 8-14 days following the procedure. In some cases,
periods may be irregular for 1-2 months after IVF cycle.
Surrogacy Arrangement and the Use of Embryos Donor
The embryos for surrogacy may not always be formed from the eggs and the sperm of the commissioning parents. In some
cases embryo may be formed from a number of biological sources such as:
The commissioning mother’s egg and sperm donor
An egg donor and the commissioning sperm
Neither commissioning parent involved- the surrogate is implanted with the donated embryo.
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