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presentasi Oecd bangkok 18 juli 2012
 

presentasi Oecd bangkok 18 juli 2012

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info efisiensi pendidikan yad, dan bgmn sinergi antara oecd country dan asia tenggara, perlu di sikapi dan di persiapkan dan di bandingkan antar negara, tapi perlu ke hati2an, krn negara oecd stagnan ...

info efisiensi pendidikan yad, dan bgmn sinergi antara oecd country dan asia tenggara, perlu di sikapi dan di persiapkan dan di bandingkan antar negara, tapi perlu ke hati2an, krn negara oecd stagnan saat ini dlm bidang ekonomi...

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    presentasi Oecd bangkok 18 juli 2012 presentasi Oecd bangkok 18 juli 2012 Presentation Transcript

    • SEAMEO Centre Directors Meeting, 16-18 July 2012,Bangkok, ThailandEfficiency of Schoolingfor SkillsProposal for SEAMEO-OECD co-operationIan Whitman, OECDHead of Programme for Co-operation with Non-memberEconomies
    • Selected Trends: A world of change in the global skill supply Evolution of school completion Approximated by % of persons with high school or equivalent qualfications in the age groups 55-64, 45-55, 45-44 and 25-34 years 1990s 1980s 1970s 1960s% 100 90 1 80 10 70 60 50 40 30 20 1 29 10 0 Israel Netherlands Estonia Austria3 Poland Italy Finland France Iceland Norway Slovenia Ireland Mexico Brazil2 United Kingdom3 Germany Switzerland EU19 average Korea Belgium Chile2 Greece OECD average Spain Russian Federation4 Slovak Republic Portugal Canada Hungary Luxembourg United States Australia Turkey Czech Republic Denmark Sweden New Zealand 1. Excluding ISCED 3C short programmes 2. Year of reference 2004 3. Including some ISCED 3C short programmes 3. Year of reference 2003.
    • Share of employers reporting recruitment difficulties and unemployment rates90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 10 20 30 Percentage Poland Ireland Norway Spain South Africa Recruitment Unemployment United Kingdom difficulties rate Sweden Netherlands France Czech Republic Hungary China Austria Slovenia Italy Canada Belgium Germany Greece Mexico New Zealand Switzerland Turkey United States Australia Brazil India Japan Share of employers reporting recruitment difficulties Unemployment rates (2011, Q3)
    • How the demand for skills has changed Economy-wide measures of routine and non-routine task input (US) 65Mean task input as percentiles of the 1960 task distribution Routine manual 60 Nonroutine manual 55 Routine cognitive 50 Nonroutine analytic 45 Nonroutine interactive 40 1960 1970 1980 1990 2002 (Levy and Murnane)
    • Skill mismatch and earnings are strongly related 3000 2500Monthly wages US$ 2000 1500 1000 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 Age HIGH-SKILL MATCH (high foundation skill, high use) SKILL DEFICIT (low foundation skill, high use) SKILL SURPLUS (high foundation skill, low use) LOW-SKILL MATCH (low foundation skill, low use)
    • Wealth matters - but effective policies matter more 560 Shanghai-China 540 Finland Singapore Canada New Zealand 520 Japan Australia Netherlands Poland Estonia Iceland BelgiumMean reading performance in PISA 2009 500 Sweden United StatesDenmark Hungary Portugal UK Germany France Chinese Taipei Latvia Croatia Czech Rep Greece 480 Italy Macao-China Ireland Lithuania Slovenia Russian Federation Slovak Republic Israel Spain 460 Austria Chile Serbia 440 Bulgaria Thailand Mexico Uruguay 420 Colombia Romania y = 0.001x + 435.4 Tunisia Brazil Jordan Argentina Trinidad and Tobago 400 Indonesia R² = 0.243 Albania Kazakhstan 380 Peru Panama 360 Azerbaijan 340 320 Kyrgyzstan 300 0 10000 20000 30000 40000 50000 60000 GDP per capita (current USD) 6
    • Performance and spending PISA reading performance Public spending on education, total (% of government expenditure) 500 25 Public spending on education (% of governmentMean reading performance in PISA 2009 OECD average 480 460 20 440 420 15 expenditure) 400 OECD average 380 10 360 340 5 320 300 0 7 Source: OECD PISA 2009 Database; Education at a Glance (2011); World Bank Indicators 2011 (Data from 2008 or last year for which data is available)
    • Relative public spending on education: SEAMEO region Public expenditure on education as % of gov. expenditure (2009 or most recent year ) Thailand 20.3 Vietnam 19.8 Myanmar 18.1 Indonesia 17.9 Malaysia 17.2 Philippines 16.9East Asia & Pacific (all income levels) 16.4 Timor-Leste 15.5 OECD members 12.4 Cambodia 12.4 Lao PDR 12.2 Singapore 11.6 Brunei Darussalam 8.5 0.0 5.0 10.0 15.0 20.0 25.0 Source: OECD; World Bank
    • Relative public spending on education: SEAMEO region Public expenditure on education as % of GDP (2009 or most recent year ) Timor-Leste 16.8 Vietnam 5.3 OECD 5.2 Thailand 4.1 Malaysia 4.1 Brunei Darussalam 3.7East Asia & Pacific (all income levels) 3.4 Singapore 3.0 Indonesia 2.8 Philippines 2.8 Lao PDR 2.3 Cambodia 2.1 Myanmar 1.3 0.0 2.0 4.0 6.0 8.0 10.0 12.0 14.0 16.0 18.0 Source: OECD; World Bank
    • Trends in education spending: SEAMEO regionTrends in expenditure per student 2000-2010, secondary education (current USD) Source: OECD; World Bank
    • Future trends and efficiency implications: youth literacy rate Literacy rate, youth total (% of people ages 15-24) 2009 female male100 95908580 7570 Source: World Bank Indicators
    • School enrollment, tertiary (%, gross enrollment)60 East Asia & Pacific50 OECD members Brunei Darussalam Cambodia40 Indonesia Lao PDR Malaysia30 Philippines Thailand Timor-Leste20 Vietnam100 Source: World Bank Indicators
    • Outputs and efficiency: youth literacy rate Population growth 2010, annual (%)2.52.01.51.00.50.0 Source: World Bank Indicators
    • Outputs and efficiency: student achievement Mean PISA performance in reading600500400300200100 0 Source: OECD PISA Database 2009
    • Education levels of the unemployed population 0.1100% 6.890% 24.6 25.180% 39.4 43.270%60%50% 86.0 88.4 tertiary40% non-tertiary 77.6 74.930% 59.8 56.620%10% 0% Thailand Brunei OECD members Malaysia Philippines Singapore Darussalam Source: OECD; UNESCO; ILO
    • Enrolment in Vocational Education and Training in % of all secondary education enrolment, 2009100%90%80%70%60%50%40% General secondary education VET30%20%10% 0% Source: OECD; UNESCO
    • What can be done?
    • How does a country increase the efficiency of skills?Source: OECD
    • What next?Financing of education and efficiency• Main question: how to achieve more with less?• Possible efficiency gains through good policy choices• OECD work on efficiency of education investment
    • What next?Efficiency of Schooling for Skills in South East Asia –proposal for OECD-SEAMEO co-operation• Study on investing in schooling for skills • Tentative focus and structure • Are funding systems sustainable? • What factors will influence cost and efficiency in the future? • Focus: formal schooling, tertiary education• Follow-up • Participation in OECD activities • Peer learning through thematic workshops • Possibility for in-depth country work
    • Thank you!Ian.whitman@oecd.org